• WHAT IS SOLUTION ?
A SOLUTION IS A HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE OF TWO OR MORE SUBSTANCES . A SOLUTION HAS A SOLVENT AND A
SOLUTE AS ITS COMPONENT. THE COMPONENT OF THE SOLUTION THAT DISSOLVES THE OTHER COMPONENT IN IT
(USUALLY THE COMPONENT PRESENT IN LARGER AMOUNT) IS CALLED THE SOLVENT.
TYPES OF SOLUTION :-
1. SOLID-LIQUID - SALT WATER , SUGAR WATER ETC.
2. SOLID-GAS - HYDROGEN GAS ON PLATINUM , AIR IN SOLID FOOD ETC.
3. LIQUID-SOLID - HYDRATED SALTS, MERCURY IN AMALGAMATED ZINC, ETC.
4. LIQUID-LIQUID - ALCOHOL IN WATER, BENZENE IN TOLUENE ETC.
3. Concentration of Solution :- Concentration of a solution is the amount of solute present in the given amount of solution. The
concentration of a solution can be determined by the following ways:
Properties of a solution :-
• A solution is a homogeneous mixture.
• The particles of a solution are smaller than 1 nm (10-9 metre) in diameter.
So, they cannot be seen by naked eyes.
• Because of very small particle size, they do not scatter a beam of light passing
through the solution. So, the path of light is not visible in a solution.
• The solute particles cannot be separated from the mixture by the process of
filtration. The solute particles do not settle down when left undisturbed,
that is, a solution is stable.
4. • solvent :-
Solvent is a substance that dissolves another substance to form a solution. A solvent is a chemical substance that
dissolves another chemical substance or substances to form a solution of homogeneous mixture. Ex :- water , alcohol etc.
• Solute :-
A solute is a substance that is dissolved in a solution. The quantity of solvent in a fluid solution is greater than the
amount of solute. Salt and water are two of the most common examples of solutes in our daily lives. Since salt dissolves in
water, it is the solute. Ex :- salt , sugar, cocoa etc.
• What is a Colloid?
A Colloid is an intermediate between solution and suspension. It has particles with sizes between 2 and 1000
nanometers. A colloid is easily visible to the nakedeye. Colloids can be distinguished from solutions using
the Tyndalleffect.Tyndall effect is defined as the scattering of light (light beam) through a colloidal solution. The
particles are termed as colloidal particles and the mixture formed is known as colloidal dispersion. Liquid, solid and
gases all mix together to form a colloidal dispersion.
• The different types of colloidal solution are:
1. Aerosols:- Solid or liquid mixed with gas; Example: fog (liquid in gas)
2. Sols:- Solid mixed with liquid; Example: Paint
3. Emulsion:- Liquid with liquid; Example: oil and water
4. Gel:- liquid in solid; Example: Fruit jelly
• What is suspension ?
Suspension is the heterogeneous mixture of two or more substances. In suspension, particles are suspended
throughout in bulk and can be seen by naked eyes. In suspensions, particles of solute do not dissolve rather are
• Examples of Suspension
1. Muddy water
2. Milk of magnesia
3. Sand particles suspended in water
4. Flour in water
5. Paints in which dyes are suspended in turpentine oil.
8. • Properties of Suspension :-
1. A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture.
2. The size of solute particles in a suspension is quite large. It is larger than 100 mm in diameter.
3. The particles of a suspension can be seen easily.
4. The particles of a suspension do not pass through a filter paper. So a suspension can be separated by filtration.
5. The suspension is unstable. The particles of a suspension settle down after some time.
6. A suspension scatters a beam of light passing through it because of its large particle size.
9. solutions colloids suspension
Homogeneous Heterogeneous Heterogeneous
Pass unchanged through ordinary filter
Pass unchanged through ordinary filter
Separated by ordinary filter paper.
Particle size: 0.010.01-1nm1nm; atoms,
ions or molecules.
Particle size: 11-1000nm1000nm,
dispersed; large molecules or aggregates
Particle size: over 1000nm1000nm,
suspended: large particles or
Do not scatter light. Scatter light (Tyndall effect) May either scatter light or be opaque.
Pass unchanged through membrane. Separated by a membrane. Separates by a membrane.
Not visible through the naked eye. Not visible through the naked eye. Easily visible through the naked eye.