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Ch 23 Ideologies and Upheavals

Post Napoleonic Europe and the plan by Metternich for a conservative European order. Also features characteristics of Romantic movement.

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Ch 23 Ideologies and Upheavals

  1. 1. CH 23 Ideologies and Upheavals<br />Magister Ricard<br />AP Euro<br />
  2. 2. Questions to Consider<br />Compare and contrast the Peace of Westphalia with the Congress of Vienna.<br />How does liberalism and socialism impact Great Britain and France from 1815-1851?<br />Compare and contrast ideals of the Enlightenment with Romanticism.<br />In what way were Utopian Socialism, Marxism, and Romanticism reactions to Industrialization?<br />
  3. 3. Restoration, Romanticism, and Revolution 1815-1848<br />Searching for Stability<br />
  4. 4. Forces of the Past<br />Institutions of power<br />Monarchy<br />Aristocracy<br />Clergy/Church<br />What is conservatism?<br />National, historic, and religious traditions foundation of a healthy society<br />Change should be gradual<br />French Revolution illustrated the fear of social disorder, chaos, violence<br />
  5. 5. Forces of the Future<br />Industrialization<br />Begins in Britain (late 19th century)<br />Creates new class of urban workers; augmented prosperity of business leaders, merchants<br />
  6. 6. Forces of the Future<br />Liberalism<br />Believed in natural rights protected by government<br />Supported civil liberties freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, freedom from arbitrary arrest<br />Favored constitutional monarchy<br />Favored representational governments<br />Against full democracies<br />Economically supported individualism and against government intervention<br />Little concern for living conditions of urban workers<br />
  7. 7. Forces of the Future<br />Nationalism<br />A nation consists of a group of people who share common language, traditions, history<br />Stressed sovereignty of individual nations<br />Citizen’s greatest loyalty should be aimed towards a nation-state<br />Would fan competitive fires, stir change<br />
  8. 8. Restoration, Romanticism, and Revolution 1815-1848<br />Restoring the Old Order<br />
  9. 9. Prince Klemens von Metternich<br />(1773-1859)<br />Austrian Foreign Minister<br />Host for Congress of Vienna<br />Conservative<br />Liberalism and Nationalism were threats to European way of life and stability of Austrian Empire<br />
  10. 10. The Principles of Legitimacy<br />Legitimacy tied to royalty<br />Restore ruling families of Europe that were deposed during French Revolution and Napoleon<br />Louis XVIII was returned to throne in France<br />Bourbon, younger brother of Louis XVI<br />Bourbon rulers returned to thrones in Spain, Naples<br />House of Orange was restored in Holland<br />House of Savoy was restored in Sardinia-Piedmont<br />
  11. 11. Balance of Power<br />Austria (Vienna) wanted to weaken France<br />Cut France’s influence in Europe militarily and politically<br />Did not want to humiliate and provoke France<br />France was returned to its borders as of 1790<br />Allowed to keep its overseas possessions, army, and independent government<br />
  12. 12. Balance of Power<br />France was encircled with stronger forces<br />Austrian Netherlands was united with Dutch Republic to form Netherlands<br />39 Germanic states joined to create German Confederation (overseen by Austria)<br />Switzerland was recognized as independent and neutral nation<br />Sardinia was strengthened by addition of Piedmont and Savoy<br />
  13. 13. Territorial Settlements<br />Russia acquires more of Poland<br />Sweden keeps Norway<br />Prussia acquires 2/5 of Saxony and territory along Rhineland area of France<br />Austria acquires Lombardy and Venetia for loss of Belgium<br />Britain gains Malta, Cape of Good Hope, Trinidad, Tobago<br />
