Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Utilizamos tu perfil de LinkedIn y tus datos de actividad para personalizar los anuncios y mostrarte publicidad más relevante. Puedes cambiar tus preferencias de publicidad en cualquier momento.
SEMINAR-2
RURAL DEVELOPMENT
Topic: SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
Submitted to:Dr.Phani Shree
Mrs.Indu priya
Submitted by:
K.Ravi...
DEFINITIONS OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
 Sustainable Agriculture refers to a range of strategies for addressing many probl...
 A broad and commonly accepted definition of sustainable Agriculture is as follows:
 Sustainable Agriculture refers to a...
 The ultimate goal or the ends of sustainable agriculture is to develop farming systems
that are productive and profitabl...
Elements of sustainability
a) Soil conservation- Many soil conservation methods, including contour cultivates
contour buns...
Elements of sustainability
i) Marketing: Farmers across the country are finding that improved marketing -----way
to enhanc...
AGRICULTURAL MARKETING DEPARTMENT
 A separate Department of Marketing was established on 01-02-1962 in Andhra
Pradesh bif...
 Market Committees are empowered to levy market fees at the rate of 1% advolerum
from the purchasers of agricultural comm...
 Cold Storage Units
 Soil Testing Laboratories
 DAATT Centers
 One DAATT (District Agricultural Advisory and Transfer ...
FACTORS AFFECTING SUSTANABILITY OF
AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES
a) Land/soil related problems
• Soil degradatiom
• Deforestation...
CENTER FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
 Centre for Sustainable Agriculture is a professional resource organization engaged in...
3. To facilitate community access and control over natural resources and to build
institutions and coalitions at different...
CSA and its Works
 CSA is also engaged in establishing and working with Community Based Institutions
to address their agr...
District Producer Organisation Village, Mandal Facilitating Organisation
Warangal Yenabavi Organic Farmers’ Mutually
Aided...
Farmers Institutions
 An F2C initiative to create a meeting ground for nature-friendly consumers
and farmers
 blend the ...
Agricultural Sustainability:
A Case Study of Pradhan Tribe in Adilabad District
 Geographical Details
 Adilabad District...
Climate
 The climate of the district is characterized by hot summers; the climate is generally
dry except during the sout...
Agriculture scenario of Adilabad
 The geographical area of the district is 40,04,035 acres; and the land use
under differ...
Cropping Pattern
 The major crops grown in the district during kharif are cotton, maize, jowar,
Soya bean,red gram, and p...
Agro-Ecological Situations:
 Adilabad District may be divided into the following six agro-ecological
situations: Crop Are...
Agro-Ecological Situation
Black Cotton Soils-Rainfed-High Rainfall
 The total number of mandals in this situation are 28 ...
Name of the Irrigation Project Cultivable Area (in acres)
Sri Ramsagar Project 34,000
Swarna Project 8,945
Jurala Project ...
Methodology
 The study was conducted in Jamni Village of Jainad Mandal. Jamni is located about
22 kilometers from Adilaba...
 The Pradhans collect dung (kaath) and carry it to their farms.
 In the first place, the farmers pile up the dung, house...
 Though farmers apply fertilizers to jowar and red gram, it is done after meeting the
requirement of the cotton crop.
 O...
Agricultural Implements
 The Pradhans still use simple tools and implements that are easily available for
various farm op...
 The commonly-used implements are plough (naagar) used for ploughing the field,
crowbar (sabbal) used for digging big are...
Agriculture practice of Pradhans
 The preparation of soil begins in February.
 On the piece of land where jowar and cott...
 Thus, six to eight pluckings of cotton are done in the season. When jowar is ready for
harvest, the plants are cut and k...
Conclusion
 Agriculture being practiced by the farmers of the village is still rooted in traditional
notions of divine bl...
