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Armenia: A History

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Presentation on the history and culture of Armenia (Հայաստան).

See also the companion presentation on border changes in Armenia and the South Caucasus: http://www.slideshare.net/jurban16/armenia-borders .

Publicado en: Educación
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Armenia: A History

  1. 1. Armenia: A History
  2. 2. Overview of Armenia and the Caucasus region 2 January 2017
  3. 3. Founded: 21 Sep. 1991 (as the third Armenian republic) Capital: Yerevan Nationalities: - Armenian (98.1%) - Yazidi Kurd (1.2%) - Russian (0.4%) - Other (0.3%) Republic of Armenia (“Hayastan”)
  4. 4. 5 facts about Armenia • Armenia, the smallest of the former Soviet republics, is located in the South Caucasus – About the same size as Maryland, but with half the population (3.0 million in 2011) • A distinct Armenian culture emerged as early as the 6th century B.C. – The Armenians have not always had a country, but they do have a historical homeland – Historic Armenia included the territory of the modern Republic of Armenia, much of eastern Turkey, and parts of southwestern Azerbaijan, southern Georgia, and northwestern Iran • Armenia is known as the first nation to adopt Christianity as the state religion – The traditional date for the foundation of the Armenian Apostolic Church is 301 A.D. • More ethnic Armenians live outside the Republic of Armenia than inside it – Mostly “Western Armenians” who fled the Ottoman Empire because of 19th-century pogroms and the WWI-era Armenian Genocide – The diaspora fled locally to the Caucasus and Levant or abroad to the U.S., France, etc. – Russia has the largest population of Armenians outside of the Republic of Armenia • Armenia is locked in a “frozen conflict” with Azerbaijan over the Armenian-populated enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh – Conflict began before the fall of the Soviet Union and continued into the 1990s – N-K Armenians won de facto independence and N-K forces occupy a land bridge to Armenia
  5. 5. The Caucasus Map credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Bourrichon”, Yuri Koryakov, and J. Urban ARMENIA
  6. 6. The Caucasus Map credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Bourrichon”, Yuri Koryakov, and J. Urban Caucasus Mountains ARMENIA
  7. 7. The Caucasus Map credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Bourrichon”, Yuri Koryakov, and J. Urban North Caucasus (Ciscaucasus) ARMENIA
  8. 8. The Caucasus Map credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Bourrichon”, Yuri Koryakov, and J. Urban North Caucasus (Ciscaucasus) Europe ARMENIA
  9. 9. The Caucasus Map credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Bourrichon”, Yuri Koryakov, and J. Urban South Caucasus (Transcaucasus) ARMENIA
  10. 10. The Caucasus Map credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Bourrichon”, Yuri Koryakov, and J. Urban South Caucasus (Transcaucasus) Asia ARMENIA
  11. 11. Peoples of the Caucasus: Ethno-linguistic-religious distribution Georgians Ibero-Caucasian (Kartvelian) Eastern Orthodox Christian (Georgian Orthodox) Turks Turkic (Oghuz) Sunni (Hanafi) Islam, Alevi Islam (minor) Kurds Indo-European (Iranian) Sunni (Shafii) Islam, Alevi Islam (minor) Persians Indo-European (Iranian) Shia Islam Azerbaijanis Turkic (Oghuz) Shia Islam Azerbaijanis Turkic (Oghuz) Shia Islam Russians Indo-European (Slavic) Eastern Orthodox Christian (Russian Orthodox) Armenians Indo-European (Armenian) Oriental Orthodox Christian (Armenian Apostolic) Russia Turkey Georgia Iran AzerbaijanArmenia Legend: Ethnicity Language family Religion Note: Some ethnic groups are omitted to conserve space. Placement of group names may not align with the actual geographic distribution of populations. Note: Language names are eponymous: Armenians speak “Armenian”, Azerbaijanis speak “Azerbaijani”, Turks speak “Turkish”, Kurds speak “Kurdish”, etc. Note: Predominant groups and associations are shown. Some ethnic groups have minority religions.
  12. 12. Contents Part I: Armenia and its culture Part II: Armenian history and geography Part III: Yerevan and its surroundings
  13. 13. Part I: Armenia and its culture
  14. 14. Who are Armenians? Part 1: Armenian-Americans Martin the Armenian Jamestown Colony (1618) Kim Kardashian TV personality Cher (Cherilyn Sarkisian) Singer, entertainer, actress 1/2 1/2 1/4 Andre Agassi Tennis player Jack Kevorkian Physician System of a Down Musicians Kirk Kerkorian Entrepreneur George Deukmejian California governor William Saroyan Writer Geoffrey Zakarian Restaurateur 1/2 Ara Parseghian Football coach Arshile Gorky (Vosdanig Adoian) Painter Rouben Mamoulian Director
  15. 15. Armenian-Americans in the Old Country Conan O’Brien and his Armenian- American personal assistant, Sona Movsesian (2015) Conan S6E6 (“Conan in Armenia”), 17 Nov. 2015 Kim and Khloe Kardashian (2015) Keeping Up with the Kardashians S10E14 (“Mother Armenia”), 20 September 2015 S10E15 (“It Feels Good to be Home”), 27 September 2015 Cher’s humanitarian visit for the United Armenian Fund (1993) Credit (all Cher photos): Taro Yamasaki / The LIFE Images Collection / Getty Images With Armenian orphans At Ejmiatsin Cathedral On a toppled statue of Lenin from E! Online Credit: TeamCoco / TBS System of a Down concert (2015) Republic Square, Yerevan, 23 April 2015 from facebook.com/johndolmayanofficial
  16. 16. Who are Armenians? Part 2: Global Armenians Artem Mikoyan Aircraft designer Charles Aznavour (Shahnour Aznavourian) Singer, actor (France) Raffi (Cavoukian) Children’s singer (Canada) Aram Khachaturian Composer Tigran Petrosian World chess champion Levon Aronian Formerly the 2nd-ranked world chess player (2012, 2013, 2014) Garry Kasparov World chess champion (Russia) 1/2 Komitas (Soghomon Soghomonian) Composer Atom Egoyan Director (Canada) Note: In 2014, Armenian-American Samuel Sevian became the youngest- ever American chess grandmaster.
  17. 17. British Royal Family (on Princess Diana’s side) 1/256 1/256 1/512 1/512 Who are Armenians? Part 2: Global Armenians Artem Mikoyan Aircraft designer Charles Aznavour (Shahnour Aznavourian) Singer, actor (France) Raffi (Cavoukian) Children’s singer (Canada) Aram Khachaturian Composer Atom Egoyan Director (Canada)
  18. 18. Armenian population centers in the U.S. Glendale Armenian population, Los Angeles County (2000) Fresno, California Holy Trinity Church Watertown, Massachusetts Los Angeles area, California Little Armenia neighborhood, City of Los Angeles New York City, New York Detroit, Michigan Chicago, Illinois San Francisco, California Armenian Classroom, University of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) Fresno, California Trilingual crosswalk
  19. 19. Armenian traces in Northern Virginia Credit: J. Urban Closed in 2012 Credit: J. Urban Credit:J.Urban Credit:J.Urban Credit: J. Urban “Akhtamar’s Haven” tract Great Falls, VA [L] Memorial plaque (and tree) for the American-Armenian volunteers at the Battle of the Argonne Forest (WWI) [R] Memorial to Flight 60528 downed over Soviet Armenia Arlington National Cemetery Performance of “Erebuni-Yerevan” Jamey Turner playing the glass harp Torpedo Factory Art Center, Old Town Alexandria Mama Lavash Bakery Falls Church, VA Alexandria, VA and Gyumri, Armenia Sister Cities since 1990 Arax Café Arlington, VA Credit: J. Urban
  20. 20. Armenian Festival in Alexandria, Virginia (1993 – 2013) Credit (all photos): J. Urban (Flickr)
  21. 21. Shootdown of Flight 60528 over Soviet Armenia: U.S. Air Force signals intelligence mission (September 2, 1958) Replica of Flight 60528 (C-130A) National Vigilance Park, Ft. Meade, Maryland Flight 60528 exhibit National Cryptologic Museum, Ft. Meade, Maryland Flight 60528 memorial at Sasnashen village, Armenia Credit: Tart and Keefe (2001); Hovhannes Margaryan Credit: Jared Nielson Credit:J.UrbanCredit:Flickruser“RedRipper24” Wreckage
  22. 22. Armenian traces outside Armenia: Venice and Jerusalem Venice Isla di San Lazzaro degli Armeni Mekhitarist Order (Armenian Catholic) Jerusalem The Armenian Quarter of the Old City Credit: Sally Turner (Flickr) Lord Byron, leading figure of the Romantic movement, studied at the monastery at St. Lazarus Island in 1816 “. . . their country [Armenia] must ever be one of the most interesting on the globe” Mekhitar of Sebaste Cathedral of Sts. James from armenica.org from jerusalemite.net Credit: Ariela Ross (Flickr) fromoliaklodvenitiens.wordpress.com frominsidetheevatican.com Credit: Ron Peled frommapsof.net
  23. 23. Armenian traces outside Armenia: Historical sites in Turkey Ani (“City of 1001 Churches”) Credit: Antonio Perez Rio (Flickr) Credit: Bjørn Christian Tørrissen Kars Credit: Cihan (todayszaman.com) Sites in Diyarbakır Surp Giragos (“St. Kirakos”) Church (largest ruined Armenian church in Turkey to be revived) Cathedral of Kars Akhtamar Island in Lake Van Credit: Gürkan Öztürk (Panoramio) Surp Khach (“Holy Cross”) Cathedral
  24. 24. Armenian traces outside Armenia: Historical sites in Turkey Ani (“City of 1001 Churches”) Credit: Antonio Perez Rio (Flickr) Credit: Bjørn Christian Tørrissen Kars Credit: Cihan (todayszaman.com) Sites in Diyarbakır Surp Giragos (“St. Kirakos”) Church (largest ruined Armenian church in Turkey to be revived) Cathedral of Kars The Legend of Akhtamar Illustration by Zabelle C. Boyajian (1916)
  25. 25. Armenian traces outside Armenia: Historical sites in Turkey Ani (“City of 1001 Churches”) Credit: Antonio Perez Rio (Flickr) Credit: Bjørn Christian Tørrissen Kars Credit: Cihan (todayszaman.com) Sites in Diyarbakır Surp Giragos (“St. Kirakos”) Church (largest ruined Armenian church in Turkey to be revived) Cathedral of Kars Statue depicting the legend of Akhtamar Lake Sevan, Armenia Credit:AlexOunanians[cropped]
  26. 26. Armenian traces outside Armenia: Historical sites in Turkey Ani (“City of 1001 Churches”) Credit: Antonio Perez Rio (Flickr) Credit: Bjørn Christian Tørrissen Kars Credit: Cihan (todayszaman.com) Sites in Diyarbakır Surp Giragos (“St. Kirakos”) Church (largest ruined Armenian church in Turkey to be revived) Cathedral of Kars Akhtamar Island in Lake Van Credit: Gürkan Öztürk (Panoramio) Surp Khach (“Holy Cross”) Cathedral
  27. 27. Credit:StudioAshnag Armenian traces outside Armenia: Other diaspora locations Russia Lebanon France Syria Argentina Iran Surb Hovhannes Avetaranich (“St. John the Baptist”) Church Krasnodar Cathédrale Apostolique Arménienne St. Jean-Baptiste (“St. John the Baptist Cathedral”) Paris Tomb of Levon V, Basilique Saint-Denis near Paris Last Latin king of Armenia (reigned 1374 – 1375 A.D.) Surb Tadeosi (“St. Thaddeus”) Monastery near Maku Surp Nshan Church Beirut Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex Deir ez-Zor Forty Martyrs Cathedral Aleppo Catedral San Gregorio El Iluminador Buenos Aires Credit:YurikShakhverdyan(Panoramio) Credit:ACAM(France) Credit:P.Potrowl fromWikimediaCommons Credit:StudioAshnag Credit:WikimediaC.user“PreacherLad” Credit:EduardoMasllorens(Panoramio)
