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Agile Management
LeadingTeams with a Complex Mind
Jurgen Appelo
jurgen@noop.nl
Agile ManagementWorkshop (intro)
Explain to the other people at your table why
you are here (instead of somewhere else).
The Management 3.0 Model
Six organizational
views based on
complexity thinking
Emergent, self-organizing, unpredictable
http://www.flickr.com/photos/judepics/
Sometimes adaptive, sometimes not
http://www.flickr.com/photos/hdr400d/
Complex Systems
“A complex system is a system composed of interconnected parts
that as a whole exhibit one or more propert...
General SystemsTheory
Autopoiesis (how a system constructs itself)
Identity (how a system is identifiable)
Homeostatis (ho...
Cybernetics
Goals (the intention of achieving a desired state)
Acting (having an effect on the environment)
Sensing (check...
Dynamical SystemsTheory
Stability (stable states versus unstable states)
Attractors (systems getting sucked into stable st...
GameTheory
Competition versus cooperation
Zero sum games versus non-zero sum games
Strategies (including evolutionary stab...
EvolutionaryTheory
Population (more than one instance)
Replication (mechanism of making new instances)
Variation (differen...
ChaosTheory
Strange attractors (chaotic behavior)
Sensitivity to initial conditions (butterfly effect)
Fractals (scale-inv...
And more...
Dissipative systems (spontaneous pattern-forming)
Cellular automata (complex behavior from simple rules)
Genet...
The Body of Knowledge of Systems
Complex systems theory
enables a descriptive approach
to the study of social systems
Complexity
“Complexity is that property of a system which makes it difficult to
predict its overall behavior, even when gi...
System Dynamics
Circular feedback loops and time-delayed relationships
Analysis through simulations and calculations
Jay W...
SystemsThinking
“Problems” are part of a system
View systems in a holistic manner
Not a science, but a “frame of mind”
Pet...
Some Criticism
“The strength of systems thinking is its recognition that human
systems are messy, they frequently need foc...
Some Criticism
“Systems thinking contains a fundamental difficulty right at its
roots.This is to regard human interaction ...
“Traditional” SystemsThinking
http://www.amazon.com/Complexity-Management-Inorganisations-Ralph-Stacey/dp/0415247616/
obse...
ComplexityThinking
http://www.amazon.com/Complexity-Management-Inorganisations-Ralph-Stacey/dp/0415247616/
observers
system
The Unknowns
Knowns Unknowns Unknowns Unknowns
Non-linearity
ComplexityThinking
Don’t separate the designers from the system
Don’t ignore the human part (social complexity)
Don’t igno...
Exercise: ComplexityThinking
The Management 3.0 Model
View #1: Energize People
People are the most important parts of an
organization and managers must do all they can to
keep ...
Extrinsic Motivation
Desire to achieve goal G
Reward behavior B
Assumption B leads to G
Problems with non-linear effects
Intrinsic Motivation
Desire to achieve goal G
Reward behavior B
Where B = G
No non-linear effects
“16 Basic Desires”
Acceptance The need for approval
Physical Activity Or exercise
Curiosity The need to think
Power The ne...
“16 Basic Desires”
Acceptance The need for approval
Physical Activity Or exercise
Curiosity The need to think
Power The ne...
“16 Basic Desires”
Acceptance The need for approval
Curiosity The need to think
Power The need for influence of will
Honor...
“Self-DeterminationTheory”
Acceptance The need for approval
Curiosity The need to think
Power The need for influence of wi...
“Self-DeterminationTheory”
Acceptance The need for approval
Curiosity The need to think
Power The need for influence of wi...
10 Intrinsic Desires
Acceptance The need for approval
Curiosity The need to think
Power The need for influence of will
Hon...
“Drive”
Acceptance The need for approval
Curiosity The need to think
Power The need for influence of will
Honor Being loya...
Exercise: 10 Intrinsic Desires
The Management 3.0 Model
View #2: EmpowerTeams
Teams can self-organize, and this requires
empowerment, authorization, and trust from
management.
Self-organization… a definition
“Self-organization is a process of attraction and
repulsion in which the internal organiza...
Organization without
management?