Próxima SlideShare
Cargando en…5
×

Sustainable Agriculture of INDIA:case study of ADILABAD

6.707 visualizaciones

Publicado el

SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE,Definitions,situation in INDIA,AP,works of CSI,case study of Adilabad

  • Sé el primero en comentar

Sustainable Agriculture of INDIA:case study of ADILABAD

  1. 1. SEMINAR-2 RURAL DEVELOPMENT Topic: SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE Submitted to:Dr.Phani Shree Mrs.Indu priya Submitted by: K.Ravi Varma 11011ba019, B.Tech(PLNG),6th SEM, JNA&FAU,SPA
  2. 2. DEFINITIONS OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE  Sustainable Agriculture refers to a range of strategies for addressing many problems that effect agriculture.  Such problems include loss of soil productivity from excessive soil erosion and associated plant nutrient losses, surface and ground water pollution from pesticides, fertilizers and sediments, impending shortages of non- renewable resources, and low farm income from depressed commodity prices and high production costs. -(Lockertz, 1988)  The successful management of resources for agriculture to satisfy changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the (Natural resource- base and avoiding environmental degradation) -(TAC-CGIAR, 1988)  A sustainable Agriculture is a system of agriculture that is committed to maintain and preserve the agriculture base of soil, water , and atmosphere ensuring future generations the capacity to feed themselves with an adequate supply of safe and wholesome food’ -(Gracet, 1990)
  3. 3.  A broad and commonly accepted definition of sustainable Agriculture is as follows:  Sustainable Agriculture refers to an agricultural production and distribution system that:  Achieves the integration of natural biological cycles and controls  Protects and renews soil fertility and the natural resource base  Reduces the use of nonrenewable resources and purchased ( external or off-farm) production inputs  Optimizes the management and use of on- farm inputs  Provides on adequate and dependable farm income  Promotes opportunity in family farming and farm communities, and Minimizes adverse impacts on health, safety, wildlife, water quality and the environment
  4. 4.  The ultimate goal or the ends of sustainable agriculture is to develop farming systems that are productive and profitable, conserve the natural resource base, protect the environment, and enhance health and safety, and to do so over the long-term.  The means of achieving this is low input methods and skilled management, which seek to optimize the management and use of internal production inputs (i.e., on-farm resources) in ways that provide acceptable levels of sustainable crop yields and livestock production and result in economically profitable returns.  This approach emphasizes such cultural and management practices as crop rotations, recycling of animal manures, and conservation tillage to control soil erosion and nutrient losses and to maintain or enhance soil productivity.
  5. 5. Elements of sustainability a) Soil conservation- Many soil conservation methods, including contour cultivates contour bunstrip cropping cover cropping, reduced tillage etc help prevent loss of soil due to wind and water erosion. b) Crop diversity- Growing a greater variety of crops on a farm can help reduce risks from extremes in weather, market conditions or crop pests.  Increased diversity crops and other plants, such as trees and shrubs, also can contribute to soil conservation, wildlife habitat and increased populations of beneficial insects. c ) Nutrient management:Proper management of nitrogen and other plant nutrients con improve the soil and protect environment.  Increased use of farm nutrient sources such as manure and leguminous cover crops, also reduces purchased fertilizer costs. d) Integrated pest management (IPM)- IPM is a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in way that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks.
  6. 6. Elements of sustainability i) Marketing: Farmers across the country are finding that improved marketing -----way to enhance profitability, agricultural product from farmers to consumers is becoming much more common, including through Rythu bazaar rod side stands. Status of sustainable Agriculture in India:  Suitable Development of India demands access to state of are ‘clean’ technologies and have as strategic role in increasing the capabilities of the country both o the environment as well as to provide thrust towards conservation and sustainable agriculture. Current research programmes towards sustainable agriculture are as follows: 1. Resistant crop varieties to soil, climatic and biotic stresses 2. Multiple cropping system for irrigated areas and tree based farming system rainfall area. 3. Integrated nutrient management 4. Integrated pest management 5. Soil and water conservation
  7. 7. AGRICULTURAL MARKETING DEPARTMENT  A separate Department of Marketing was established on 01-02-1962 in Andhra Pradesh bifurcating from the Agriculture Department to enforce the provisions of the Agricultural Produce Markets Act and other schemes of the Department .  The Commissioner Director of Marketing is the Head of the Department. It is under the administrative control of the Agriculture and Cooperation Department.  Markets Act 1966 through the Agricultural Market Committees in the State and other programmes of the Department. SALIENT FEATURES OF THE A.P. MARKETS ACT :  Declaration of notified area to regulate the sale and purchase of agricultural produce and livestock and its products  Each Market Committee consists of 14 members headed by a 7Chairman. All the members are nominated by the Government. The term of Market Committee is 3 years. The objectives of the Committee is to enforce the provisions of the Markets Act, Markets Rules and the Bye-laws and manage the markets in regulating the trade of notified agricultural produce.
