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Present perfect tense

  1. 1. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ( P.P.T.) Prepared by: Junaid Iqbal
  2. 2. Present Perfect TenseFORM: have / has + past participle Affirmative: I have seen the film before. She has seen the film before. Interrogative: Have you seen the film before? Has she seen the film before? Negative: They haven’t seen the film before. He hasn’t seen the film before.
  3. 3. The formula of P.P.T. is this : Have + Has Past participle They have been to N.Y. She has eaten frog´s leg. You haven’t studied a lot.
  4. 4. I have = ´ve been to Moscow. You have = ´ve finished the exercise. He Has = ´s just gone home. She Has = ´s already had aholiday this year. It Has = ´s broken! We have = ´ve seen this film before. They have = ´ve bought anewcar. Positive
  5. 5. I Have not = haven't been abroad yet. You Have not = haven't answered my question. He Has not = hasn't been home for five years. She Has not = hasn't found anewjob. It Has not = hasn't finished yet. We Have not = haven't worked on a farm. They Have not = haven't seen each other for ages. Negative
  6. 6. Have I ever done it before? Have you been to the cinema recently? Has he worked here long? Has she already sent the fax? Has it ever been in a crash? Have we done it right? Have they gone home yet? Interrogative
  7. 7. What have I done? How long have you been here? How many times has he been married? What countries has she visited? Where has it been? How long have we been together? Where have they worked? Present Perfect –Information Questions
  8. 8. past participle • see saw seen • buy bought bought • go went gone • eat ate eaten • come came come • swim swam swum
  9. 9. Contracted forms seen a ghost • I’ve • You’ve • He’s • She’s • it’s • We’ve • They’ve
  10. 10. Interrogative form • You have traveled to Japan twice. (aff) • Have you traveled to Japan twice? (interrogative)
  11. 11. Have you traveled to Japan twice? • Yes, I have. • No, I haven’t.
  12. 12. Negative form • I have visited the Taj Mahal. • I have .... visited the Taj Mahal. • I have NOT visited the Taj Mahal. • I haven’t seen you for weeks ! • He hasn’t arrived home.
  13. 13. 1- Recent events: It is used to describe recent events without a definite time. The idea of time or place in the speaker’s mind makes the event recent. A time expression may emphasize recentness: just, recently, lately Uses of the present perfect Why are they so happy? They have just won a prize so they are really pleased
  14. 14. JUST I have just finished my exercise. He has just had lunch.
  15. 15. 2- Personal experiences: It is used to express personal experiences, there is not a definite time given. The time expressions ever and never are very often used with this meaning I have never been to Japan. Have you ever been there?
  16. 16. 3- It is used to express actions that started in the past and continue to the present, the time period is not finished. We use for and since with this meaning. We use for with periods of time and since with points of time. I haven’t eaten since yesterday morning. I am really hungry I haven’t drunk anything for two days. I am terribly thirsty
  17. 17. Indefinite time • We use PPT to indicate an action that happened in the past but we don’t know exactly when. ( indefinitive time ). The verb in Portuguese is in the past . • Eg.: • • He has bought a car. ( When ? ) They have been to Europe. ( When ? )
  18. 18. Indefinite Time I have been to New York. ( When ?? ) She has eaten frog´s leg. ( When ?? )
  19. 19. An action started in the past • We use PPT to indicate an action that began in the past and continues up to the present. (the verb in Portuguese is in the present). • Eg.: • • I’ve lived in Limeira for three years. She has studied English since January.
  20. 20. • I have worked here since last year. ( How long? ) • She has played tennis for 10 years. ( How long? )
  21. 21. SINCE FOR I have studied here since 1.999. I have studied here for 5 years.
  22. 22. PRESENT PERFECT + for, since Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time before now by considering its starting point, with since + a point in time. Since + a point in time: since this morning, since last week, since yesterday,since I was a child, since Wednesday, since 2 o'clock.
  23. 23. SINCE I’ve ridden a bike since I was a child. I’ve ridden a bike since I was 12.
  24. 24. Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time before now by considering its duration, with for + a period of time. For + a period of time: for six years, for a week, for a month, for hours, for two hours.
  25. 25. FOR They’ve been married for 1 year. They’ve dated for 3 years.
  26. 26. I went to school this morning. Which one is correct? I have gone to school this morning. ?
  27. 27. BOTH are correct !! I went to school this morning. ( now is more than midday, the morning has already finished !!) I have gone to school this morning. ( now is still morning, it hasn’t finished yet !!)
  28. 28. J ust E ver A lready N ever S ince F or Y et Pay attention to these words :
  29. 29. YET Have you taken a shower yet ? No, I haven’t taken it yet. INTERROGATIVE YET NEGATIVE
  30. 30. YET • We use yet to show that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences. • • • Has it stopped raining yet ? Have you finished the homework yet ? I’ve written the letter but I haven’t posted it yet.
  31. 31. ALREADY I have already taken a shower. AFFIRMATIVE ALREADY INTERROGATIVE
  32. 32. ALREADY • We use already to say that something happened sooner than expected. • Don’t forget to post the letter ! I’ve already posted it. • What time is Mark leaving ? He’s already gone.