  28. 28. Credit:StudioAshnag Armenian traces outside Armenia: Other diaspora locations Russia Lebanon France Syria Argentina Iran Surb Hovhannes Avetaranich (“St. John the Baptist”) Church Krasnodar Cathédrale Apostolique Arménienne St. Jean-Baptiste (“St. John the Baptist Cathedral”) Paris Tomb of Levon V, Basilique Saint-Denis near Paris Last Latin king of Armenia (reigned 1374 – 1375 A.D.) Surb Tadeosi (“St. Thaddeus”) Monastery near Maku Surp Nshan Church Beirut Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex Deir ez-Zor Destroyed by ISIS September 2014 Forty Martyrs Cathedral Aleppo Catedral San Gregorio El Iluminador Buenos Aires Credit:YurikShakhverdyan(Panoramio) Credit:ACAM(France) Credit:P.Potrowl fromWikimediaCommons Credit:StudioAshnag Credit:WikimediaC.user“PreacherLad” fromTwitter Credit:EduardoMasllorens(Panoramio)
  29. 29. Armenian traces outside Armenia: Javakhk and Karabakh “We Are Our Mountains” Dadivank MonasteryDidi Abuli Mountain Akhalkalaki Gandzasar Monastery Armenian and Georgian catholicoi (Ninotsminda, 2011) (adapted from 1995 CIA map) Javakheti, Georgia (“Javakhkʿ”) Nagorno-Karabakh (“Artsakh”) Stepanakert
  30. 30. Armenian traces outside Armenia: Javakhk and Karabakh “We Are Our Mountains” Dadivank MonasteryDidi Abuli Mountain Akhalkalaki Gandzasar Monastery Armenian and Georgian catholicoi (Ninotsminda, 2011) (adapted from 1995 CIA map) Javakheti, Georgia (“Javakhkʿ”) Nagorno-Karabakh (“Artsakh”) Stepanakert Eurovision 2009 controversy
  31. 31. National symbol of Armenia: Mount Ararat (“Masis”) Credit: Julius M. (Flickr user “Ogmus”) [adjusted] Credit: Wikimedia commons user “Самый древний” Credit: J. Urban Ararat seen from the Arch of Charents, Voghjaberd, Armenia 16,854 ft. 12,782 ft. Ararat Anomaly 1673 sketch from Chardin’s travels 1949 USAF photo
  32. 32. Location of Ararat Mt. Ararat Ararat Khor Virap Yerevan Ejmiatsin Turkey Armenia Iran Mt. Ararat
  33. 33. National symbols of Armenia: Fruits from armenianwinefestival.am from noahstravelarmenia.blogspot.com Apricot = Prunus Armeniaca [Called simply “Armeniaca” by the Roman-era Greek physician Dioscorides (1st century A.D.)] Credit: Photolure [adjusted]
  34. 34. Terrain and climate All maps from ArmeniaBirding.info Rivers Eco-regions Mountains Provinces
  35. 35. Terrain and climate View from Mount Azhdahak Credit: Hrant Khachatrian Akhurian RiverMount Aragats Lake Sevan Credit: Taylor HawkinsCredit: Mher Hovsepian Credit: Ani Boghossian
  36. 36. Terrain and climate Armenian Forests (year 2000) Shaki waterfall Debed River valley Dilijan National Park Khosrov Forest State Reserve from enrin.grida.no Credit: Spotilove user “Syuzan” Credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Sisianci” Credit: Wikimedia Commons user “H-dayan” Credit: Liliana & Emil Schmid
  37. 37. Terrain and climate Agriculture on the Ararat Plain Viniculture, western Vayots Dzor Province Mountains, western Vayots Dzor Province from tours.am Credit: Zorah Winery Credit: Flickr user “Brave Lemming” “Symphony of the Stones”, Garni Gorge Credit: Marianna Karamyan (Flickr)
  38. 38. Terrain and climate Agriculture on the Ararat Plain Viniculture, western Vayots Dzor Province Mountains, western Vayots Dzor Province from tours.am Credit: Zorah Winery Credit: Flickr user “Brave Lemming” “Symphony of the Stones”, Garni Gorge Credit: Oleg Breslavtsev
  39. 39. Terrain and climate “Wings of Tatev” aerial tramway Guinness world record for longest non-stop double track cable car (5.752 km) Rock formation, Goris Hot spring, Jermuk spa Zangezur Mountains from traveltoarmenia.com Credit: Ricky Ng (Flickr) Credit: Kristen Hartmann (Flickr) from go2armenia.com
  40. 40. Terrain and climate Lake Sevan Skiing at Tsaghkadzor resort Lake Parz, Dilijan National Park Feather grass steppe, Shirak Province Credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Valen1988” from varmeniyu.ru Credit: Patti Peterson Credit: Anna Reymers
  41. 41. Major cities Yerevan Population: 1,060,138 (2011) Gyumri Population: 121,976 (2011) (Capital of Armenia) (Armenia’s “Second City”)
  42. 42. Major cities Vanadzor Population: 86,199 Vagharshapat Population: 46,540 (Ejmiatsin) Kapan Population: 50,353
  43. 43. Animals Armenian mouflon (wild sheep) Bezoar ibex (wild goat) Eurasian brown bear Armenian gull Sevan trout Narrow-clawed crayfish West-Asian blunt-nosed viperCaucasian lynx Long-eared hedgehog
  44. 44. Armenian culture: Traditional costumes “Armenian woman in national costume, Artvin” (ca. 1905 – 1915) S.M. Produkin-Gorskii color tri-plate / digital composite from U.S. Library of Congress from barevarmenia.com Map of Armenian national costumes from 1800 – 1925 Credit: Homeland Development Initiative Foundation (Taraz Fest 2014, Arpeni, Armenia) [cropped]
  45. 45. Armenian culture: Arts and Crafts Illuminated Manuscripts Canon table page of the Zeytun Gospels by Toros Roslin (1256 A.D.) Photo credit: Getty Museum Oriental Rugs The “Gohar Carpet” (1699/1700 A.D.), probably from Karabakh Needle Lace Photos courtesy of The Lacis Museum (Berkeley, CA) from ArmeniaFest.com
  46. 46. Armenian art in the collections of Washington, D.C.-area institutions The National Gallery of Art The Artist and His Mother Arshile Gorky (ca. 1926 – ca. 1942) The White House The “Armenian Orphan Rug” from Ghazir, Lebanon presented to President Calvin Coolidge in 1925 The Library of Congress The History of the Acts of St. John the Evangelist (copied 1755) [from the collection of Rouben Mamoulian] (Most items usually are not on exhibit.) Embroidered textile from Marash (modern Turkey) Embroidered woven textile from the Caucasus The Textile Museum at the George Washington University Museum Embroidered, beaded apron from Erzurum (modern Turkey) Page from The Romance of Alexander (1525) Needle lace from Kharpert (modern Turkey) (ca. 1915) Dumbarton Oaks Museum
  47. 47. Vordan Karmir (“Worm’s Red”): a variety of natural crimson dye Porphyrophora hamelii (“Armenian cochineal”, “Ararat scale”, etc.) Critically-endangered species Vordan karmir ceiling art Noravank Monastery, Armenia Vordan Karmir State Reservation Salt meadow habitat (2.20 km2) Armavir Province Credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Հանուման” Credit: Vaghinak Petrosyan Credit:G.Karagyan[adjusted] from PeopleOfAr.wordpress.com (Credit: Yerevan Magazine)
  48. 48. Armenian cuisine Khorovats Meat (pork, lamb, beef, chicken) or vegetable barbecue from repatarmenta.org (Novostink.ru) Credit: Akhtamar Hotel, Sevan Lake Sujukh Spiced ground-meat sausage from bacon.am Basturma Spice-covered air-cured beef from armeni.eu
  49. 49. Armenian cuisine Harisa Wheat porridge with chicken or lamb Khash Cow’s-foot and tripe stew Spas Buttermilk-yogurt and wheat soup from kadr.am from basturma.nov.ru Photo credit: J. Urban (Kilikia Restaurant, Yerevan) from pinterest.com/levonavagyan1 Armenian butter churn (khnotsi)
  50. 50. Armenian cuisine Arishta Homemade noodles from tavern.caucasus.am from menu.am Aveluk Curly dock (sorrel relative) Aveluk soup Aveluk salad frombarevarmenia.com fromtavernyerevan.am Tolma Vegetables stuffed with meat, rice, and herbs Food credit: Astghik Shahkhatuni from dolmama.am Winter tolma Summer tolma
  51. 51. Armenian cuisine Lavash Soft, thin flatbread Lahmaju Baked flatbread with ground meat, tomatoes, herbs Zhengyal bread Thin bread stuffed with greens from anushlini.nethouse.ru from menkmedia.com from blognews.am Photo credit: J. Urban (Gaidz Restaurant, Yerevan) Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Chaojoker” Lavash and tonir oven Magic Lavash (1973 animated short)
  52. 52. Armenian cuisine Pakhlava Layered pastry with walnuts and syrup Gata Sweet pastry Karkandak Stuffed buns (potato, meat, cabbage, mushroom, etc.) Food credit: Julia Nazaryan Photo credit: Nazik Armenakyan / ArmeniaNow.com Khachapuri Cheese-filled pastry from menu.am fromaravot.am
  53. 53. Credit:ParandzemHovhannisyan Armenian cuisine Pakhlava Layered pastry with walnuts and syrup Gata Sweet pastry Karkandak Stuffed buns (potato, meat, cabbage, mushroom, etc.) Food credit: Julia Nazaryan Khachapuri Cheese-filled pastry from menu.am fromaravot.am
  54. 54. Armenian cuisine Ghapama Baked pumpkin with rice and dried fruit Dried fruits from barevarmenia.com “Sweet sujukh” / Churchkhela Walnut strings dipped in spiced fruit syrup Alani Dried peaches stuffed with walnuts, sugar, and spices Pastegh / “Sweet lavash” Fruit leather from pinterest.com/levonavagyan1 from zakup.am Credit:Panoramiouser“Armenia& NagornoKarabakh”) Credit: Noema Pérez From doshab.ru
  55. 55. Armenian cuisine Tan Salty yogurt drink Fruit juices Apricot Rose Hip Sea Buckthorn Surch (coffee) Oghi “Vodka” (wheat, mulberry, apricot, etc.) Herbal teas Thyme, mint, etc. Konyak Armenian brandy Credit:RaffiKojian fromsostav.ru fromparma.buy.am Credit:WikimediaC.user“BapakAlex”) Credit: LiveJournal user “Makenas”from phoenixtour.org
  56. 56. Armenian cuisine Green beans with eggs Eggplant dishes Cabbage salad Bean soups Vermishel Summer salad Tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, herbs Wheat dishes Emmer, buckwheat, bulghur, etc. Potato dishes Cauliflower dishes fromelens-kitchen.do.am fromelens-kitchen.do.am fromfd.amfrommykitchen.am fromretsepty-s-foto.rufromtonratun.am fromcaucasus.amfromjrati.ru fromyerevanresto.am
  57. 57. Armenian folk music Duduk (Played by Djivan Gasparyan) Performance of the Armenian epic poem “Daredevils of Sasun” (“Sasna Tsrer”) Davit of Sasun Credit: KARIN Folk Dance and Song Group Credit:VahanBego from Arts Brookfield from duduk.ca Qanon DholZurna Saz Kamancha from musicofarmenia.comfrom gildedserpent.com from HayNews.com from reading.ge
  58. 58. Armenian culture: Folk dances “Ishkhanats Par” (“Lords’ Dance”) “Berd” (“Fortress”) “Yarkhushta” (martial dance) “Kochari” Soviet Armenian soldiers dancing Kochari in Berlin, 1945 Credit:SahakMuradyan[cropped] Credit:BERTDanceEnsemble Credit:TigranMadoyan/KARINFolkDanceGroup from YouTube / Armenica.org Credit:KARINFolkDanceGroup
  59. 59. Sports and games Soccer (“Futbol”) Backgammon (“Nardi”) Chess (“Shakhmat”) Weightlifting Boxing Wrestling Credit:FIDE(Qatar2011)Credit:BirthrightArmenia[adjusted] Credit:PanARMENIAN/V.StepanyanfromHayNews.am Credit:AIBA(Flickr) Credit: Mike Hewitt / Getty Images Europe Credit:V.Baghdasaryan/Photolure
  60. 60. Part II: Armenian history and geography “For even though we are small and very limited in numbers and have been conquered many times by foreign kingdoms, yet too, many acts of bravery have been performed in our land, worthy of being written and remembered, but of which no one has bothered to write down.” Movses Khorenatsi [Moses of Chorene], Armenian historian History of Armenia (Book 1, Chapter 3, Sentence 7) ca. 482 A.D. (traditional date)
  61. 61. Yerevan Van To find Armenia: Look for 2 seas and 3 lakes To find Yerevan: BlackSea Yerevan (Gyumri is near the “eye”)
  62. 62. Geopolitics of Historic Armenia: Northern keystone of the Middle East Anatolian Plateau Fertile Crescent Southeastern Taurus Eastern Pontic Armenian Plateau Black Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Persian Gulf(underlying topographic map credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Sémhur”)
  63. 63. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org)
  64. 64. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 6th century B.C. Persian domination Achaemenid Persians
  65. 65. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 5th century B.C. Persian domination