  8. 8.  Market Committees are empowered to levy market fees at the rate of 1% advolerum from the purchasers of agricultural commodities. Markets Fee is the major source of income to the Market Committees besides licence fees.  Each Market Committee contributes 10% of its annual income to a Fund called Central Market Fund. This fund is utilised for grant of loans and grant-in-aid and other purposes of the Market Committees  SCHEMES IMPLEMENTED BY AGRICULTURE MARKET COMMITTEES: Rythu Bandhu Pathakam ( Pledge Loan Scheme )  To prevent farmers from resorting to distress sales, Rythu Bandhu Pathakam has been introduced in the Agril. Market Committee to provide finance to the farmers against pledge of their produce. Sale of Inputs:  To make available the quality seeds, pesticides and fertilizers to the farmers in the Market Yards, the Agricultural Market Committees have been permitted to take up the sale of quality seeds, pesticides and fertilisers on no-loss-no profit basis AGRICULTURAL MARKETING DEPARTMENT
  9. 9.  Cold Storage Units  Soil Testing Laboratories  DAATT Centers  One DAATT (District Agricultural Advisory and Transfer of Technology) Center is established at District Head Quarters market committee (except Hyderabad District) in collaboration with ANGRAU for the benefit of farmers between 1995-96 and 2001- 2002 . Necessary accomodation is provided by Agricultural Market Committees to these centers for the scientists. AGRICULTURAL MARKETING DEPARTMENT
  10. 10. FACTORS AFFECTING SUSTANABILITY OF AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES a) Land/soil related problems • Soil degradatiom • Deforestation • Accelerated soil erosion • Siltation of reserves • Wind erosion b) Irrigation related problems • Rise in groundwater table & water logging • Soil salinization & alkalization • Over- exploitation of groundwater c) Indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals • Fertilizer pollution • Pesticide pollution d) Environmental pollution • Greenhouse effect
  11. 11. CENTER FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE  Centre for Sustainable Agriculture is a professional resource organization engaged in establishing models of sustainable agriculture working in partnership with NGOs and Community Based Organizations by scaling up the successes and engaging with the establishment for a policy change.  CSA is registered as Trust in 2004 in Hyderabad, India.  CSA evolved from the sustainable agriculture desk of Centre for World Solidarity from 1998.  CSA works with farmers to conserve their resources and their rights. The main objectives of the organization are: 1. To improve the quality of life of farming communities by promoting environmentally safe and sustainable methods that would enhance the quality and quantity of crop/plantations/livestock yields especially in tribal and dryland areas. 2.To enhance the participation of farmers, both women and men, in all processes of problem analysis, technology development, evaluation, adoption and extension leading to food security and self reliance among farmers and rural communities.