  33. 33. It is also used in questions: •Have you already written to John? • Has she finished her homework already? Position: already can be placed before the main verb (past participle) or at the end of the sentence: • I have already been to Tokyo. • I have been to Tokyo already.
  34. 34. Yet is used in negative statements and questions, to mean (not) in the period of time between before now and now, (not) up to and including the present. • Have you met Judy yet? •I haven't visited the Tate Gallery yet. • Has he arrived yet? •They haven't eaten yet. Position: Yet is usually placed at the end of the sentence
  35. 35. Have you already eaten lobster? No, I haven’t eaten it yet. Have you eaten shrimp yet? Yes, I have already eaten it. MD
  36. 36. EVER NEVER Have you ever ridden a horse? I have never ridden a horse.
  37. 37. EVER AND NEVER • Have you ever studied German? No, I’ve never studied German. • Has she ever been to the USA ? No, she has never been to the USA
  38. 38. Have you ever seen a witch? No, I haven’t. I’ve never seen a witch.
  39. 39. Have you ever sung in a choir? Yes, I have.
  40. 40. The adverbs ever and never express the idea of an unidentified time before now Have you ever visited Berlin? 'Ever' is used a. in questions. Have you ever been to England? Has she ever met the Prime Minister?
  41. 41. b. in negative questions Haven't they ever been to Europe? Haven't you ever eaten Chinese food? c.and in negative statements using the pattern nothing.......ever, nobody.......ever Nobody has ever said that to me before. Nothing like this has ever happened to us. d.'Ever' is also used with 'The first time.... It's the first time (that) I've ever eaten snails. This is the first time I've ever been to England.
  42. 42. 'Never' means at no time before now, and is the same as not ..... ever: I have never visited Berlin BE CAREFUL! You must not use never and not together: I haven't never been to Italy. I have never been to Italy. Ever and Never are always placed before the main verb ( past participle )
  43. 43. And there are more words... Lately / Recently / for a while I haven’t seen him lately. She has practiced tennis recently. You haven’t tried it for a while.
  44. 44. ... and more , Once / twice / 3 times / 4 times / etc. We have fought once. He has traveled to Chicago twice. I have had a cold 3 times this year.
  45. 45. Have you ever eaten PRETZELS ? • No. I’ve never eaten pretzels. • Yes, I have already eaten pretzels. • No, I haven’t eaten pretzels. yet. • Yes, I have just eaten pretzels.
  46. 46. To fail - failed - failed
  47. 47. To dance - danced - danced ballet
  48. 48. To drive - drove - driven
  49. 49. To have - had - had
  50. 50. To fly - flew - flown
  51. 51. To receive - d - d a love letter
  52. 52. Chess set To have - had - had
  53. 53. wallet To find - found - found
  54. 54. To lose - lost - lost Something valuable
  55. 55. Let’s practice • I have some muffins. (eaten/ate)
  56. 56. • They have cocktail. (drunk/drank)
  57. 57. • Mr Jones has nice book. (read/readen)
  58. 58. • We’ve to the circus. (gone/went)
  59. 59. • He’s under the tree. (slept/sleeps)
  60. 60. • Have you seen a mummy? (ever/yet) • I’ve eaten snails. • (never/ever) • Doug has _ _ had his breakfast. (already/yet)
  61. 61. • Have you finished your work ? (already/yet) • Have you called Susan? (already/yet) • Jack has gone to work. (just/yet)
  62. 62. Have you ever eaten frog’s leg ? Did you eat frog’s leg last week ?
  63. 63. Have you ever visited New York ? Did you visit New York last year ?
  64. 64. Let’s Practice
  65. 65. Use: Present Perfect • Have you ever played a musical instrument ?
  66. 66. Write down the sentences. Use present perfect. Example: Snoopy / climb / onto his house. Snoopy has climbed onto his house. 1 Brian / play / football 2 Susan / read / her new book 3 I / find / some money in the street 4 Mr and Mrs Baker / have / an accident
  67. 67. 5 Tom Davis / win / the volleyball match 6Alison Brown / lose / the swimming match 7 Mr Martin / make / breakfast for the boys 8 The girls / bring / some wood for the fire 9 The Snows / buy / a van for their holidays 10 Mrs Black / wash / the dishes
  68. 68. SIMPLE PAST OR PRESENT PERFECT ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  69. 69. 1. I a great film yesterday. (see) 2. a new car? (you ever buy) 3. Sue the flu last winter. (have) 4. A few days ago we to his uncle. (drive) 5. They bingo Wednesday afternoon. (play) 6. the bus to get there. (already take) 7. Last week my rabbit away. (run)
  71. 71. . 1 She has lived in Paris January. 2Jim has studied three hours. Now he is tired. 3My friend has been ill a long time. 5 I haven't seen him Easter. 6 He hasn't had a holiday last summer.
  72. 72. 7 The pilots have been on strike two months. 8We've had terrible weather Saturday. 9 I've known Tom 1990. 10 He hasn't done any work a month. 11 We have had this car 1998.