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SOCIAL MOBILITY Kamran ishfaq Phd Scholar Sociology, University of Peshawar, Pakistan Social Welfare OfficerThe Children’s Hospital & the Institute of Child Health Multan, Pakistan
SOCIAL MOBILITYSocial Mobility.Definitions of Social MobilityIndividual & Group MobilityTypes of Social Mobilityi. Vertical Social Mobility ii. Horizontal Social MobilityForms of Vertical Mobilityi.Upward Mobilityii.Downward Mobilityiii.Inter generational Mobilityiv.Intra generational Mobilityv.Structural Mobility.Causes for vertical Mobility By: Kamran Ishfaq
SOCIAL MOBILITY Individuals are normally recognized in society through statuses they occupied and roles they enact. Not only society is dynamic but also the individuals are dynamic. Social mobility mean move from lower position to the higher position, secure previous job from an inferior one. ‘Thus people in society continue to move up and down the status scale, this movement is called social mobility’. The study of social mobility is an important aspect of social stratification.
Definition: Wallace and Wallace:“Social mobility refers to the movement of a person or person’s from one social status to another”.W.P Scott:“Social mobility refers to the movement of an individual or group from one social position, class or social stratum to another”.Sociology Dictionary:Thus it is clear that social mobility mean movement of an individual or group form one social position or status to another.e.g. Poor people may become rich, the bank peon may become bank officers, farmers may become ministers, and a petty businessman may become a bankrupt and so on.
Individual & Group Mobility: Mobility can take place at the individuals as well as group level. It may take place at the level of individuals, groups, societies.Individual Mobility:When individuals get into seats of political position. Theyare said to have achieved individual mobility.Group Mobility: Like individuals even groups also attain high socialmobility. The Jews as a community in America and Parsisas a group in India. e.g. have been able to attain arelatively high position in their respective societies.
Types of social mobility:Sorokin has distinguished between two types of social mobility mainly i. vertical social mobility. ii. Horizontal social mobility.This typology is normally followed by the other sociologist also.Vertical social mobility:Vertical social mobility refers to the movement of an individual or people or groups from one status to another. it involves change in class, occupations or power positions. e.g. movement from poor class to middle class. From occupation laborer to the bank clerk.
Horizontal social mobility:Horizontal mobility is change in position without the change in status. It indicates a change in position with in the range of the same position or status.“It is movement from one status to its equivalent”.e.g. a college graduate within a degree of chemistry working in Govt. research chemical institute and after a year he find that the work seems dull repetitive, with no improvement in sight then he become a professor in chemistry at a nearby university.e.g. An engineer working in factory may resign job and join another factory as an engineer and may work in more or less the same capacity or join an engineering college and start working as professor.
Forms of Vertical Mobility Upward Mobility. Downward Mobility. Inter- generational Mobility. Intra- generational Mobility. Structural Mobility
Upward Mobility:This type of mobility denotes social ascendance. It denotes the said movement from a lower social position or status to a higher social position or status. It reflects social improvements. e.g. a retail businessman who earns lot of profit may become a whole sale businessman.In the same manner the son of a mason through educational attainments may become a university professor. Both are two examples of upward mobility indicates an improvement or ascendance in the status of the concerned persons.
Downward Mobility:This type of mobility denotes “social descendance” or “social failure” on the part of individual or group. Sometimes individuals who fail to maintain their social, political or economic positions, and lose their statuses.Often they stand to lose their position e.g. big businessmen who have invested huge money in business but face heavy loss. People in high officers might be denoted due to their corrupt practices and so on.
Inter-generational Mobility:It refers to a change in the status of family members form one generation to the next. e.g. a plumber’s son become the Nazim of their community. Bus conductor’s son becomes the chief minister of a status.Intra-generational Mobility:A change in social status which occurs within a person’s adult career “Wallace & Wallace” e.g. a lecturer in a pre-university college becoming a professor at the university after his doctoral degree.A person working as a supervisor in a factory becoming its Assistant Manager after getting promotion.
structural Mobility: Structural mobility is a kind of vertical mobility. Structural mobility refers to mobility which is brought about by changes in stratification hierarchy itself. The structural mobility refers to “the vertical movement of a specific group, class, or occupation relative to others in the stratification system”.e.g. these are the days of computers and information technology. Hence, computer engineers and technicians and information technologists receive greater respect which was previously reserved for scientists and advocates.
Causes of vertical mobility: The necessity of filling in emptied or vacant positions. Obtaining eligibility by imitating the Life-styles of the upper strata. To fill in the social vacuum created. Inability to perform the tasks assigned. Effect of widespread changes in the social-cultural and political environment.
Causes of vertical mobility:Inability to perform the tasks assignedThe unfitness of many individuals to perform the properfunctions relevant to their stratum often causes verticalmobility.e.g. physical and mental sickness, accidents, old age, familyproblems, such other factors.Under such circumstances the need arises for replacing thesepersons with different ones.
Causes of vertical mobility:The Necessity of Filling in Emptied or vacantpositions:In most of the societies some upper positions are filled in for afixed period by some persons. On the expiry of their term, they willhave to be replaced by some new persons.
Causes of vertical mobility:Obtaining eligibility by imitating the life-styles of theupper strata:There are various criteria by which the social status of the people isevaluated. “Life Styles” represent, and people of the lower strata tothe upper.
Causes of vertical mobility:To fill in the social vacuum created:Because of a lower birth rate within the upper strata, a socialvacuum is created. This can be filled in by the personsrecruited from the lower layers.e.g. if the owners or founder director or general managers ofthe private companies or industries are not having children,or if they are too young to assume high offices, then, therelatively efficient individuals occupying lower positions get achance to assume high posts.
Factors that promote social mobility: individual factor mobility occupation and economic activities religious institutions political institutions family and marriage Windfall or the luck factor.