  12. 12. 3. To facilitate community access and control over natural resources and to build institutions and coalitions at different levels for strengthening People’s Agriculture Movements, which focus on empowerment of marginalized sections like Women, Dalits, Adivasis and Minorities 4. To develop a Sustainable Agriculture Resource Network that promotes sharing of knowledge, material and human resources. To serve as a repository for documenting, collecting, storing, collating and disseminating information/success stories from different sources on sustainable agriculture. 5. Understand the role of agriculture in contributing to climate change and developing sustainable agriculture practices which can help in mitigating and adapting to climate change. CENTER FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
  13. 13. CSA and its Works  CSA is also engaged in establishing and working with Community Based Institutions to address their agriculture based livelihoods.  CSA works in rainfed areas (Ananthpur, Mahaboobnagar dist of AP, Wardha in Maharastra etc), areas with intensive cultivation of commercial crops and suffering severe ecological and economic crisis (Faridkot dist of Punjab, Guntur, Warangal dists of AP) and Tribal areas (Araku and Nallamala in AP, Chattisgarh Tribal areas) CSA is working on periurban vegetable production in and around Hyderabad, Vishakapatnam, Guntur, Warangal and other towns in AP.  The works include establishing vegetable production without using chemicals, village level collection centres and direct marketing in cities.
  14. 14. District Producer Organisation Village, Mandal Facilitating Organisation Warangal Yenabavi Organic Farmers’ Mutually Aided Cooperative Society Ltd Yenabavi, Lingalaganapur CROPS,Jangoan Nalgonda Bommalaramaram Organic Farmers Mutually Aided Cooperative Society Ltd Chowdaripalli, Bommalaramaram PEACE, Bongi Ananthpur Kadiri Swasakthi Organic Farmers and Forest Producers Mutually Aided Cooperative Society Ltd Kadiri REDS, Kadiri Palabavi Organic Farmers and Seed Producers Mutually Aided Cooperative Society Ltd Ananthpur Accssion Fraterna, Ananthpur Guntur Abyudaya Sustainable Agriculture Farmers Mutually Aided Cooperative Thrift and Marketing Society Limited Koyavaripalem, Pattipadu Rakshana, Chirala Khammam Punukula Organic Farmers Mutually Aided Cooperative Society Ltd Punukula, Polvoncha SECURE, Polvancha Kuddapah Vennela Organic Farmers’ Mutually Aided Cooperative Society Ltd Vempalli CSA, Samatha Vijayanagaram Haritha Organic Farmers’ Mutually Aided Cooperative Society Ltd S.Kota CSA Wardha Naisargic sheti Producer Company Private ltd Wardha CSA Hyderabad Sahaja Aharam Consumer Cooperative Hyderabad CSA, AID India
  15. 15. Farmers Institutions  An F2C initiative to create a meeting ground for nature-friendly consumers and farmers  blend the values of traditional bazaars with ecological concerns  to build a new supply chain on Farmer to Consumer (F2C) model which helps  Increasing farmers’ income  by realising better prices for their produce, locally grown by adopting ecological farming practices  More employment opportunities by value addition and selling processed produce.  Consumers in getting access to healthy and diverse food  A Participatory Food Quality Assurance System and a Fair Trade Model  Direct retailing to consumers (bulk/individual consumers)
  16. 16. Agricultural Sustainability: A Case Study of Pradhan Tribe in Adilabad District  Geographical Details  Adilabad District is the northern-most district of Andhra Pradesh.  It is bounded on the North by Yavathmal and Chandrapur districts, East by Chandrapur, West by Nanded District of Maharashtra State and on the South by Nizamabad and Karimnagar districts of Andhra Pradesh.  The most important river that flows through this district is the Godavari, which forms the southern boundary of the district.  Other important riversin the district are Penganga, Wardha and Pranahitha. The Kadam and Peddavagu are tributaries of the Godavari.  There are rivulets like Santhala, Swarna and Suddavaguwhich crisscross the district.  The district ranks first in revenue from minerals as it is well endowed with reserves of coal, iron ore, limestone and clay.