Cool!
but…
Self-organization has a dark side…
Self-organization… the dark side
http://www.flickr.com/photos/agder/2783124139/
But people care…
about value.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/sukanto_debnath/504258852/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/suneko/92395757/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/calliope/104661075/
“Self-organization requires that the system is
surrounded by a containing boundary.This condition
defines the "self" that ...
The containing boundary has a chance to
direct self-organization
towards value
Directed self-organization
Don’t go here! Go there!
Self-organization is the norm
Management is the special case
Self-organized
For example: a software development team
Self-selected (= self-designed)
Self-organized and system selects ...
The Darkness Principle
“Each element in the system is ignorant of the
behavior of the system as a whole [...] If each elem...
Therefore, management requires…
Distributed
governance and leadership
Tell: make decision as the manager
Sell: convince people about decision
Consult: get input from team before decision
Agree...
Exercise: Delegation Game
The Management 3.0 Model
View #3: Align Constraints
Self-organization can lead to anything, and it’s
therefore necessary to protect people and shar...
The Game of Life
(JohnConway)
http://www.bitstorm.org/gameoflife/
The Game of Life
1. 3 neighbors = new life
2. 2 or 3 neighbors = stay alive
3. 0 or 1 or > 3 neighbors = death
simple rule...
1. 3 neighbors = new life
2. 2 or 3 neighbors = stay alive
3. 0 or 1 or > 3 neighbors = death
management = simple rules, g...
1. 3 neighbors = new life
2. 2 or 3 neighbors = stay alive
3. 0 or 1 or > 3 neighbors = death
management = simple rules, g...
The actual rules => complicated code
The Game of Life
The constraints => a grid, 1 player
The Game of Life
Another
example
Settlers of Catan
It took minutes to define the constraints
It took years to create and tune the rules
(KlausTeuber)
http:...
complex
non-adaptive
system
we adapt the rules
complex
adaptive
system
the system adapts itselfwe adapt the rules
complex
non-adaptive
system
A manager / team leader
is not a game designer
Don’t create rules
Define constraints (playing field, players)
Let the system create its own rules
Let’s ignore the (subtle) differences for now…
goal
vision
mission
objective
intent
target
aim
Keep it simple
Commander’s intent
A goal in just a few
lines of text
Goal checklist
specific and understandable
simple and concise
manageable and measurable
memorable and reproducible
attaina...
Bad example 1
We are committed to providing
outstanding customer
experience, to being a great
place to work, a thoughtful
...
Bad example 2
As a company, and as individuals, we
value integrity, honesty, openness,
personal excellence, constructive s...
Good example 1
Our mission is to organize the world’s
information and make it universally
accessible and useful.
Good example 2
We help people save money so they
can live better.
Do not allow individual stakeholder goals to
replace extrinsic and emergent goals
Goals are not meant to...
Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them
Goals are not meant to...
Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them
Impress shareholders or others on the sideline
Goals are not meant to...
Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them
Impress shareholders or others on the sideline
Con...
Goals are not meant to...
Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them
Impress shareholders or others on the sideline
Con...
Goals are not meant to...
Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them
Impress shareholders or others on the sideline
Con...
Goals should not be pushed
with financial rewards
And...
http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1594488843?ie=UTF8&tag=noopnl-
2...
Exercise:Agile Goal Setting
The Management 3.0 Model
View #4: Develop Competence
Teams cannot achieve these goals if team members
aren’t capable enough, and managers must ther...
Safest traffic in the world
1. Marshall Islands
2. San Marino
3. Malta
4. Iceland
5. Netherlands
6. Sweden
7. United Kingd...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/quimbo/20555416/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/lilidelamora/5320093/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/12386296@N08/4055379221/
We can learn how to
manage software teams
by studying management
of similar systems
(like traffic management)
Subsidiarity principle
“The dictionary defines subsidiarity as the idea that a central
authority should have a subsidiary ...
Subsidiarity principle
And thus…
Delegate decisions until you’ve hit a competency problem
(team members decide unless ther...
Precautionary principle
Assuming that things are risky, in
the absence of evidence.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautio...
Precautionary principle
And thus…
Decide who has the burden of proof for competency
(assume team members are competent, un...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/38607288@N03/4087457751/
Shared space
Increased risk perception
People are less mindful when they see no risks
Reduced false security / risk compen...