  66. 66. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 4th century B.C. Yervanduni (Orontid) dynasty Macedonian conquest of Achaemenid Persia Armavir Macedonians Armenian capital
  67. 67. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 3rd century B.C. Yervanduni (Orontid) dynasty Hellenic-Iranian wars; Seleucid and Arsacid Empires Armavir Yervandashat Seleucids Arsacids (Parthians) Armenian capital
  68. 68. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 2nd century B.C. Artashesean (Artaxiad) dynasty Yervandashat Artashat Romans Alans Armenian capital
  69. 69. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 1st century B.C. Artashesean (Artaxiad) dynasty Armenian Empire and defeat by Rome Artashat Tigranakert Romans Alans Armenian capital
  70. 70. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 1st century A.D. Arshakuni (Arsacid) dynasty Roman-Parthian (Arsacid) wars Artashat Romans Parthians Alans Armenian capital
  71. 71. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 2nd century A.D. Arshakuni (Arsacid) dynasty Roman domination ArtashatVagharshapat Romans Parthians Armenian capital
  72. 72. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 3rd century A.D. Arshakuni (Arsacid) dynasty Roman-Iranian wars Vagharshapat Romans Parthians Sassanid Persians Armenian capital
  73. 73. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 4th century A.D. Arshakuni (Arsacid) dynasty Christianization; Byzantine-Sassanid partition Vagharshapat Dvin Ashtishat Byzantines Sassanid Persians Armenian capital Armenian chief bishop (By tradition, at Vagharshapat rather than Ashtishat)
  74. 74. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 5th century A.D. Marzpanate period; Persian-Byzantine domination Christian nakharar rebellion against Sassanids Dvin Ashtishat Byzantines Sassanid Persians Armenian capital Armenian chief bishop / Armenian catholicos (By tradition, at Vagharshapat rather than Ashtishat)
  75. 75. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 6th century A.D. Marzpanate period; Persian-Byzantine domination Nakharar rebellions Dvin Byzantines Sassanid Persians Armenian capital Armenian catholicos
  76. 76. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 7th century A.D. Arab conquests Dvin Arabs Khazars Sassanid Persians Armenian capital Armenian catholicos
  77. 77. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 8th century A.D. Arab domination Dvin Partav Arabs Khazars Armenian capital Armenian catholicos Armeno-Albanian catholicos
  78. 78. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 9th century A.D. Arab domination Rise of the Bagratuni (Bagratid) dynasty Bagaran Shirakavan Dvin Berdakur Arabs Khazars Armenian capital Armenian catholicos Armeno-Albanian catholicos
  79. 79. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 10th century A.D. Bagratid kingdoms of Armenia Shirakavan Dvin Dzoravank Aghtamar Kars Arghina Ani Berdakur Amaras Armenian capital Armenian catholicos Armeno-Albanian catholicos
  80. 80. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 11th century A.D. Apex of Bagratid Armenia Byzantine incursions; Seljuq conquests Ani Sebastia Tavplur Tsamendav Sis Karmir Vank Amaras Seljuq Turks ByzantinesCrusaders Armenian capital Armenian catholicos Armeno-Albanian catholicos
  81. 81. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 12th century A.D. Seljuq domination; Georgian conquests Crusades and rise of the barony of Kilikia (Cilicia) Sis Karmir Vank Aghtamar Tsovk Hromkla Amaras Crusaders Georgians Armenian capital Armenian catholicos Other Armenian catholicos Armeno-Albanian catholicos
  82. 82. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 13th century A.D. Armenian Kingdom of Kilikia (Cilicia) Crusader alliance; Mongol conquests HromklaSis Aghtamar Amaras Gandzasar Mongols Crusaders Georgians Egyptian Mamluks Armenian capital Armenian catholicos Other Armenian catholicos Armeno-Albanian catholicos
  83. 83. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 14th century A.D. Fall of the last Armenian kingdom Mamluk invasions of Kilikia (Cilicia) Sis Aghtamar Gandzasar Egyptian Mamluks Ilkhanate, Jalayirid Mongols Armenian capital Armenian catholicos Other Armenian catholicos Armeno-Albanian catholicos
  84. 84. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 15th century A.D. Turkic domination Turco-Mongol invasions; Turkoman conquests Sis Ejmiatsin Aghtamar Gandzasar Timurids (Turco- Mongols) Black Sheep, White Sheep Turkomans Armenian catholicos Other Armenian catholicos Armeno-Albanian catholicos
  85. 85. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 16th century A.D. Ottoman-Safavid wars Ejmiatsin Sis Aghtamar Gandzasar Ottoman Turks Safavid Persians Armenian catholicos Other Armenian catholicos Armeno-Albanian catholicos
  86. 86. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 17th century A.D. Turkish-Persian domination Ottoman-Safavid partition Ejmiatsin Sis Aghtamar Gandzasar Ottoman Turks Safavid Persians Armenian catholicos Other Armenian catholicos Armeno-Albanian catholicos
  87. 87. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 18th century A.D. Turkish-Persian era; Apex of Karabagh, Syunik meliks Armenian nationalism and modernization Ejmiatsin Sis Aghtamar Gandzasar Kreim, Bzommar Armenian catholicos Other Armenian catholicos Armeno-Albanian catholicos Armenian Catholic patriarch
  88. 88. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 19th century A.D. Turkish-Russian domination Russian conquest of the Caucasus Ejmiatsin Sis Aghtamar Gandzasar Bzommar Constantinople Russians Armenian catholicos Other Armenian catholicos Armeno-Albanian catholicos Armenian Catholic patriarch
  89. 89. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 20th century A.D. (1900 – 1918) Turkish-Russian domination World War I; Armenian Genocide Ejmiatsin Sis Constantinople Ottoman Turks Russians Armenian catholicos Other Armenian catholicos Armenian Catholic patriarch
  90. 90. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 20th century A.D. (1918 – 1920) First Armenian republic Transcaucasian wars and Sovietization Yerevan Ejmiatsin Sis Constantinople Turkish nationalists [Turks] [Georgians] Soviet Russians [Azerbaijanis] British Empire Armenian capital Armenian catholicos Other Armenian catholicos Armenian Catholic patriarch
  91. 91. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 20th century A.D. (1920 – 1991) Soviet domination Yerevan Ejmiatsin Sis Constantinople Beirut Antelias Armenian capital Armenian catholicos Other Armenian catholicos Armenian Catholic patriarch
  92. 92. The history of Armenia in one picture (underlying map from www.armenica.org) 20th – 21st centuries A.D. (1991 – ) Republic of Armenia Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Yerevan Stepanakert Ejmiatsin Beirut Antelias Armenian capital Armenian catholicos Other Armenian catholicos Armenian Catholic patriarchNKR capital
  93. 93. Coat of arms of the Republic of Armenia Emblem of the Rubinean dynasty Armenian Kingdom of Kilikia Emblem of the Bagratuni dynasty Medieval kingdoms of Armenia Emblem of the Artashesean dynasty Ancient kingdom of Armenia; Armenian Empire of Tigran II Emblem of the Arshakuni dynasty Armenia at the time of Christianization Mount Ararat Noah’s Ark with receding flood waters Sword, Broken chain, Ribbon Wheat sheaf Branch Shield colors = flag colors (Red, blue, orange) LionEagle
  94. 94. Early Armenian history and pre-history
  95. 95. Areni-1 cave complex: Chalcolithic-era culture in the South Caucasus World’s oldest known intact shoe ca. 3627 – ca. 3377 B.C. Pre-adult skulls buried ceremonially in pots (World’s oldest known preserved brain tissue) ca. 3970 – ca. 3800 B.C. World’s oldest known winery ca. 4223 – ca. 3790 B.C. Photo credit: K. Wilkinson fromAreshianetal.(2012) Credit: Diana Zardaryan fromWilkinsonetal.(2012) fromAreshianetal.(2012) from Pinhasi et al. (2010)
  96. 96. Other prehistoric sites in Armenia Earliest cultivated plants found in Armenia, from the Artashen and Aknashen settlements Charred cereal grains and pulse seeds ca. 6th millennium B.C. (Late Neolithic era) Stone tools from the Nor Geghi 1 archaeological site Produced using biface and Levallois technologies ca. 325,000 to 335,000 years ago (Late Lower Paleolithic era) Photocredit:RoyalHolloway;Credit:Adleretal.(2014) Credit:HovsepyanandWillcox(2008)
  97. 97. Other prehistoric sites in Armenia Karahunj (“Zorats Karer”), Syunik Province 3rd – 2nd millennia B.C. Metsamor site, Armavir Province 3rd – 2nd millennia B.C. Petroglyphs of Mt. Ughtasar, Syunik Province 4th – 3rd millennia B.C. Shengavit settlement, Yerevan 3rd millennium B.C. (Kura-Araxes culture) Credit:WikimediaC.user“Sonashen” fromtours-armenia.com Credit:AndrewSelkirk fromEnjoyArmenia.com Credit:MarcTailly[adjusted] fromsobstvennost.net fromhushardzan.am from widener.edu/~msrothma
  98. 98. Urartu: The most powerful nation in the Middle East, circa 750 B.C. from www.armenica.org Principal god Khaldi Credit:WikimediaCommonsuser“liveon001” ((a.k.a. “Biainili” or “Kingdom of Van”)
  99. 99. Erebuni Fortress: an Urartian citadel in Yerevan Erebuni Fortress, founded in 782 B.C. by the Urartian king Argishti I, is considered the namesake of Yerevan Google Sketchup by Vahe Hambardzumyan (3D Warehouse user “Vahe Armenia”) Credit: Armen Manukov (Wikimedia Commons) Artist’s rendition By the grace of the god Khaldi, Argishti, son of Menua, built this mighty stronghold and proclaimed it Erebuni for the glory of Bianili [Urartu] and to instill fear among the enemy countries. Argishti says: The land was a desert; great works I accomplished upon it. By the will of Khaldi, Argishti, son of Menua, is a mighty king, king of Bianili land, and ruler of Tushpa [Van] city. Credit: Wikimedia Commons user “EvgenyGenkin” Credit: J. Urban Statue of Argishti I Erebuni Fortress Credit: J. Urban
  100. 100. Armenian ethnogenesis: four ideas Statue of Hayk the Patriarch Credit:ValeriKhachatryan • The Armenian tradition: Armenian patriarch Hayk conquered the Armenian plateau from the Babylonian tyrant Bel – Armenian tradition dates the battle to 2492 B.C.* – Hayk is considered the great-great-grandson of the biblical Noah [Noah → Japheth → Gomer → Torgom (Togarmah) → Hayk] • The ancient Greek tradition: The Armenians were a colony of Phrygians – Phrygia was a kingdom in west-central Anatolia that dominated much of the peninsula following the Hittite collapse circa 1200 B.C. • The 19th-/20th-century consensus: The Armenians are descended from a (possibly Phrygian-related) tribe called the Armens that migrated onto the Armenian plateau after the fall of Urartu (ca. 590 B.C.) and mixed with the non-Indo-European natives – Some historians suggest that the Armens intermarried with peoples of the Hayasa- Azzi confederation who had migrated into the Armenian highlands • A new theory: Armenians were included among, or identical to, the Urartian peoples (and the pre-Urartian Hurrian peoples) * The 19th-century Armenian Mekhitarist priest Ghevond Alishan calculated the date 2492 B.C. and checked it against the date of death of the legendary Babylonian king Belus calculated in the chronographies of Sextus Julius Africanus (3rd c. A.D.) and Eusebius of Caesarea (4th c. A.D.).
