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TUV NELCCS: Concept to realityWhile the UK Government andvarious bodies are putting in placethe necessary legal framework andfinancial incentives to acceleratethe arrival of Carbon Capture andStorage (CCS), a TUV NELconference, held in November 2009,brought together key industryplayers from each element of theCCS chain to discuss the challengesinvolved in taking CCS from aconcept to a reality.The conference focused on thetechnological developments needed toput the UK and other countries on thepath to achieving full-scale capture,transportation and storage of CO2emissions, tackling such topics as:Pilot Plants: The latest developmentand learning from the CO2 capturepilot plantsTransportation: The practicalities andchallenges associated with transportingCO2 by pipeline and shipMeasurement & Reporting: The needsand challenges associated with processand regulatory measurementthroughout the CCS chain, from captureto injection into the storage formationNorth Sea Storage: The value, capacityand qualification of the North Sea forCO2 storagePost Geological Monitoring: Ensuringthe safe containment of CO2 in thegeological storage sitesLGC‘Hair’ today, gonetomorrow! - tracking travelmovementsLGC scientists are at the forefrontof forensic methods that aim toenable the tracking of the recentgeographical movements ofindividuals and provide a powerfultool for international lawenforcement.Santamaria–Fernandez, R.; Giner Martinez-Sierra,J.; Garcia Alonso, J.I. and Hearn, R. Measurementof longitudinal sulfur isotopic variations by laserablation MC-ICP-MS in single human hair strandsAnal. Bioanal. Chem., 2009, 394(1), 225-233.For the first time, under the NMSInnovation R&D Programme, thepotential of sulfur isotope measurementsin a single hair strand by laser ablationmulticollector inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) hasbeen demonstrated as an indicator of anindividual’s recent geographicalmovements. Upon contact with the hair,the laser generates an aerosol that isionised within the plasma source of themass spectrometer and the mass tocharge ratios of sulphur isotopes aresubsequently measured. The mainadvantage of the new approach versusconventional isotope ratio massspectrometry (IRMS) techniques is thatvariations in sulfur isotope ratios can bedetected over time in a single hair as,due to hair growth, each sample willgive a chronological record of recentvariations up to the time of analysis.These variations can occur as a result ofa change in eating habits and viageographical movement. Proof ofconcept with human scalp hair strandsfrom three individuals, two UK residentsand one traveller has recently beendemonstrated. Future work will extendthe study to >100 volunteers withdifferent diets, ethnic backgrounds andlifestyle habits and to carbon andnitrogen isotopes.The newly developed rapid screeningtool enables the gathering of highlyresolved information from single humanhair strands. What makes themethodology attractive for forensicanalysis is the fact that hair samples canbe collected covertly and non-invasively,without consent (as opposed to DNA),and that only one strand is required foranalysis. The approach has vast potentialto be used in combination with DNAfingerprinting to become a valuable toolfor human provenance studies that willbe of immeasurable value to security,police & forensic services.LGC Contact:Rebeca Santamaria-FernandezT: +44 (0)20 8943 7644E: firstname.lastname@example.orgHow the NMIs are rising to national challengesThe essential components of theNational Measurement System (NMS)are the National MeasurementInstitutes (NMIs) that deliver most ofthe NMS work. In addition to the LegalMetrology work of NMO, the otherNMIs are:• the National Physical Laboratory(NPL);• LGC;• and TUV NEL, the former NationalEngineering Laboratory.4