Shared space
And thus…
Remove rules to increase risk perception and reduce false security
But how do we
develop competence?
Three maturity levels (for skill)
Shu traditional wisdom, learning fundamentals (apprentice)
Ha detachment, breaking with ...
Six maturity levels (for discipline)
Oblivious “We don’t even know that we’re performing a process.”
Variable “We do whate...
Competence = maturity in 2 dimensions
1. Self-development
People must learn...
urgence vs. importance
time management
boosting memory
finding motivation
2. Coaching
Hire external coaches
Develop competency leaders
Note: manager != coach
3. Certification
By itself a certificate doesn’t mean anything, but...
it can catalyze all other competency measures
4. Social pressure
Let people identify with a small group
Give them shared responsibility for shared goals
5. Infrastructure
Tools must be adaptable, not just customizable
Open databases, APIs, scripts, plug-ins, reports
6. Supervision
Have someone sample/check the products of teams
7. Management
One-on-ones to assess problem situations
360 degree meetings to assess collaboration
1. Self-Development
2. Coaching
3. Certification
4. Social Pressure
5. Infrastructure
6. Supervision
7. Management
7 Appro...
Exercise: Competence Development
The Management 3.0 Model
View #5: Grow Structure
Many teams operate within the context of a complex
organization, and thus it is important to consi...
The workplace is a network
Individual competence
“We learned that individual expertise did not
distinguish people as high performers.What
distinguish...
Individual competence
“Engineers are roughly five times more likely to
turn to a person for information as to an
impersona...
Scale-invariant networks (fractals)
Best communication across all scales
http://gut.bmj.com/content/57/7.cover-expansion
<- preferred
Segmentation of teams
Design Principle 1 (DP1)
(through a manager)
Design Principle 2 (DP2)
(not through a manager)
Communication across teams
(...
Style Structure DP
1 Functional 1 (through manager)
2 Functional 2 (through team)
3 Cross-functional 1 (through manager)
4...
Value units
System administrators
GUI designers
Project Mgt Office
Community of Practice
Center of Excellence
Human Resour...
Functional
(DP1)
Functional
(DP2)
cross-
functional
(DP1)
cross-
functional
(DP2)
A
D
C
E
B
Draw a
value network
Panarchy... network of hierarchies and anarchies
Exercise:Value Network Game
The Management 3.0 Model
View #6: Improve Everything
People, teams, and organizations need to improve
continuously to defer failure for as long as ...
Fitness Landscape
system configuration
performance
The Red Queen’s Race
“It takes all the running
you can do to keep in
the same place.”
Three Drivers of Improvement
Adaptation
Looking backward, reactive, responding to change
Exploration
Trying things out, in...
Three Drivers of Improvement
Ruggedness of Fitness Landscapes
Complexity
catastrophe
Normal
situation
Ideal
situation
Most Improvement Models Look Linear
Stuck in the Fitness Landscape
What now?
Nonlinear Improvement
1, 3, 5
Kaizen
Gradual improvement
2, 4
Kaikaku
Radical improvement
The Strategy of Mutation
Disturbing the system
The Strategy of Crossover
Mix multiple good performers
The Strategy of Broadcasts
Copy innovations
Exercise: Improvement Strategy Game
The Management 3.0 Model
Six organizational
views based on
complexity thinking
Agile Management
LeadingTeams with a Complex Mind
Jurgen Appelo
jurgen@noop.nl
Agile ManagementWorkshop (outtro)
Explain to the other people at your table
what you will take away from this session.
@jurgenappelo (twitter)
slideshare.net/jurgenappelo
jurgenappelo.com (site)
noop.nl (blog)
management30.com (book)
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/
This presentation was inspired by the works of many people, and I cannot
po...
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
2. Coaching Hire external coaches
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2. Coaching
Hire external coaches
Develop competency leaders
Note: manager != coach

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  • Njce! Thanks for sharing.
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  • nice to know, could you please mail me at ronalgltm@gmail.com
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  • Impressive presentation. I would like my organization to learn more.

    Please mail me at Tom.Gardam@pega.com

    Snr. Director - Test & Engineering & Delivery - Pegasystems Inc. (www.pega.com)
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  • nice presentation, can you please mail me at dimpleamin@gmail.com
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