  101. 101. The ancient foreign names of Armenia and its predecessors Darius I’s trilingual inscription (Mount Bīsitūn, Iran): Conquests of the Achaemenid Persian king, mostly carved between 520 B.C. and 518 B.C. Sargon II’s cylinder (Khorsabad, Iraq): Dedication of Dûr-Sharrukin, capital of the Neo-Assyrian king, in 706 B.C. The land of Armenia The land of Urartu (according to Median geography) (according to Achaemenid geography) ARMINA Old Persian Achaemenid Akkadian (“Late Babylonian”) Neo-Assyrian Akkadian [land of] URASHTU [land of] URARTU The Achaemenids recorded Armenia and Urartu as sharing a geography (if not a people) “Ararat” (Hebrew: ʾRRT) is considered to be a pronunciation variant of “Urartu” ARARAT [Semitic languages like Akkadian, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, etc. are based on roots of 3 (or 4) consonants] The biblical land of Ararat Credit: Musée du Louvre Hebrew [Urartu was archaic to the Achaemenids: Urartu was absorbed by Media circa 590 B.C.] (Vowels not written in Biblical-era Hebrew) 5 cm 5 meters
  102. 102. The native names of Armenia and its predecessors The land of Armenia The land of Urartu [land of] BIAINILI HAYKʿ (or “HAYQ”) Մեծ Հայք = Greater Armenia Փոքր Հայք = Lesser Armenia HAYASTAN Inscriptions at the Rock of Van (Van, Turkey) Citadel of Tushpa, capital of Urartu [land of] BIAINA Urartian [“Van”, the modern name of the city and lake where the Urartian capital was located, is thought to be derived from “Biaina“.]“Book of History” by Arakel Davrizhetsi (1669) “Koryun Vardapet and His Translations” by Norayr Buzandatsi (1900) [Koryun was a 5th-c. A.D. Armenian historian.] (archaic name) (modern name) Photo credit: Mirjo Salvini Armenian Armenian
  103. 103. Urartu in the oldest known map of the world Babylonian map of the world ca. 6th century B.C., but copied from an older map Credit: British Museum 2.5 cm from cartographic-images.net
  104. 104. Urartu in the oldest known map of the world Babylonian map of the world ca. 6th century B.C., but copied from an older map Credit: British Museum 2.5 cm Susa (capital of Elam) Babylon Assyria Urartu
  105. 105. An 18th-century European understanding of the Biblical-era Middle East “A General Map for Information about the History of the Saints” by Philippe Buache (1783) from Galichian (2004)
  106. 106. An 18th-century European understanding of the Biblical-era Middle East “A General Map for Information about the History of the Saints” by Philippe Buache (1783) from Galichian (2004) Armenia L. Van L. Urmia L. Sevan
  107. 107. An 18th-century European understanding of the Biblical-era Middle East “A General Map for Information about the History of the Saints” by Philippe Buache (1783) from Galichian (2004) Mount Ararat with Noah’s Ark
  108. 108. An 18th-century European understanding of the Biblical-era Middle East “A General Map for Information about the History of the Saints” by Philippe Buache (1783) from Galichian (2004) Garden of Eden
  109. 109. An 18th-century European understanding of the Biblical-era Middle East “A General Map for Information about the History of the Saints” by Philippe Buache (1783) from Galichian (2004)
  110. 110. An 18th-century European understanding of the Biblical-era Middle East “A Map of the Terrestrial Paradise” by Emmanuel Bowen (1780) from Galichian (2004)
  111. 111. An 18th-century European understanding of the Biblical-era Middle East “A Map of the Terrestrial Paradise” by Emmanuel Bowen (1780) from Galichian (2004) Armenia L. Van L. Urmia
  112. 112. An 18th-century European understanding of the Biblical-era Middle East “A Map of the Terrestrial Paradise” by Emmanuel Bowen (1780) from Galichian (2004) Mount Ararat
  113. 113. An 18th-century European understanding of the Biblical-era Middle East “A Map of the Terrestrial Paradise” by Emmanuel Bowen (1780) from Galichian (2004) Garden of Eden
  114. 114. An 18th-century European understanding of the Biblical-era Middle East “A Map of the Terrestrial Paradise” by Emmanuel Bowen (1780) from Galichian (2004)
  115. 115. Ancient Armenia in legend and in history Armenian king Ara the Handsome and Assyrian queen Semiramis (“Shamiram”) According to Movses Khorenatsi and the “Primary History”Hayk, first patriarch of Armenia, who slew the Babylonian tyrant Bel in the “Battle of Giants” (“Dyutsaznamart”) According to the “History of the Armenians” by Movses Khorenatsi (Armenian historian, 5th c. A.D.?) and the “Primary History” attributed to Sebeos (7th c. A.D.?) “Hayk Nakhapetan” by Mkrtum Hovnatanian (19th century) Illustration by Zabelle C. Boyajian (1916) Mount Ara (“Arayi Ler”) Aragatsotn Province, Armenia Credit:Panoramiouser“Սէրուժ” fromPeopeOfAr.wordpress.com Credit:NationalGalleryofArmenia
  116. 116. Ancient Armenia in legend and in history Armenus of Thessaly, one of Jason’s Argonauts Namesake of Armenia, according to Strabo (Roman-era Greek geographer, 1st c. B.C. – 1st c. A.D.) [But not included in other Greek lists of Argonauts or mentioned in the Armenian histories.] Armenian patriarch Zarmayr, killed defending Troy in the Trojan War Assisted King Priam with an Ethiopian army on behalf of Assyria, according to Movses Khorenatsi (Armenian historian, 5th c. A.D.) [But not mentioned in the Greek sources. Possibly equated with Memnon.] Ancient Greek vase depicting several Argonauts (but not depicting Armenus) Credit: Musée du Louvre 19th-century illustration of Zarmayr Credit:NationalGalleryofArmenia
  117. 117. Ancient Armenia in legend and in history Armenian bearing tribute to Persian king Darius the Great Carving at Persepolis (the acropolis of Parsa, capital of the Achaemenid Persian Empire), 6th c. B.C. (late 6th century B.C.) Tigranes, Armenian prince and hunting partner of Persian king Cyrus the Great According to the semi-fictional Cyropaedia by Xenophon (Greek mercenary and historian, 4th c. B.C.) Armenian soldier in the army of Persian king Xerxes the Great Illustrated according to the description of Herodotus (Greek historian, 5th c. B.C.) Eastern staircase of the Apadana of Persepolis, Iran Early 20th-century illustration 19th-century illustration of Tigran Yervanduni [sometimes equated with Xenophon’s Tigranes] Reigns of the great Achaemenid Persian kings: Cyrus the Great: Darius the Great: Xerxes the Great: 549 – 530 B.C. 522 – 486 B.C. 486 – 465 B.C. Credit:NationalGalleryofArmenia Photocredit:WikimediaC.user“Aryamahasattva” Credit:BookbyOskarJägerandA.F.Marx
  118. 118. Ancient Armenia in legend and in history Armenian commanders Orontes and Mithraustes in the army of Persian king Darius III at the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 B.C. According to Arrian (Roman-era Greek historian, 2nd c. A.D.) Carved ivory relief of the Battle of Gaugamela Anonymous artist (18th c.), after Charles Le Brun’s 17th-c. painting [The relief does not depict Orontes or Mithraustes specifically.] Photocredit:LuisGarcía Ancient Artashat, the “Armenian Carthage” According to Plutarch (Roman-era Greek historian, 2nd c. A.D.) and Strabo (Greek geographer, 1st c. B.C. – 1st c. A.D.) [But no association with Carthage in the Armenian histories or from archaeological investigations.] [Note: Alexander of Macedon (“Alexander the Great”) ended the Achaemenid Persian Empire by winning this battle.] [Note: Strabo and Plutarch wrote that Artashat was designed and built on the advice of Hannibal of Carthage in the 2nd century B.C.] Credit:Tonikian(1992) Site plan of the ruined ancient city of Artashat in Ararat Province, Armenia m
  119. 119. Ancient Armenia in legend and in history 17th-century Flemish tapestry depicting Marc Antony, Cleopatra, and the captive Armenian royal family Workshop of Everard III Leyniers, Flanders, Brussels (ca. 1670) Credit:ArtInstituteofChicago The captive King Artavazd (“Artavasdes”) II of Armenia, son of Tigran II, who refused to bow to Cleopatra at Marc Antony’s triumph in Alexandria in 34 A.D. According to Roman-era historians (Lucius Cassius Dio, plus Tacitus, Plutarch, Flavius Josephus, etc.) and Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi Tigran II (“Tigranes the Great”), known as the “King of Kings” of the Armenian Empire in the 1st century B.C. According to Roman-era Greek historians Plutarch and Appian (2nd c. A.D.), and coins minted under the reign of Tigran II 19th-century Italian illustration of Tigran the Great accompanied by four vassal kings G. Fusaro, 19th century [Note: Plutarch wrote that after the Battle of Carrhae in 53 B.C., the head of Marcus Crassus (member of the First Triumvirate of Rome with Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great) was used as a prop in the performance of a Greek tragedy at the wedding of Artavasdes’ sister to the Parthian king’s son in Artashat.] Credit:Fusaro,citedin“ArmenianHistoryinItalianArt”
  120. 120. Ancient Armenia in legend and in history Trdat (Tiridates) I, prince of Parthia and king of the Armenians, who traveled to Rome with his magi in 66 A.D. to receive his crown from Emperor Nero According to 1st/2nd c. A.D. Roman historians Suetonius, Cassius Dio, Tacitus, and Pliny the Elder 17th-century copy of an ancient Roman statue Gardens of the Palace of Versailles, France By Antoine André (ca. 1687), after one of the “Farnese Captives” Statues sometimes associated with Tiridates I of Armenia: Ancient Roman statue Louvre Museum, Paris, France Borghese Collection; ancient head attached to a 2nd-century body, with other restorations [Note: Some scholars have suggested that the journey of Tiridates and his magi inspired the Biblical story of the Magi and the nativity of Jesus. The year of Tiridates’ visit, 66 A.D., is near the time that the Gospel of Matthew is thought to have been written, and is also the year of a notable apparition of Halley’s Comet.] fromandrelenorte.com[cropped] fromPeopleOfAr.com Tiridates I was the first king of the Armenian Arshakuni (Arsacid) dynasty
  121. 121. Credit: Armenica.org and R.H. Hewsen Armenia at its territorial apex under Tigran II (“Tigran the Great”) “The Armenian empire from sea to sea” (1st century B.C.)
  122. 122. Map credit: Wikipedia user “Andrei nacu” [adapted] Armenia as a possession of imperial Rome The Roman Empire at its greatest extent in 117 A.D.: 3 years after Roman emperor Trajan made Armenia an imperial province; 182 years after the Armenian king Tigran the Great surrendered to the Roman general Pompey the Great Roman province of Armenia (114 – 118 A.D.) Roman sestertius (ca. 114 – 117 A.D.) Celebrating Trajan’s conquest of Armenia and Mesopotamia Euphrates Tigris Armenia Trajan
  123. 123. Armenian trade and commerce Caravanserai at Selim Pass, Armenia Built by Prince Chesar Orbelian, 1332 A.D. Photo credit: Shaun Dunphy (Flickr) Medieval Mediterranean sea trade Cilicia, replica 13th-century merchant vessel Quedagh Merchant (“Adventure Prize”) Captured by Captain Kidd off the Indian coast, January 1698 Credit: Cilicia Tours / AYAS Nautical Research Club Silver tetradrachm Bust of Tigran the Great, 1st century B.C. Credit:PrincetonUniversity NumismaticCollection fromThePiratesOwnBook(1837) Credit: Connecticut Mirror (1822) Halley’s Comet version?
  124. 124. Religion in Armenia
  125. 125. Pre-Christian religion • Pre-Christian Armenian religion was strongly influenced by Iranian religions (Zoroastrianism, etc.) • Armenian pantheon: – Aramazd (principal god) – Anahit (fertility) – Vahagn (fire and war) – Astghik (love and beauty) – etc. Goddess Anahit (possibly) Garni Temple (or perhaps a tomb) Vardavar holiday (celebrating Astghik) Modern: celebrating the Transfiguration of Christ in July, 14 weeks after Easter Photo credit: Karen Hovhannisyan Credit: British Museum from sacredsites.com Trndez holiday (fertility celebration) Modern: celebrating Candlemas on the eve of Feb. 14, 40 days after Christmas from barevarmenia.com
  126. 126. Other major holidays: secular and religious Christmas (“Surb Tsnund”) Nativity celebrated with Epiphany (January 6) New Year (“Nor Tari”) Dec. 31/Jan. 1: The biggest holiday in Armenia Dzmer Pap and Dzyunanush St. Stepanos’ Day December 25 “Old” New Year January 14 (Julian date: Jan. 1 + 13 days) Note: the Armenian Apostolic Church follows the modern (Gregorian) calendar.* Compare Armenian Christmas on Epiphany (Jan. 6, following the “12th day of Christmas”) to Russian Orthodox Christmas on the old (Julian) calendar: Russian Christmas = January 7 (December 25 + 13 days calendar offset). Tonatsar in Yerevan’s Republic Square Easter (“Zatik”) The biggest religious holiday in Armenia Independence Day September 21 International Women’s Day March 8 St. Sargis’ Day Mid-Jan. to Mid-Feb. Motherhood and Beauty Day April 7 (same day as Annunciation) Aghi blit Days of the Dead (“Merelotsner”) Mondays after major church feast days “Egg tapping” contest * Except the Patriarchate of Jerusalem.
