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  1. 1. ExceptionalStudentsAnd Assistive Technology
  2. 2. Question• What does Public Law 94-142 , the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA/IDEIA) mean to you?
  3. 3. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act  (IDEA)Provision Description   A free and appropriate IDEA asserts that all students can learn, and everyone public education  is entitled to a free and appropriate public education.      IDEA requires that learners with exceptionalities be Least restrictive environment  placed in as typical an environment as possible while   their special needs are being met.      IDEA requires that tests be given in a student’s native   language by qualified personnel, and no single Protection against discrimination  instrument will be used as the basis forin testing  placement.      IDEA requires that parents have the right to be   involved in placing their children in special Due process and parents’ rights  programs, that they have access to school records,  and that they can obtain an independent evaluation of   their child.      IDEA requires that an individually prescribed Individualized education  instructional plan be devised for all students with program exceptionalities.   
  4. 4. Labeling Controversy• Why are they controversial?• Why are they necessary?
  5. 5. The Population of Students With Disabilities  Intellectual differences
  6. 6. ScenarioTammy Fuller, a middle school social studies teacher, is surprised when she scores Adam’s test. He seemed to be doing so well. He is rarely absent, pays attention, and participates in class activities. Why is his test score so low? Tammy makes a mental note to watch him more closely, because his behavior and test performance are inconsistent.In her second unit, Tammy emphasizes both independent and cooperative work, so she prepares study guide questions and has students answer them in groups. As she moves around the room, she notices that Adam’s sheet is empty. When she asks him about it, he mumbles something about not having time the night before. Because the success of the unit depends on students’ coming to class prepared, Tammy asks Adam to come in after school to complete his work.
  7. 7. Scenario (cont.)He arrives promptly and opens his book to the chapter. When Tammy stops to check on his progress, his page is blank; in another 10 minutes, it’s still empty.As she sits down to talk with him, he appears embarrassed and evasive. When they start to work on the questions together, she discovers that he can’t read the text.• How can we classify Adam’s problem?• What characteristics are associated with this disability?• How can Adam be supported? • Assistive technology? • Ipad apps?
  8. 8. Characteristics of Students with Learning  Disabilities General Patterns  Academic PerformanceAttention deficits Reading  Lacks reading fluency  Reverses words (e.g., saw for Disorganization and tendency  was)towards distraction  Loses place frequently    Lack of follow-through and  Writing  Makes jerky and poorly formed completion of assignments letters  Has difficulty staying on a lineUneven performance (e.g., very  Is slow in completing work capable in one area, very weak in   another) Math Has difficulty remembering math   facts Hyperactivity and fidgeting  Mixes columns (e.g., tens and   ones) in computing Lack of coordination and balance  Has trouble with word problems 
  9. 9. Scenario“For instance, there’s Rodney. You’ve seen him on theplayground. He’s cute, but his engine is stuck on fast. I canbarely get him to sit in his seat, much less work. When he sitsdown to do an assignment, he’s all over his desk, squirming andwiggling. The smallest distraction sets him off. He can usually dothe work if I can get him to stick to it, but it’s a challenge. I’vetalked to his mother, and he’s the same way at home.”•What is the nature of Rodney’s disorder•What are the general characteristics associated with thisdisorder?•What can teachers do? • Assistive technology? • Ipad apps?
  10. 10. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) • Often connected with a learning disability• Characterized by: • Easy distractibility and failure to listen • Inordinate need for supervision • Impulsiveness • Frequent calling out in class and difficulty awaiting turns• Three subcategories: • Inattentive • Hyperactive-impulsive • Combined (includes characteristics of other two)
  11. 11. Scenario Kyle comes in from recess sweaty and disheveled,crosses his arms, and looks at the teacher defiantly. Theplayground monitor has reported another scuffle. Kyle has ahistory of these disturbances and is a difficult student. Hestruggles with his studies but can handle them if provided withenough structure. When he becomes frustrated, he sometimesacts out, often ignoring the feelings an rights of others. Ben, who sits next to Kyle, is so quiet that the teacheralmost forgets he is there. He never causes problems; in fact, heseldom participates in class. He has few friends and walksaround at recess by himself, appearing to consciously avoidother children.•What disorder do both boys demonstrate”•What are the general characteristics associated with this disorder?•What can teachers do? • Assistive technology? • Ipad apps?