  14. 14. Evaluating the Congress of Vienna<br />Created a healthy compromise for both victors and France<br />Implemented a balance of power which lasted until unification of Germany 1871<br />Severely underestimated Liberalism and Nationalism brought about by French Revolution<br />
  15. 15. Restoration, Romanticism, and Revolution 1815-1848<br />Maintaining the Old Order<br />
  16. 16. The Congress System<br />Quadruple Alliance – England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia<br />Committed to preserving the old system, conservative<br />Held meetings or congresses to address rising crises and prevent escalation (conspiracy?)<br />Concert of Europe<br />Influence a consensus on foreign policy for the good of stability and collective benefit and security<br />
  17. 17. Uprisings, Repression, and Revolt<br />Congress of Vienna did not give voice to liberals and nationalists<br />Revolts erupted that tested Metternich and Concert of Europe<br />Uprisings in Spain and Italy<br />King Ferdinand VII’s repressive policies provoked need for representative government<br />French forces used to establish absolute power; repress rebels<br />Repressive monarchs in Naples and Sardinia-Piedmont sparked rebellion<br />Metternich sends Austrian forces to defeat rebels<br />
  18. 18. Restoration, Romanticism, and Revolution 1815-1848<br />Reaction: Romanticism<br />
  19. 19. The Romantic Movement<br />Took shape in first half of 19th century in Europe<br />Influenced cultural and intellectual life<br />Desired freedom of thought, expression, feeling, action<br />
  20. 20. Characteristics of Romanticism<br />Emotion over reason<br />Reaction to Enlightenment movement which stressed reason<br />Rejected reason, stressed intuition, feelings, subjectivity<br />Neoclassicism vs. Romanticism<br />Neoclassicists looked to Greece and Rome for inspiration<br />Romanticists looked to medieval models of chivalry, legends, mysteries, miracles<br />
  21. 21. Characteristics of Romanticism<br />Views of Nature<br />Enlightenment relied on scientific method to understand Nature<br />Romanticists contemplated its beauty<br />Powerful storms, raging rivers, monumental mountains, mist<br />
  22. 22. Enlightenment vs. Romanticism: Religion<br />Mechanical view of human nature and the world<br />Rejected faith, relied on rational, scientific connections<br />Favored “divine watchmaker”<br />Mysteries of nature way to feel divine presence<br />Stressed emotion, faith, inspiration<br />Creator of universe was loving, personal<br />Enlightenment<br />Romanticism<br />
  23. 23. Key Romantic Intellectual Figures<br />Writers<br />William Wadsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, lyrical ballads<br />Friedrich von Schiller, Ode to Joy<br />Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Faust<br />Sir Walter Scott, Ivanhoe<br />Victor Hugo, The Hunchback of Notre Dame<br />Brothers Grimm, Grimm’s Fairy Tales<br />
  24. 24. Key Romantic Intellectual Figures<br />
  25. 25. Key Romantic Intellectual Figures<br />
  26. 26. Key Romantic Intellectual Figures<br />
  27. 27. Key Romantic Intellectual Figures<br />
  28. 28. Key Romantic Intellectual Figures<br />
  29. 29. JMW Turner<br />Jacques Louis David<br />
  30. 30. Romanticism and Nationalism<br />Romantic writers stirred awareness of national heritage<br />People became more aware of their shared heritages within their own nation-states<br />Lead to Greek revolt against Ottoman Empire in 1821<br />Spain and Italy failed because of intervention from dominant European powers<br />Greek revolt succeeded because European powers wanted to exert more influence in Balkans and support for Greece based on its historic significance<br />
  31. 31.