  127. 127. The Temple of Garni Nearby Roman bath Credit (all photos): J. Urban Old Persian graffiti (built 1st or 2nd century A.D., ruined by earthquake in 1679 A.D., reconstructed in early 1970s)
  128. 128. The traditional account of Christianity in Armenia 1st century A.D.: Apostles Thaddeus and Bartholomew 3rd/4th centuries A.D.: St. Grigor (Gregory) the Illuminator, King Trdat III (Tiridates the Great), and the Christian maidens Baptism of Trdat III by Grigor [In 301 A.D. according to tradition, but possibly as late as 314 A.D.] Khor Virap (“Deep Pit”) St. Hripsime fromstmaryaac.org fromstmaryaac.orgCredit:AlexAmirbekyan Armenian Apostolic Church fromarmenische-kirche.ch
  129. 129. Ejmiatsin: “Where the Only Begotten descended” St. Gayane Church (630 A.D.) Married clergyman Seminary dormitory Credit: J. Urban Credit:J.UrbanCredit:J.UrbanCredit:J.Urban Credit: J. Urban Credit: J. Urban Credit: J. Urban Credit: Shaun Dunphy (Flickr) Credit: Shaun Dunphy Credit: Panoramio user “Butcher” Khachkars (Julfa, 1602/3 A.D.) Ejmiatsin Cathedral (301?/483/618/... A.D.)
  130. 130. The Armenian khachkars of Old Julfa (“Jugha”) in Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan Southwestern area, 2003 Southwestern area, 2009 Northern area, 2009 Northern area, 2003 American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS) Geospatial Technologies and Human Rights Project Final destruction of the cemetery by Azerbaijani soldiers (December 2005) 2006 1987 1915
  131. 131. Ruins of Zvartnots Cathedral Toramanian (1905) Mnatsakanyan (1971) Proposed structures (built in mid-7th century A.D., destroyed in late-10th century A.D.) Credit:TimofeyKispoevCredit:ShaunDunphy(Flickr) Credit: Michal Hoskovec (DeviantArt user “Dorcadion”) [adjusted] Credit: Sean Dunphy (Flickr) [adjusted]Credit: Rita Willaert (Flickr) Credit:TheGreatSovietEncyclopedia
  132. 132. Geghard Monastery: Example of a medieval Armenian church
  133. 133. Other medieval monasteries in Armenia Khor Virap Noravank Photo credit: Grigory Gusev (Flickr) Sanahin Haghpat Photo credit: Agnieszka Skieterska (TrekEarth user “Skieter”) Photo credit: Thomas Frederick Martinez Tatev fromofficespace.am Photo credit: Karen Bars (Panoramio) [cropped]
  134. 134. Struggle for religious freedom: Battle of Avarayr (451 A.D.) Vardan Mamikonean (St. Vardan) Sparapet of the Armenian armies from armenica.org from armenica.org from armenian-history.com Armenian hymnal (written 1482 A.D., manuscript 1620 A.D.) Christian Armenians [right] battling Sassanid Persians [left] fromWikimediaCommons
  135. 135. Schism over the nature of Christ Ecumenical Council Second (381 A.D.), Constantinople    Third (431 A.D.), Ephesus    Fourth (451 A.D.), Chalcedon –   Heresy (nature of Christ rejected by council) Arianism The Son was created by, and is distinct from, the Father Nestorianism Two “persons” (divine + human), one body Eutychian monophysitism One nature (essentially divine), one body Oriental Orthodox Alexandria → Coptic, Ethiopian Antioch → Syriac Dvin → Armenian Miaphysitism One nature (divine/human), one body (rejected Chalcedon, but also rejected Eutychianism) Constantinople → Eastern Orthodox Rome → Roman Catholic Dyophysitism Two distinct but compatible natures, one body (accepted Chalcedon, which rejected Eutychianism) Nestorians → Sassanid Persia → Church of the East (Assyrian of the East; Chaldean (formerly)) Armenians did not attend Chalcedon. Battle of Avarayr was that year. Rejected Chalc. at Dvin (506, 551 A.D.). (schism in 1054 A.D.)
  136. 136. Common traditions in Oriental Orthodoxy: The story of St. Hripsime St. Arsema Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church St. Hripsime Armenian Apostolic Church St. Arbsima Coptic Orthodox Church St. Hripsime Church (618 A.D.) Ejmiatsin, Armenia 18th – 19th c. triptych of the life of Arsema Arsema Semaetat Church (13th c.), Lake Tana, Ethiopia Credit:WikimediaCommonsuser“Gegman”[adapted] Tombstone of St. Hripsime ca. 17th c. diptych depicting St. Arsema fromrofa100100.blogspot.com fromBosc-Tiessé(2000) Credit:HailemariamShimelis fromgriqor.livejournal.ru
  137. 137. Armenia at the end of Byzantine emperor Justinian’s reign (565 A.D.) Roman (Byzantine) Armenia Persian (Sassanid) Armenia Note: In the 7th through 10th centuries A.D., several of the emperors of the Byzantine Empire were Armenians. Mapcredit:Wikipediauser“Cplakidas” L. Van
  138. 138. Dvin: First great capital of medieval Armenia Credit (3D model): Ashot Ghazaryan
  139. 139. Ani: Last great capital of medieval Armenia “The city of 1001 churches” illustration from PeopleOfAr.wordpress.com
  140. 140. The Bagratuni kingdoms of Armenia circa 1000 A.D. Credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Sémhur”
  141. 141. Cilicia (“Kilikia”), the last Armenian kingdom Cilician Gates Silver double dram Effigy of King Levon I, early 13th century A.D. Sea castle of Korykos (Byzantine design; Armenian reconstruction) Map of Armenian Cilicia (1199 A.D. – 1375 A.D.) Armenian castle (perhaps of King Levon I) Credit:YakupSevinc Credit: Gunter Hartnagel fromcekulvakfi.org.tr from forumancientcoins.com Credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Sémhur” Cyprus
  142. 142. Armenian Cilicia at the time of the Crusades After the First Crusade After the Third Crusade Credit: Wikimedia Commons user “MapMaster” Credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Gabagool”
  143. 143. Armenian Christianity today Patriarchate of Jerusalem Patriarchate of Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) Mother See of Holy Ejmiatsin Holy See of Cilicia (Antelias, Lebanon) Armenian Catholic Church (Beirut, Lebanon) Armenian Evangelical Church (founded 1742) (founded 1846)
  144. 144. Armenian Christianity today Patriarchate of Jerusalem Patriarchate of Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) Mother See of Holy Ejmiatsin Holy See of Cilicia (Antelias, Lebanon) Armenian Catholic Church (Beirut, Lebanon) Armenian Evangelical Church (founded 1742) (founded 1846)Soorp Khatch Church (Bethesda, MD) St. Mary Church (Friendship Heights, D.C.)
  145. 145. Religion in Armenia Ejmiatsin Cathedral Vagharshapat, Armenia Surb Nahatakats (“Holy Martyrs”) Cathedral Gyumri, Armenia Ziarat Temple Aknalich village, Armenia Quba Mere Diwane Temple Planned to be the world’s largest Yazidi temple Aknalich village, Armenia Artist’s conception Armenian Catholic (Christian) Yazidi Armenian Apostolic (Christian) Armenian Evangelical (Christian) Evangelical Church of Armenia (and AMA-A Headquarters) Yerevan, Armenia fromgazeta.lv Note: The vast majority of the religious population of Armenia belongs to the Armenian Apostolic faith. Credit:ArmenianMissionary Association–Armenia(AMA-A) frompresident.am Credit:VaheMartirosyan Credit:ArtukGhulyan[cropped]
  146. 146. Armenian alphabet (Traditional date of invention: 406 A.D.) Medieval trchnagir (“Bird calligraphy”)from ancientscripts.com (armenian.gif) fromarmenology.bnaban.am artwork credit: Susanna Kirakosyan St. Mesrop Mashtots
  147. 147. Armenian language Credit: Win Corduan Credit: Wikipedia user “Yerevanci” Armenian dialect map (1909) Armenian is a singular branch of the Indo-European language family Armenian has two main dialects: Western (from Ottoman Armenia) Eastern (Persian, Russian Armenia) The Soviets reformed the Armenian writing system in 1922 and 1940 Armenian surnames -եան (traditional) [-ean] → -ian / -յան (reformed) (Russian -ян) -yan Western Eastern bakhlava pakhlava dolma tolma parev barev Bedros Petros Kevork Gevorg Krikor Grigor Echmiadzin Ejmiatsin kisher pari bari gisher
  148. 148. Armenia in the 20th century
  149. 149. The Armenian Genocide of 1915 Genocide Memorial at Tsitsernakaberd Yerevan, Armenia Map of relocations, camps, and massacres Armenian men marched to prison, Kharpert Armenians hanged in Constantinople Armenians foraging for grain in the desert fromtheA.T.WegnerCollection Credit: R.H. Hewsen & Wikimedia Commons fromtheA.T.WegnerCollectionfromtheProjectSAVEarchive fromTheArmenianReporter fromArmenianTravelBureau(atb.am)
  150. 150. Armenian cultural landmarks ruined after the Genocide Surp Garabed (St. John the Precursor) Monastery Tradition: Founded by St. Gregory the Illuminator (4th century A.D.) Remains of St. John the Baptist and St. Athenogenes Several tombs of the House of Mamikonean Surp Arakelots (Holy Apostles) Monastery of Mush Tradition: Founded by St. Gregory the Illuminator (4th century A.D.) Remains of Apostles Peter, Paul, and Andrew Surp Partughimeosi (St. Bartholomew) Monastery Tradition: Founded 1st century A.D. Tomb of Apostle Bartholomew Monastery of Nareg Mosque
  151. 151. Place names in Turkey changed during the 20th century Maps Credit: Sevan Nişanyan (2010) and Wikimedia Commons Kurdish and Zaza Armenian Pontic Greek Georgian and Laz Percent of place names changed, by province Armenian place names changed Place names of ethnic minority origin in Eastern Turkey at the beginning of the 20th century Arabic and Syriac
  152. 152. First Republic of Armenia (1918 – 1920) Civilians fleeing Turkish army, Kars, 1920 General Andranik’s southern partisans, 1918 Russian Red Army entering Yerevan, 1920 First anniversary of independence, Yerevan Memorial to the 1918 Battle of Sardarapat Extent of Armenian control Coat of arms Contested regions Georgian- controlled Azerbaijani- controlled
  153. 153. Selected border agreements in the Caucasus Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Turkey Iran Russia Note: Due to differences between maps of different eras, cartographic errors in original maps, and map rectification and transcription errors in this presentation, some minor apparent changes in border delimitation do not actually correspond to real border changes. The depicted borders are not guaranteed to be exact. Mount Ararat 1639 Treaty of Zuhab (or Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin) Treaty concluding the final war between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire of Persia Safavid Empire (“Persia” / “Iran”) Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) The Treaty of Zuhab in 1639 was the last major peace treaty defining the partition of the Middle East between the Ottoman and Safavid empires. The treaty roughly affirmed the Peace of Amasya, the first Ottoman-Safavid peace treaty in 1555. The modern border between Turkey and the South Caucasus / Iran largely derives from the Zuhab partition. The Zuhab-defined border was, however, poorly delimited and not demarcated, and was later contested. Caucasus borders in 1800 Following a period of competition between the Russians, Persians, and Ottomans Western Caucasus Mountain Peoples Russian Empire Kingdoms and territories contested during the late 1700s Caucasus borders in 1800 Kingdoms, principalities, vassal states, imperial provinces, and ethno-toponyms Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Somkhetia Armenia Nakhichevan Azarbaijan Karabagh Talysh Shirvan Kartli-Kakhetia Pambak Ajaria Svanetia Circassia Chechnya Avaria Kabardia Ganja Quba 1813 Treaty of Gulistan Treaty between the Russian and Persian empires to conclude the 1804–1813 Russo-Persian War Qajar Persia (“Iran”) Russian Empire The Treaty of Gulistan, which concluded the first large-scale Russo-Persian War, transferred most of the Persian South Caucasus to the Russian Empire. The Treaty of Gulistan left the delimitation of the Russo-Persian border in the Talysh region on the Caspian Sea to be determined by later agreements. 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay Treaty between the Russian and Persian empires to conclude the 1826–1828 Russo-Persian War The Treaty of Turkmenchay concluded Russia’s conquest of the Persian South Caucasus. The Aras (Araxes / Araks) River became the border between the Russian and Persian empires. After the treaty, the Russian, Persian, and Ottoman borders joined at Lesser Ararat. The treaty permitted captives taken during the war and in the previous few decades to return to their respective homes. It also allowed inhabitants of Iranian Azerbaijan (south of the Aras River) to immigrate freely to Russian territories within one year. These provisions started a wave of Armenian immigration from Persia to the newly Russian-held South Caucasus. 