  12. 12. Behavior Disorders: GeneralCharacteristics• Impulsiveness and • Externalizing Behavior difficulty conducting Disorders socially acceptable • Hyperactive interactions with others • Hostile• Acting out and failure to • Cruel follow school or • Defiant classroom rules • Internalizing Behavior• Poor self-concept Disorders• Lack of awareness about • Socially withdrawn the severity of their • Guilt problems • Shy• Frequent absences from • Depressed school and low academic • Anxious performance • timid
  13. 13. Autism Spectrum Disorders• General characteristics may include • Social withdrawal • Deficiencies in cognitive and language processes • Lack of verbal and nonverbal communication • Repetitive stereotypic behavior (rocking, flapping arms, turning in circles) • Narrow and extensive attention to objects • Average to above average intelligence to varying degrees of intellectual disorders
  14. 14. Speech Disorders          Disorder  Description  Example        Articulation  Difficulty in  ‘Wabbit’ for  disorders  producing certain  rabbit  sounds, including  ‘Thit’ for sit  substituting,  ‘Onley’ for  distorting, and  lonely  omitting        Fluency disorders  Repetition of the  “Y, Y, Y, Yes’   first sound of a  word (stuttering)  and other problems  in producing  “smooth” speech        Voice disorders  Problems with the  High-pitched  larynx or air  or nasal voice   passageways in the  nose or throat 
  15. 15. Symptoms of Potential Visual Problems    1. Holding the head in an awkward position when reading,  or holding the book too close or too far away    2. Squinting and frequently rubbing the eyes    3. Tuning out when information is presented on the board    4. Constantly asking about classroom procedures,  especially when information is on the board    5. Complaining of headaches, dizziness, or nausea    6. Having redness, crusting, or swelling of the eyes    7. Losing place on the line or page and confusing letters    8. Using poor spacing in writing or having difficulty in  staying on the line  
  16. 16. Indicators of Hearing Impairment      1. Favoring one ear by cocking the head toward the  speaker or cupping a hand behind the ear    2. Misunderstanding or not following directions, and  exhibiting nonverbal cues (e.g., frowns or puzzled  looks) when directions are given     3. Being distracted or seeming disoriented at times    4. Asking people to repeat what they just said     5. Poorly articulating words, especially consonants    6. Turning the volume of loud when listening to  audio recordings, radio, or television     7. Showing reluctance to participate in oral activities    8. Having frequent earaches or complaining of  discomfort or buzzing in the ears    
  17. 17. Instructional Adaptations to Help StudentsWith Hearing Disabilities2. Supplement auditory presentations with visual information and hands-on experiences.3. Speak clearly and orient yourself so students can see your face.4. Minimize distracting noise.5. Check frequently for understanding.
  18. 18. Roles for Teachers in Inclusive Classrooms1. Identifying students with exceptionalities2. Teaching students with exceptionalities content and cognitive skills3. Helping students with exceptionalities learn social skills4. Developing classmates’ understanding and acceptance
  19. 19. Principles of Instruction For Teaching Students With Exceptionalities 1. Utilize the effective teaching practices that promote learning for all students.2. Provide additional instructional support.3. Design seatwork and homework activities to match the needs of students with exceptionalities.4. Adapt and supplement reading materials to meet the learning needs of students.5. Actively teach learning strategies.6. Implement plans for the social integration and growth of learners with exceptionalities.
  20. 20. Adaptation     • Model correct solutions on theInstructional Adaptations for Students with  Math   chalkboard.    Use peer tutors to explain problems.    • Break long assignments into shorter ones.   • Encourage the use of calculators and   other aids.   Reading   Exceptionalities   •  Use supplemental reading materials at appropriate levels.    • Use study guides that identify key concepts.    • Preteach difficult concepts before assigning reading.    •    Use group assignments that encourage students to assist each other.       Spelling •    Avoid spelling as a grading criterion.   •     Focus on spelling in other content areas.    •   Stress mastery of short lists of words. •     Encourage students to proofread their work.        •  Increase time allocated to writing  assignments.    •   Allow assignments to be typed.  Writing    •     Allow reports to be taped or dictated to others.  •   Encourage daily writing with short, high-interest assignments.