  32. 32. Restoration, Romanticism, and Revolution 1815-1848<br />Liberal Reforms in England<br />
  33. 33. Reform Bill of 1832<br />House of Commons was not representative of the people<br />Electoral districts became sparsely populated<br />Industrial cities like Manchester were not represented<br />Pressure from merchants and factory owners leads to bill<br />Creates a number of new districts for heavily populated areas<br />Increases influence from middle-class men<br />Workers, women, and the poor had no voting rights; only 1 in 5 men could vote<br />
  34. 34. Repealing the Corn Laws<br />Placed a high tariff on imported corn, wheat, grains<br />Protected the market of large landowners<br />Industrialists formed Anti-Corn Law League<br />Free trade policy to lower cost of food, increase profits of industry<br />Irish potato famine pushed reform for cheaper imported grains<br />Repeal of Corn Law in 1846 by Parliament was victory for urban population and supporters of free trade<br />
  35. 35. The Charists<br />Disenfranchised workers seek reform<br />1838 propose People’s Charter<br />Universal suffrage (for men)<br />Secret balloting<br />Equal electoral districts<br />Abolition of property requirements for membership into House of Commons<br />Parliament refuses Chartists reforms<br />Eventually, reforms would be adopted<br />
  36. 36. Restoration, Romanticism, and Revolution 1815-1848<br />The Spread of Revolution: 1830<br />
  37. 37. The French Revolution of 1830<br />In 1824 Charles X (1824-1830) takes over for Louis XVIII<br />Opposed republicanism, liberalism, and constitutionalism<br />Policies infuriate republican and liberal opponents<br />Leads to 3 days of rioting in July, 1830<br />Unity was brief<br />Workers wanted republic<br />Bourgeoisie wanted constitutional monarchy<br />Bourgeoisie triumph; Duke of Orleans Louis Phillippe, becomes “king of the French”<br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39. Revolution in Belgium<br />July revolution in France pushes discontent in Belgium<br />Grievances extend from Congress of Vienna decision to unify Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) with Holland<br />Belgium (Catholic) and Holland (Protestant) have little in common<br />1830, riots in Belgium explode for independence<br />Great Britain and France oppose intervention; recognize Belgium as a neutral state<br />
  40. 40. Nationalism of Italy<br />Austria dominated northern Italy<br />Carbonarisecret society formed to drive out Austrians and unify Italy<br />Inspired by France and Belgium, Carbonari rebel<br />Metternich restores order, squashes Carbonari rebellion<br />Guiseppe Mazzini becomes Italy’s nationalist leader<br />
  41. 41. Restoration, Romanticism, and Revolution 1815-1848<br />The Revolutions of 1848<br />
  42. 42. Causes of Revolution<br />Conservative leaders refuse to respond to social tension<br />Working class radicals and middle class liberals convinced conservative (Metternich) system no longer practical<br />Nationalists in Italy and Germany wanted unification<br />National minorities (in Austria) wanted recognition, independence<br />Crop failures, rising cost of food, growing unemployment sparked discontent<br />
  43. 43. Revolution in France<br />Bourgeoisie dominated France during reign of Louis Phillippe (1830-1848)<br />Working class disenfranchised<br />“Enrich yourself and you will have the vote”<br />Louis Phillippe’s government collapses in 1848<br />Socialists, liberals, Bonapartists all scramble for dominance<br />Bloody confrontations between workers and capitalist government lead to election of Louis Napoleon as president of 2nd French Republic<br />Nephew of Napoleon<br />
  44. 44. Defeat in Italy<br />“Young Italy” movement seeks to establish liberal republic for unification of Italy<br />Led by Guiseppe Mazzini<br />Austrians proved too strong<br />Italy was still too loosely divided<br />
  45. 45. Hope and Failure in Germany<br />German nationalists sought more liberal, unified German state<br />1834 Zollverein formed to induce free trade commerce<br />All major German states except Austria joined<br />Riots in Berlin in 1848<br />Frederick William IV (1840-1861) responds with reforms, including Prussian constitution<br />Another assembly forms in Frankfurt to draft constitution for all of Germany<br />Frederick William IV dissolves Prussian assembly, rejects Frankfurt’s attempt for constitutional monarchy<br />
  46. 46. Revolutions in the Austrian Empire<br />Austrian dynasty centered around German-speaking ruling class<br />Oversaw large number of nationalities and ethnic groups<br />Revolutionary ideas spread from Paris to Vienna<br />Metternich resigns, flees to England<br />Austrian assembly abolishes the robot (forced labor)<br />
  47. 47. Revolutions in the Austrian Empire<br />Revolutionary ideas spread from Vienna to Hungary<br />Louis Kossuth demands self-government for Hungary<br />Austrian emperor Francis Joseph allies with Tsar Nicholas I to crush Hungarian rebellion<br />
  48. 48. Key Points<br />Strength of conservative forces still outweighs strength of liberal forces<br />Popular support outside city centers not enough<br />Internal division<br />Peaceful reforms in England help it avoid violence<br />Repressive policies stayed reform in Russia<br />Idealistic romanticism yields to political realism<br />
  49. 49. Questions to Consider<br />Compare and contrast the Peace of Westphalia with the Congress of Vienna.<br />How does liberalism and socialism impact Great Britain and France from 1815-1851?<br />Compare and contrast ideals of the Enlightenment with Romanticism.<br />In what way were Utopian Socialism, Marxism, and Romanticism reactions to Industrialization?<br />