1829 Treaty of Adrianople Treaty between the Russian and Ottoman empires to conclude the 1828–1829 Russo-Turkish War The Treaty of Adrianople formalized the Russian- Ottoman frontier. The Ottomans recognized Russian sovereignty over Georgia and eastern Armenia. The Ottomans also recognized the Russo-Persian frontier as determined by the Treaty of Turkmenchay. The treaty permitted inhabitants of both sides to emigrate freely within eighteen months. Significant Armenian emigration from the Ottoman and Persian empires to the Russian South Caucasus occurred after the treaties of Turkmenchay and Adrianople. Note: In the previous few decades, a number of Armenians had immigrated to Georgia. In the early 17th century, many Armenians were forcibly resettled from eastern (Persian) Armenia to the Iranian interior. Thus, the unfavorable demographic trends for Armenians in eastern Armenia were reversed after the Turkmenchay and Adrianople treaties. 1878 Treaty of San Stefano Preliminary treaty between the Russian and Ottoman empires to conclude the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War The Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano principally addressed the sovereignty and boundaries of states in the region of the Balkan Peninsula. In the Caucasus, Russia gained territory that had long been part of the Ottoman Empire, including historic Armenian lands with sizeable Armenian populations, most notably in Kars Eyalet. Note: Prior to the San Stefano treaty, the disputed Russo- Turkish frontier was further delimited according to the Protocol of Constantinople (1857) that supplemented the Treaty of Paris (1856) that concluded the Crimean War. 1878 Treaty of Berlin Treaty between the major world powers to revise the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano The Treaty of Berlin was signed after the Western European powers, chiefly Britain, pushed for the curtailment of the previous expansion of the Russian sphere of influence under the San Stefano treaty. In the Caucasus, the Ottomans regained Bayazit and the Plain of Alashkert, which contained a major trade route. The Treaty of Berlin also recognized the Qotur district as part of Persia – the result of successful lobbying by Russia, which Persia supported in its war against the Ottomans. The Treaty of Berlin additionally required the Ottoman Empire to address the “Armenian Question” by implementing reforms in its Armenian-inhabited provinces. These reforms generally were not implemented. The European powers also tried to impose reforms aiding Armenians in the Ottoman Empire in 1895 and in 1912– 1914. The 1914 accord, signed by the Russians and Ottomans in Yeniköy in February, provided for the deployment of European inspectors to enforce the accord. These reforms also were not implemented. Alexandropol (Gyumri) Erivan Nakhichevan Shusha Elizavetpol (Ganja) Baku Derbent Tiflis Kutais Batum ArdahanArtvin Olti Kars Trebizond Baiburt ErzurumErzincan Bayazit Surmalu Van Khoy Qotur Maku Bitlis Mush Kagizman Alashkert Vladikavkaz Grozny Shemakha Lenkoran Akhaltsikh Akhalkalaki Poti Nukha Quba Gori Telav Tabriz Sukhum-Kale Pyatigorsk Ardabil Ethnic distribution of the Russian Caucasus in the late 19th century The seeds of later ethnic conflict Map credit: Atlas of the Ethno- Political History of the Caucasus by Arthur Tsutsiev (2014) Elizavetpol Governorate Karabakh Highland (“Nagorno”) Karabakh Armenian-and-Azeri-populated region of Azeri-dominated Elizavetpol Governorate. Later to become an autonomous oblast under the administration of Soviet Azerbaijan. Zangezur Armenian-populated region of Azeri- dominated Elizavetpol Governorate. Later to become part of Soviet Armenia. Kazakh (“Qazakh”) Armenian-and-Azeri- populated region of Azeri-dominated Elizavetpol Governorate. Southwestern part of Kazakh Uyezd (former Kazakh Sultanate) later to become part of Soviet Armenia. Erivan Governorate Nakhichevan Azeri-and-Armenian- populated region of Armenian-dominated Erivan Governorate. Later to become an autonomous republic under the administration of Soviet Azerbaijan. Surmali Mixed-populated region of Armenian-dominated Erivan Governorate. The northeastern slopes of Mount Ararat belonged to Russian Surmali, the southwestern slopes to Ottoman Turkey, and the southeastern slope of Lesser Ararat to Persia. Later to become part of Turkey. Kars Oblast Mixed-populated region seized in the 1877–1878 Russo- Turkish War. Later to become part of Turkey (mostly). The Aghbaba district containing Lake Arpi, the headwaters of the Arpachay (“Akhurian”) River, later became part of Soviet Armenia. Tiflis Governorate Javakheti Armenian-populated region of Georgian- dominated Tiflis Governorate. Later to become part of Soviet Georgia. Borchali Mixed-populated region of Georgian- dominated Tiflis Governorate. Northern part later to become part of Soviet Georgia. Lori Armenian-populated region of Georgian- dominated Tiflis Governorate. Attached to Borchali Uyezd (District) in Tiflis Governorate in 1862 but previously part of Erivan Governorate. Later to become part of Soviet Armenia. International borders in the Caucasus on the eve of World War IWorld War I and the Caucasus Campaign World War I began in July 1914 and fighting between the Ottoman Empire and Russian Empire had broken out in the Caucasus by November 1914. The Russians quickly gained the upper hand and by 1917 occupied a substantial portion of eastern Ottoman territory, including much of “Ottoman Armenia” (i.e., the provinces with large Armenian minorities). Russian Armenia provided several volunteer battalions to supplement the Russian forces. The Russian and Armenian forces were able to relieve the Ottoman Army’s siege of Van in July 1915 long enough for the city’s Armenian inhabitants to escape to Russian Armenia. Russian forces arrived in the Ottoman provinces of Erzurum and Bitlis too late to prevent the massacres and deportations of Armenians there in the summer of 1915. During the war, Russian forces never occupied the prominently Armenian-populated Ottoman provinces farther west, which were also depopulated during the Armenian Genocide. Russian military power in the Caucasus began to collapse after the February 1917 revolution in Russia. The military power vacuum was eventually filled by Armenian and Georgian forces. By early 1918, however, the Ottomans had retaken most of the territory that Russia had captured earlier in the war. 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Treaty between Bolshevist Russia and the Central Powers to conclude Russia’s participation in World War I Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Transcaucasian Commissariat and Sejm Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk marked the withdrawal of Russia, now controlled by Bolsheviks after the revolution of October 1917, from World War I. In Europe, Russia lost control over Poland, the Baltics, and Ukraine. In the Caucasus, Russia ceded its claims to the Batum, Ardahan, and Kars districts, returning the Russian border to its pre- 1878 position. The Russians and Ottomans had signed the Armistice of Erzincan in December 1917. The Brest-Litovsk border in the Caucasus did not legally form a new Russo-Turkish frontier, as the ceded districts were allowed to organize their own independent governments. The possession of these districts later became disputed between the Turks, Georgians, and Armenians; the latter two governments did not sign the Brest-Litovsk treaty. At the time of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Russia was no longer exerting central control over the Transcaucasus. This allowed the Transcaucasian peoples to form an independent governing body, the Transcaucasian Commissariat, which convoked a diet (“sejm”) with Georgian, Armenian, and Azerbaijani representatives. 1918 Treaty of Batum Peace treaty between the Ottoman Empire and newly-independent Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan Georgia Armenia Azerbaijan Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) The Treaty of Batum followed a period of conflict within the Transcaucasus. Delegates from the Transcaucasian states entered negotiations with the Ottomans at Trebizond following the Russian- Ottoman Brest-Litovsk Treaty. At the time, the Russian Army, supplemented by Armenians and a small contingent of Georgians, still occupied parts of the eastern Ottoman Empire (i.e., historic Armenia). The Ottomans wanted the Transcaucasian states to recognize the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, but the Armenians refused, as they wished to retain the territories with sizable Armenian populations that the Russians had seized in 1878 (e.g., Kars District). The Ottoman Army invaded the occupied eastern Ottoman provinces in the name of protecting the Muslim population from atrocities perpetrated by Armenians. The Armenians and Georgians broke off negotiations at Trebizond. During the Ottoman campaign, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan formed a Menshevik-controlled independent Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR). Eventually Erzurum, Batum, Kars, and Alexandropol fell to the Ottomans. During new peace negotiations between the Ottomans and the TDFR at Batum, the Armenians won a series of last-ditch battles at Bash Abaran, Karakilisa, and Sardarapat, possibly saving Armenia from being overrun by the Ottoman Third Army.Turkish nationalist state (“Turkey”) At the end of the Batum negotiations the TDFR fell apart: the Georgians secretly allied with the Germans for protection from the Ottomans, and the Azerbaijanis would not oppose their Turkic brethren. The ensuing Treaty of Batum had harsh terms for the newly-independent Transcaucasian states, particularly the Armenians – much worse than the terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The Armenians’ last-ditch victories won them only a small territorial concession from the Ottomans. The First Republic of Armenia Established on 28 May 1918 with de facto boundaries and disestablished on 2 December 1920 Armenia Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) The First Republic of Armenia was the first sizeable independent Armenian state since the fall of Armenian Cilicia in 1375, and the first within Historic Armenia since the fall of Bagratid Armenia in 1045. In October 1918 the Allies and the Ottoman Empire signed an armistice at Port Mudros, ending the Ottoman Empire’s participation in World War I. The Armistice of Mudros called for the demobilization of the Ottoman Army and included a provision allowing Allied intervention in Ottoman Armenia in the case of disorder. In November 1918 the warring parties in Europe signed their own armistice. The signatories to the November armistice, including Germany but excluding Russia and the Ottoman Empire, renounced the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The power vacuum in the Transcaucasus, which now had been abandoned by the armies of the Russian and Ottoman empires, led to independent Armenia establishing de facto control of much of the western Transcaucasus that had been under Russian control before World War I. Bitter fighting between Armenia and Azerbaijan ensued over the territories of Nakhichevan, Zangezur, and Karabakh. A smaller conflict arose between Armenia and Georgia led to the Lori region becoming a neutral zone, according to the Shulaveri Condominium. Before the Armistice of Mudros, the British Empire sent an occupying force to Baku to deny Baku’s oil and other resources to the Ottomans and Germans, but this force was defeated by the Ottomans and Azerbaijanis. The armistice allowed the British to reoccupy Baku. The British also established a military command in Tiflis from which to stabilize and control the region and resist the Bolsheviks. The British withdrew from the Transcaucasus in August 1919 after the Bolsheviks gained the upper- hand over the British-backed White Russians. 