15. Risk management (trade, reserves) Social protection INSURANCE Source: J. von Braun, adapted from Jacquier et al. 2006. Risk prevention (R&D) A comprehensive approach for addressing food security risks – not climate change in isolation
19. Climate change impact: Child malnutrition Part of the silent climate change health crisis Source: Nelson et al. (IFPRI) 2009 .
20. Climate change impact: Net cereal trade Source: Nelson et al. (IFPRI) 2009 . (Negative values indicate net imports)
22. Agriculture-related terms in the Bonn negotiating text * Source: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development 2009. *Revised Negotiating text June 22, 2009. and more specific at Barcelona
26. Additional annual agricultural adaptation funding required (IFPRI IMPACT model) to counteract climate change effects on child nutrition by 2050 (million 2000 US$) Source: Nelson et al. (IFPRI) 2009 . The mix of investments differs by region Sub-Saharan Africa South Asia Developing countries Agric. research 314 172 1,316 Irrigation expansion 537 344 907 Irrigation efficiency 187 999 2,158 Rural roads 2,015 17 2,737 Total 3,053 1,531 7,118
28. Developing country abatement cost curve, 2020 (up to costs of €60/t) Source: McKinsey, 2009 Energy efficiency in buildings, transportation and industry Demos / investment in emerging technologies Agriculture and forestry Support to overcome barriers (best practice info, capacity building,loans) Support to compensate incremental costs, e.g. through offset market or grants Support to compensate incremental costs (grants) and international cooperation Power supply 8 10 12 14 2 4 6 * Cost of abatement € / ton Forestry Agriculture Industry Power Transport Buildings 0 20 40 60 -20 -80 -60 -40 Technology follows investment Abatement potential Gt CO 2 e
Our recommendation then is that agriculture be included in any mitigation funding modalities, with funds available for development and implementation of low-cost monitoring systems and that allow innovative payment mechanisms to address the characteristics of agriculture, especially in developing countries, where small producer predominate and legal institutions are not always fully effective. The principle of common by differentiated responsibilities implies that any funding should support mitigation of agricultural emissions by the poorest but as countries progress and their incomes rise, the burden of mitigation should be adjusted too. 5) Linking communities to global markets - Establish regional centers for carbon trading, specialized business services and local intermediaries. Simplify standards for small-scale projects. Deal with permanence issue in carbon sequestration.