  17. 17. Climate  The climate of the district is characterized by hot summers; the climate is generally dry except during the south-west monsoon season.  The year may be divided into four seasons: the cold season from December to February, followed by the summer season from March to May; the period from June to September constitutes the south-west monsoon season, while October and November form the post-monsoon season.  The rainfall in the district, in general, increases from the south-west towards the north-east. About 85% of the annual rainfall is received during the south-west monsoon season, i.e., from June to September.  July is the peak rainy month. The normal annual rainfall of the district is 1,044.5 mm
  18. 18. Agriculture scenario of Adilabad  The geographical area of the district is 40,04,035 acres; and the land use under different types is:  The southern part of the district consisting of Nirmal, Luxettipet, Khanapur and surrounding mandals are fairly developed agriculturally, owing to the availability of irrigation facilities.  The net area sown in the district is 35.4% of the total geographical area while for the state the relative percentage is 40.2 Land use Proportion Forest 42.8% Land put to non-agri uses 3.7% Net area sown 35.4%
  19. 19. Cropping Pattern  The major crops grown in the district during kharif are cotton, maize, jowar, Soya bean,red gram, and paddy, and those grown during rabi are jowar, maize, wheat, paddy,Bengal gram, sesame, sunflower, safflower and groundnut.  Cotton has been the most widely grown crop in the district.  Almost every tribal farmer and other farmers in the plains cultivate cotton during the kharif season.  A large extent of cotton is cultivated under rainfed conditions.  The next important crop in Adilabad is red gram.  While jowar is mainly cultivated in hilly areas by tribal farmers, paddy is cultivated in the plains. Over the past five to ten years Soya bean has been grown widely in the district.
  20. 20. Agro-Ecological Situations:  Adilabad District may be divided into the following six agro-ecological situations: Crop Areas Sown in (ha) Estimated Yields (kg/ha) Paddy 58,641 3,852 Jowar 39,364 1,453 Maize 23,433 2,545 Red gram 40,954 330 Green gram 15,632 210 Green gram 19,955 548 Other pulses 1,265 250 Soya bean 30612 900 Cotton 1,68,530 650 Turmeric 4,555 3,000 Chilli 3,869 2,552
  21. 21. Agro-Ecological Situation Black Cotton Soils-Rainfed-High Rainfall  The total number of mandals in this situation are 28 with a cultivable area of 2,89,928 hectares.  Under this situation, the majority of the district’s cultivated area is covered with black cotton soils with a high rainfall of 1000 mm and above. Black Cotton Soils-Medium Rainfall  Under this situation, the type of soil is black cotton with a medium rainfall of 950 to 1000 mm and the cultivation is mostly under rainfed conditions.  The total number of mandals in this situation is 24 with a cultivable area of 52,488 hectares. Red soils-Rainfed-Medium Rainfall  Under this situation, the soil type is red soil with medium to high rainfall, rainfedconditions are prevailing. Irrigation Tanks Irrigation Canals
  22. 22. Name of the Irrigation Project Cultivable Area (in acres) Sri Ramsagar Project 34,000 Swarna Project 8,945 Jurala Project 8,500 Sathnala Project 24,000 Vattivagu Project 24,500 Chelimelavagu Project 6,060 Total 1,64,005 The total number of mandals in this situation is 8 with a cultivable area of 64,131 hectares Irrigation Projects of Adilabad
  23. 23. Methodology  The study was conducted in Jamni Village of Jainad Mandal. Jamni is located about 22 kilometers from Adilabad Headquarters on the way to Saathnala Project.  It has an all weather motorable road. Adilabad is one such district where the maximum number of Pradhans live.  The village selected is a representative village where more than 50% of the population is Pradhans.  The method applied for the study was ethnographic approach, an important research tool.  most people have vegetable kitchen gardens, where they grow vegetables and fruits, where the size of the garden is very small in size - less than half an acre.  These vegetables are used for household consumption and also some of them sold in the market. Generally they grow in the rainy and winter season.  The vegetables,which are grown in the garden, are usually sufficient for household consumption.