1920 Treaty of Sèvres Treaty between several of the European Allied Powers and the Ottoman Empire following World War I Mountainous Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (A.S.S.R.) Armenia The Treaty of Sèvres, signed in August 1920, formalized the Ottoman defeat in World War I that was initiated with the October 1918 Armistice of Mudros. Imposing this treaty was part of the process of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the Allied powers. During the San Remo session of the Paris Peace Conference, the European Allied powers approached U.S. President Woodrow Wilson to request that the United States assume a mandate over Armenia and that he draw the frontier of sovereign Armenia. In June 1920 the U.S. Senate rejected the proposed American mandate over Armenia. (France and Britain accepted the mandates for Syria and Lebanon, and Palestine and Mesopotamia, respectively.) Wilson’s delimitation of the Armenian frontier, included in an annex to the Treaty of Sèvres, included much of Historic Armenia plus a significant coastline along the Black Sea, including the port of Trebizond. The treaty was signed by the representatives of the Ottoman sultan, but it was not ratified by the General Assembly due to the Turkish War of Independence that had begun in 1919. The Treaty of Sèvres, which was never implemented, was renounced in further treaties signed by Turkey, the core successor state to the Ottoman Empire. The Treaty of Sèvres was eventually superseded by the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne, which was signed after the First Republic of Armenia had been absorbed into the USSR, and therefore included no provisions for an independent Armenia. 1920 Treaty of Alexandropol (or Treaty of Gümrü) Treaty between Armenia & the new Turkish nationalist government concluding the 1920 Turkish-Armenian war Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Ottoman Empire (“Turkey”) The Treaty of Alexandropol concluded the brief Turkish-Armenian war during the fall of 1920. The Turkish nationalist forces, which were in the process of overthrowing the Ottoman sultan, had decided to avoid any further partition of the Ottoman Empire, as had been attempted in the Treaty of Sèvres. They fought to secure the core of the empire from Anatolia to the Caucasus to create a fait accompli. The Turkish nationalists invaded Armenia in September 1920, captured Kars and Alexandropol, and finally defeated the Armenians in November. The Treaty of Alexandropol roughly returned the Turkish-Armenian frontier to the Russo-Turkish frontier prior to 1878, except the Armenians lost Surmalu district (which included most of Mount Ararat) and gained the small Aghbaba district. Armenia also renounced the Treaty of Sèvres. The Treaty of Alexandropol also created an independent state in Nakhichevan under Turkish protection, whose borders were loosely defined. The Nakhichevan district’s frontier was defined by this treaty, and by a Soviet-Turkish treaty the next year, to include a small border with the newly-Turkish Surmalu district. These agreements resulted in Turkey and Azerbaijan having a small shared border after Nakhichevan became an autonomous republic under Soviet Azerbaijan, since the small subdistrict of Sharur across the new border with Turkey was awarded to Nakhichevan. The Treaty of Alexandropol did not address the Turkish-Georgian frontier. The frontier according to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is shown here. 1921 Treaty of Moscow Friendship treaty between the Turkish nationalist (Kemalist) government in Ankara and Bolshevist Russia Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) The Treaty of Moscow was a friendship agreement between Soviet Russia and the Turkish nationalists, whom the Bolshevists wished to influence toward their ideology. During the negotiations for the Treaty of Alexandropol between the Turks and Armenians, Bolshevist Russia had invaded Armenia with the intent of incorporating it into the new Soviet state. The Treaty of Moscow defined the frontier beyond wish the Turkish nationalists surrendered their claims to territories in the Caucasus. Since the Georgian and Armenian republics were not signatories to this treaty, this boundary did not yet form a legal border with those states. Under the Treaty of Moscow, Turkey claimed a small strip of land (approximately 3 × 30 km) across the river from Alexandropol that had been awarded to Armenia under the Treaty of Alexandropol. Nakhichevan was established as an autonomous territory under the protection of Azerbaijan and its borders were adjusted slightly. The Turks ceded their claim to the region of Adjara, including the port of Batum, which became part of Soviet Georgia. Under the Treaty of Moscow, Turkey and Russia agreed to not to recognize any prior treaties imposed on either nation against its will, nor any treaty not recognized by the new national government of Turkey based in Ankara (e.g., the Treaty of Sèvres). 1921 Treaty of Kars Treaty between Kemalist Turkey and the Russian and Transcaucasian Soviet republics affirming the Treaty of Moscow The Treaty of Kars confirmed the terms of the earlier Treaty of Moscow. The Kars treaty was between the Turkish nationalists and the newly-Soviet states of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan; thus, all the states in the Transcaucasus agreed upon the Turco- Caucasian frontier. This treaty also clarified the delimitation of the borders in the Caucasus. Under the Treaty of Kars, Turkey and the Soviet republics of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan declared null and void all territorial agreements involving the previous governments of those states, as well as all agreements between those states and third party powers. The Treaty of Kars of 1921 is the basis for the modern Turco-Caucasian frontier. The Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828 is the basis for the modern Iranian-Caucasian frontier (along with a tiny border change specified in the Russo-Persian treaty of 1893). The early Soviet era (1920s – 1930s) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991) Russian S.F.S.R. (“Soviet Russia”) Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Georgian S.S.R. (“Soviet Georgia”) Azerbaijani S.S.R. (“Soviet Azerbaijan”) Iran Turkey NAKHICHEVAN ARMENIA SSR KURDISTANI DISTRICT REST OF AZERBAIJAN SSR IRAN NAGORNO- KARABAKH From 1922 to 1936 Soviet Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan were consolidated into a Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Socialist Republic (TSFSR), which was a founding member of the USSR in 1922. During the 1920s and 1930s the USSR made a number of small border adjustments and administrative reorganizations in the Transcaucasus. The status of Nagorno-Karabakh was debated for the first few years of the Soviet era. In December 1920 when Armenia was Sovietized, the Azerbaijan Revolutionary Committee offered to cede Nagorno- Karabakh to Armenia (or, according to Azerbaijani accounts, to give Nagorno-Karabakh the right to self- determination). In June 1921, the Caucasian Bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party (“Kavburo”) agreed that Soviet Armenia should announce that Nagorno-Karabakh belonged to Soviet Armenia. In July 1921, the Kavburo decided that Nagorno-Karabakh should be joined to Soviet Armenia, but reversed itself the next day by announcing that Nagorno Karabakh would remain in Soviet Azerbaijan (on Josef Stalin’s order, according to Armenian allegations). Soviet Azerbaijan created the Autonomous Oblast of Nagorno Karabakh (AONK, later renamed the Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO)) in 1923 (formalized in 1924). The AONK was placed under the administration of Soviet Azerbaijan and its borders were mostly determined between 1923 and 1925 by subcommittees of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party. The final borders of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast roughly coincided with the territories of four out of the five Armenian melikdoms (principalities) – excluding Gulistan – that had been mostly autonomous under Persian rule before their decline in the late 18th century. From 1923 to 1930 a district for Shia Kurds was established in Soviet Azerbaijan between Nagorno- Karabakh and the border with Soviet Armenia. The Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) was created in 1924 and placed under the administration of Soviet Azerbaijan. 1932 Turco-Persian frontier agreement In the mid-1920s a series of Kurdish uprisings in Turkey led to a full rebellion in the vicinity of Mount Ararat and the declaration of an independent Kurdish Republic of Ararat in 1927. Greater Ararat had come into complete Turkish possession after the 1921 Treaty of Kars, but the southern slopes of Lesser Ararat belonged to Persia, allowing the Kurdish rebels a cross-border route of escape and supply. After Turkey crushed the Kurdish Ararat rebellion in 1930, the Turkish and Persian defense ministers signed a new border agreement in 1932, which in part traded the Persian slopes of Lesser Ararat to Turkey in exchange for Turkish border lands in the vicinity of Qotur and farther south. The border agreement was finally approved in 1934, bringing all of Mount Ararat under the control of Turkey. Credit: Bournoutian (2015) Greater Ararat Lesser Ararat Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (the second republic, until 1991) Armenian S.S.R. (“Soviet Armenia”) Nakhchivan A.S.S.R. (admin. by Azerbaijan) Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (administered by the Azerbaijani S.S.R.) Nagorno-Karabakh A.O. Note: The various autonomous soviet socialist republics in Georgia and the North Caucasus are not shown here. Fall of the Soviet Union (1991) and the Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988 – 1994) Armenia and the other South Caucasus republics declared their independence as the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. Armenia and Azerbaijan fought a war over the possession of Nagorno- Karabakh that intensified as the Soviet Union fell. Ethnic Armenian forces won the war and formed the independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which is mostly unrecognized internationally. Line of Contact separating ethnic Armenian forces from Azerbaijani forces after the 1994 ceasefire. The Line of Contact has changed position very slightly from time to time (changes not shown here). Modern Armenia (the third republic, 1991 – present) and the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Armenia Nagorno- Karabakh Republic (de facto) (Russian-occupied by 1917) (Russian-occupied by 1917) Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1922–1936) Please see separate presentation for details.
  154. 154. Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988 – 1994) Khojaly Massacre (1992) awareness campaign Washington, D.C. Metro (2013) 1988 Karabakh Movement Yerevan Stepanakert 1988 Karabakh Movement Flag of the Nagorno- Karabakh Republic Aftermath of the 1988 Sumgait, Azerbaijan Pogrom Refugee crisis
  155. 155. Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988 – 1994) Khojaly Massacre (1992) awareness campaign Washington, D.C. Metro (2013) 1988 Karabakh Movement Yerevan Stepanakert 1988 Karabakh Movement Flag of the Nagorno- Karabakh Republic Aftermath of the 1988 Sumgait, Azerbaijan Pogrom Refugee crisis Nagorno- Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) [USSR] NKAO territory claimed by NKR and controlled by Azerbaijan Non-NKAO territory claimed by NKR and controlled by AzerbaijanAzerbaijan territory controlled by Nagorno- Karabakh Republic (NKR) All territory inside the red dashed line is controlled by the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (NKR)
  156. 156. 1988 Spitak Earthquake (M6.8) Surp Amenaprkich Church, Leninakan (Gyumri) Stone masonry building, Spitak Thrust fault (1.3 m uplift) Photo credit: G. Sobolev (USSR Academy of Sciences)Photo credit: C.J. Langer (U.S. Geological Survey) Photo credit: C.J. Langer (U.S. Geological Survey) Credit: National Geographic News
  157. 157. Status of borders; Russian security presence Turkey Border closed (air border open) Border patrolled by Russian FSB No diplomatic relations / visas granted Trade embargo Azerbaijan Border closed No diplomatic relations / visas not granted Blockade Iran Border open Border patrolled by Russian FSB Georgia Border open 102nd Military Base [Gyumri] 3624th Aviation Base [Erebuni Airport (Yerevan)] International Borders Russian military presence 102nd Military Base (leased until 2044) 3 motor rifle regiments 1 air defense missile regiment (S-300V) 1 artillery regiment (howitzer; MLRS) 1 tank battalion (T-72) 1 anti-tank battalion 3624th Aviation Base 1 fighter squadron (MiG-29SMT [upgraded]) 1 composite helicopter squadron (Mi-24P, Mi-8MT, Mi-8SMV) Gyumri Armavir Artashat Meghri (as of 2014) (as of 2007) Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Turkey Iran Georgia Line of Contact controlled by Nagorno Karabakh Republic Iran 1988 Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Oblast 1988 Azerbaijan S.S.R.
  158. 158. Natural resources and energy security Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and other pipelines Ownership of Armenian energy infrastructure Mining of metals (especially copper) and diamonds makes up ~50% of Armenia’s exports No proven oil reserves No proven natural gas reserves No coal mines in Armenia (one mine in Nagorno-Karabakh) Natural gas imports: ~80% Russia ~20% Iran National natural gas distributor 100% owned by Russia’s Gazprom National railway system 100% owned by Russian Railways Armenian Nuclear P.P. [408 MW capacity] Hrazdan Thermal P.P. [1580 MW capacity] Sevan-Hrazdan Cascade Hydroelectric Power Plants [562 MW capacity] Yerevan Thermal Power Plant [792 MW capacity] Vorotan Cascade Hydro P.P.s [404 MW capacity] Foreign ownership of mines National power distribution company ENA owned by Russian-based Tashir Group (exchanged for electricity) Note: Over 90% of Armenia’s energy production capacity is depicted below Production Capacity RusHydro [ 90% ] Tashir Group ENA Tashir Group Contour- Global SCR Russian Railways State- owned State- owned Credit: Thomas Blomberg Gazprom Armenia Gazprom Credit: The Armenian Weekly Note: the thermal power plants are powered by natural gas, all of which is imported. Some planned use of N-K coal. Most oil is imported by rail
  159. 159. Natural resources and energy security Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and other pipelines Ownership of Armenian energy infrastructure Mining of metals (especially copper) and diamonds makes up ~50% of Armenia’s exports No proven oil reserves No proven natural gas reserves No coal mines in Armenia (one mine in Nagorno-Karabakh) Natural gas imports: ~80% Russia ~20% Iran National natural gas distributor 100% owned by Russia’s Gazprom National railway system 100% owned by Russian Railways Armenian Nuclear P.P. [408 MW capacity] Hrazdan Thermal P.P. [1580 MW capacity] Sevan-Hrazdan Cascade Hydroelectric Power Plants [562 MW capacity] Yerevan Thermal Power Plant [792 MW capacity] Vorotan Cascade Hydro P.P.s [404 MW capacity] Foreign ownership of mines National power distribution company ENA owned by Russian-based Tashir Group (exchanged for electricity) Note: Over 90% of Armenia’s energy production capacity is depicted below Production Capacity RusHydro [ 90% ] Tashir Group ENA Tashir Group Contour- Global SCR Russian Railways State- owned State- owned Credit: Thomas Blomberg Gazprom Armenia Gazprom Credit: The Armenian Weekly Note: the thermal power plants are powered by natural gas, all of which is imported. Some planned use of N-K coal. Most oil is imported by rail The World is Not Enough (1999)
  160. 160. Other notable events in Armenia (1991 – Present) 1991 independence from the Soviet Union 1999 parliament assassinations 1990s energy crisis 1988 earthquake and nuclear reactor shutdown Independence Nagorno-Karabakh war and blockades 2008 presidential election protests 2014, 2015 ceasefire violations; 2016 conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh 2015 accession to the Eurasian Economic Union Armenian military helicopter downed by Azerbaijan, 2014 fromayfwest.orgCredit:PhotolureCredit:PSRCofArmenia Credit:WikimediaC.user“Serouj”fromtrend.az 2015 constitutional reform fromArmeniaNow.com Azerbaijani military helicopter downed by N-K Armenians, 2016 fromnkrmil.am
  161. 161. Part III: Yerevan and its surroundings “My ancient Erebuni that has become Yerevan You are our new Dvin, our new Ani A dream gracing our small corner of the earth After centuries of longing, with rocks carved into facades of lace Yerevan, my ancient Erebuni Centuries have come and gone, but you remain youthful ….” from the lyrics to “Erebuni-Yerevan”, anthem of Yerevan Written by Paruyr Sevak, composed by Edgar Hovhannisyan First performed in 1968 to celebrate the 2750th anniversary of the founding of Erebuni Fortress
  162. 162. Old Yerevan 1673 sketch by J. Chardin 1920s 1796 sketch by G. Sergeevich Main square, 1916 from Wikimedia Commons from Encyclopaedia Iranica from Wikimedia Commons from Wikimedia Commons
  163. 163. Old Yerevan Bazaar, late 19th – early 20th century Main street, 1925 Main street (flooded), 1925 Camel caravan, 1925 Credit:Kunstkamera.ru/MAERAS Credit:FridtjofNansenbildearkivCredit:FridtjofNansenbildearkiv Credit:FridtjofNansenbildearkiv
  164. 164. Population changes in Yerevan and other South Caucasus cities Ethnic distribution of the Russian Transcaucasus, 1897 Credit: J. Urban [data: Tsutsiev (2014) and the 2011 Armenian census] Credit: Wikimedia Commons user “DragonTiger23”
  165. 165. Aerial view of Yerevan Erebuni Fortress Karmir BlurU.S. Embassy N Annotated photo credit: ANCA WR
  166. 166. Kentron: Yerevan’s central district Credit: “Virtual Yerevan” (haias.net)
  167. 167. Kentron: Yerevan’s central district Credit: “Virtual Yerevan” (haias.net) Freedom Square
  168. 168. Kentron: Yerevan’s central district Credit: “Virtual Yerevan” (haias.net) Freedom Square Republic Square
  169. 169. Kentron: Yerevan’s central district Credit: “Virtual Yerevan” (haias.net) Freedom Square Republic Square
  170. 170. Kentron: Yerevan’s central district Credit: “Virtual Yerevan” (haias.net) Cascade
  171. 171. Kentron: Yerevan’s central district Credit: “Virtual Yerevan” (haias.net) Victory Park
  172. 172. Kentron: Yerevan’s central district Credit: “Virtual Yerevan” (haias.net) Matenadaran
  173. 173. Kentron: Yerevan’s central district Credit: “Virtual Yerevan” (haias.net) Presidential Palace National Assembly NAS
  174. 174. Kentron: Yerevan’s central district Credit: “Virtual Yerevan” (haias.net) Vernissage Bazaar Rosia Mall Shuka No. 2 Pak Shuka
  175. 175. Kentron: Yerevan’s central district Credit: “Virtual Yerevan” (haias.net) St. Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral Katoghike Church
  176. 176. Kentron: Yerevan’s central district Credit: “Virtual Yerevan” (haias.net) Blue Mosque
  177. 177. Kentron: Yerevan’s central district Credit: “Virtual Yerevan” (haias.net) YSU AUA
  178. 178. Kentron: Yerevan’s central district Credit: “Virtual Yerevan” (haias.net) Tsitsernakaberd
  179. 179. Kentron: Yerevan’s central district Credit: “Virtual Yerevan” (haias.net)
  180. 180. Freedom Square (“Opera Square”) and Swan Lake Credit: J. Urban Swan Lake Yerevan Opera Theater from facebook.com Credit: Nazik Armenakyan / ArmeniaNow.com Ad for Khachaturian’s ballet Gayane 3D chalk art Credit: J. Urban Artwork Credit: Nikolaj Arndt
  181. 181. Republic Square History Museum and National Gallery of Art Credit: Photolure News Credit: J. Urban Credit: J. UrbanCredit: J. UrbanCredit: J. Urban
  182. 182. Republic Square Freemasons’ Square and Compasses Soviet Star and Sickle Weekend evening musical fountain show Credit:J.Urban Credit:J.Urban Credit:J.UrbanCredit:J.UrbanCredit:J.Urban Credit: Suren Manvelyan
  183. 183. Northern Avenue Modern pedestrian avenue from Freedom Square almost to Republic Square Credit: Suren Manvelyan Credit: J. UrbanCredit: J. Urban from cityinfo.am
  184. 184. Yerevan Cascade (“Kaskad”) Credit: J. Urban Credit: J. Urban Credit: J. Urban Credit: Justyna Mielnikiewicz / The New York Times
  185. 185. Cascade Park and sculpture garden Credit (all photos): J. Urban
  186. 186. Cafesjian Museum of Art at the Yerevan Cascade from pinterest.com/ara_adonian Credit: Anne-Sophie Redisch (Flickr) Credit: J. Urban Credit: Aleksei Trofimov (alekseitrofimov.eu)
  187. 187. Victory Park “Mother Armenia” statue Lake Areni Afghanistan War memorialWWII memorial – eternal flame “Katyusha” rocket launcher T-34-85 tank Credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Mosinyan” Credit:LindsayFincher Credit:VladimirStepanov Credit: Levon Kiurkchian Credit: Niko Lipsanen [cropped] Credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Bouarf”
  188. 188. Government of the Republic of Armenia Constitutional CourtPresidential Palace National Assembly Credit:MartinKonsek(WikimediaCommons) Credit:VahanAghajanyan(Flickr)[adjusted] Credit:ArtakArzumanyan(Panoramio)[adapted]
  189. 189. American traces in Yerevan Embassy of the United States of America Opened in 1992 American University of Armenia Established in 1991 KFC and Pizza Hut restaurants (No McDonald’s or Starbucks in Armenia) American Corner in Yerevan Established in 2005 (partnership w/ U.S. State Dept.) Credit:IlyaVarlamov(Flickr) fromcomtourist.com Credit:AmericanCornerYerevan Credit:J.Urban Credit: Sarhat Petrossian
  190. 190. Yerevan Vernissage: Weekend bazaar (mostly arts and crafts) Credit (all photos): J. Urban
  191. 191. Yerevan Vernissage Credit (all photos): J. Urban
  192. 192. Yerevan Vernissage Credit (all photos): J. Urban
  193. 193. Yerevan Vernissage Credit (all photos): J. Urban
  194. 194. Yerevan Vernissage Credit (all photos): J. Urban
  195. 195. Yerevan Vernissage Credit (all photos): J. Urban
  196. 196. Yerevan Vernissage Credit (all photos): J. Urban
  197. 197. Yerevan Vernissage Credit (all photos): J. Urban
  198. 198. Haykakan (“Armenian”) Covered Market (“G.U.M.” / “Shuka No. 2”) Credit: J. Urban Credit: J. UrbanCredit: Mark Grigoryan Credit: Panoramio user “PALLYCH72”
  199. 199. Haykakan Covered Market Credit (all photos): J. Urban
  200. 200. Haykakan Covered Market Credit (all photos): J. Urban
  201. 201. Haykakan Covered Market Credit (all photos): J. Urban
  202. 202. Pak Shuka (“Covered Market”) The modern renovated market (2013 – ) The old covered market (1952 – 2012) from haypressnews.wordpress.com from haypressnews.wordpress.com Credit: PanARMENIAN / Tigran Mehrabyan fromhaypressnews.wordpress.com
  203. 203. Rosia (“Russia”) Shopping Center Credit: J. Urban Credit: J. Urban Credit: Carmelo Pappalardo
  204. 204. Shopping malls Dalma Garden Mall (opened in 2012) Yerevan Mall (opened in 2014) Credit:VahramBaghdasaryan/PhotolurefromCosmo.am fromPrimer.amCredit:Flickruser“Mysterons54”
  205. 205. Other Yerevan landmarks Credit:Flickruser“eesti” Yerevan central railway station “Ararat” Yerevan brandy factory “Moskva” Cinema Credit:Anne-SophieRedisch(Flickr) Statue of St. Vardan fromComeToArmenia.am Credit:J.Urban
  206. 206. Yervand Kochar Museum “Painting in space” Sculptures in Yerevan Credit: Ervand Kochar Museum (all other images) [Note: Some images are cropped.]Credit: Armenian News Network / Groong Self-portrait of Kochar (b. 1899, d. 1979)
  207. 207. National Gallery of Armenia “Salomé” (1907) by Vardges Sureniants “Descent of Noah from Ararat” (1889) by Ivan Aivazovsky (Hovhannes Aivazian) “Madonna with Child” by Donatello [replica] “Storm” (1899) by Ivan Aivazovsky “Apollo and Pan” by Tintoretto from agbu.org from gallery.amCredit: TripAdvsior.com user “Elli-elf” [adapted] fromgallery.am fromgallery.am fromgallery.am
  208. 208. History Museum of Armenia Photos credit: History Museum of Armenia
  209. 209. Sports in Yerevan Hrazdan Stadium Demirchyan Sports and Concerts Complex (“Hamalir”) Tigran Petrosian Chess HouseHovik Hayrapetyan Equestrian Centre from justpics.ruCredit: Photolure News Credit: Hayrapetyan Equestrian Centre Credit: Jesse Schupack (Flickr)
  210. 210. Yerevan Botanical Garden Ultimate Frisbee fromArmenianpages.com Credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Berezni” Credit: Artak Gevorgyan / Frisbee Lovers Yerevan Credit:EdgarVarjapetyanCredit:SchoolNo.55afterA.Chekhov
  211. 211. Other parks in Yerevan Lovers’ Park from mywanderlust.pl from MYYerevan.am Circular Park Credit: Niko Lipansen English Park Credit: Rafael Torossian from globespots.com fromoneweekinarmenia.com Credit:Flickruser“gadiemp”
  212. 212. Other attractions in Yerevan Yerevan Zoo Haghtanak Amusement Park in Victory Park Yerevan Water World Credit: Alex Kantorovich / Zooinstitutes.com Credit: Wikimedia Commons user “Eupator” Credit: Panoramio user “Armenia & Nagorno Karabakh” from MYYerevan.am Children’s Railway
  213. 213. Religious life in Yerevan St. Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral Largest church in Armenia (built in 2001) Holy Mother of God Church (“Katoghike Church”); St. Anna Church 13th-century church and 21st-century church in the city center St. Gregory: Interior Streetside khachkar studio Credit:J.Urban fromWikimediaCommons Credit:J.Urban Credit:J.UrbanCredit:J.Urban Credit:Phil&Vanessa,otpwg.wordpress.com
  214. 214. The Blue Mosque from agbu.org Credit: Simon Hooks Credit: Fran Sellies (Flickr) Credit: Panoramio user “rredan” from gallivantinggrandma.com
  215. 215. The Mesrop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts (a.k.a. The Matenadaran (“Repository of Manuscripts”)) Credit: J. Urban

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