  24. 24.  The Pradhans collect dung (kaath) and carry it to their farms.  In the first place, the farmers pile up the dung, household garbage and ashes together. When the dung rots,they are the best fertilizers.  According to informants, wet dung is more effective than the dry dung because of the fact that the rain makes the dung to drip on the land. As a matter of fact, many farmers smear wet dung on their land so that the land will be able to grow good grass and crops.  For this matter, the farmers build cattle pens on different parts of their land. According to the villagers, using manure is good for yielding crops  They also spend some amount of money on seeds and fertilizers. Seeds of all crops are purchased from the nearby town. Sometimes seeds of jowar and red gram are provided by the ITDA through the Agricultural Department on subsidy. Methodology
  25. 25.  Though farmers apply fertilizers to jowar and red gram, it is done after meeting the requirement of the cotton crop.  On cotton, the farmers never compromise on inputs.  They prefer to purchase the best seeds and apply full doses of fertilizers. Almost the entire quantity of pesticides purchased is exclusively meant for cotton.  There is minimal to no usage of pesticides on other crops.  However, the use of the pesticides on other crops is very limited,At the same time, a few farmers have been following input-intensive agriculture which includes usage of fertilizers and pesticides on all the crops. Methodology
  26. 26. Agricultural Implements  The Pradhans still use simple tools and implements that are easily available for various farm operations.  These are either obtained from the market or made with help of local specialists such as carpenters and blacksmiths.  Almost every family has its own collection of agricultural implements and does not depend very much upon others.  The number of each type of implements however,varies from family to family according to the landholding size.  The larger the landholding, more is the number of implements.  The number of ploughs to be yoked to a pair of bullocks possessed by a family is the indication of the size of landholding of the family.
  27. 27.  The commonly-used implements are plough (naagar) used for ploughing the field, crowbar (sabbal) used for digging big areas of the field.  Sickle (era) and hand-axe (kuradi), are utilized for cutting purpose. Spade (pawda) is used for gathering the waste.  Large bamboo flat fan (soup) is used as winnowing fan. A large wooden forked flail is used for threshing. Bullock cart is used for carrying the agricultural produce.  For storing the grains they use big bamboo containers (dola).  All these are common implements which they manufacture themselves with the help of carpenters and blacksmiths.  They use different kinds of timbers for manufacturing different implements Agricultural Implements
  28. 28. Agriculture practice of Pradhans  The preparation of soil begins in February.  On the piece of land where jowar and cotton are grown as main crops, harrowing is done first and the remnants of the old crops are removed from the field.  Then small bushes and grass in the field are dug out with a vakar. Harrowing is done three times. Cotton sowing is done using dusa/tisa with the help of sarata (sowing implement) in the second or third week of June after receiving sufficient rains.  Two pairs of bullocks are yoked to pull the dusa and three pairs are used in the case tisa.  A man or woman sows the cotton seeds through sarata. Jowar is sown either in the last week of June or in the first week of July after cotton sowing has been completed.  A tipan is used for sowing jowar. Tipan is pulled by two pairs of bullocks. Weeding of cotton and jowar is generally done four to five times.  Cotton harvest starts in October. Jowar is harvested from November. Cotton is plucked by the women in a week or in a fortnight.
  29. 29.  Thus, six to eight pluckings of cotton are done in the season. When jowar is ready for harvest, the plants are cut and kept in the fields for a week or so, for getting completely dry.  Then the corns of jowar are taken to the threshing ground.  Threshing is done with the help of bullocks or in some cases, the grains of jowar are taken out by the labourers by beating the corns with sticks.  After winnowing, the produce is taken home. Agriculture practice of Pradhans
  30. 30. Conclusion  Agriculture being practiced by the farmers of the village is still rooted in traditional notions of divine blessings for a good crop and the practice of appeasing rituals is still continued.  Agriculture is not just an enterprise for livelihood but a socio-economic and cultural activity  The study concludes by recommending that the local knowledge of cultivating of subsistence crops is useful for sustenance. It is important to recognize that indigenous local knowledge supports the survival of cultural and biological diversity.  These farmers do not want to increase the cost of cultivation by application of fertilizers and pesticides for a moderate increase in the yield.

×