UNIT 1 MACHINERIES

20CE7020E
BUILDING SERVICES
MACHINERIES
UNIT – 1
UNIT 1 MACHINERIES
• Introduction of lifts and Escalators -Special
features required for lifting arrangement and
installation-Travelators – Controls - Machine
room and equipments.
Building services -Introduction
• Building services are the systems installed in
buildings to make them comfortable,
functional, efficient and safe.
Building services might include:
•Building control systems.
•Energy distribution.
•Energy supply (gas, electricity and renewable sources
such as solar, wind, geothermal and biomass).
• They ensure that a building is functional and
safe, and play a significant role on the
sustainability and energy demand of a building.
• Building maintenance refers to activities
performed to retain and restore the functionality
of residential and commercial properties.
• It includes tasks such as cleaning, landscaping,
and electrical system maintenance. It aims to
preserve a safe, functional, and comfortable
environment for tenants at all times.
Introduction to Lifts and elevators
• An elevator can be defined as an electric
lift which is used as vertical transportation of
goods as well as people among the floors in
buildings using bins otherwise silos.
Types of Lift and Elevator
• Hydraulic Elevator
• Pneumatic Elevator
• Cable Driven or Traction Elevator
• Capsule Lift
• Building Lift
• Passenger Lift
• Freight Elevator
• Residential Elevators
Hydraulic Elevator
Hydraulic Elevators
Pneumatic Elevator
Cable Driven or Traction Elevator
• It consists of steel cables as well as hoisting
ropes that run above a pulley which is
connected to the motor.
• This is geared otherwise gearless-traction type
elevator. other side a counterweight is
connected to car that travels up & down on its
guide rails.
• The car is controlled by the weight of the
counter.
UNIT 1       	MACHINERIES
Capsule Lift
Building Lift
Passenger Lift
Freight
Elevator
Residential Elevators
Introduction of Escalators
• An escalator is a moving staircase which carries
people between floors of a building or
structure. It consists of a motor-driven chain of
individually linked steps on a track which cycle
on a pair of tracks which keep the step tread
horizontal.
Types of Escalators
• Parallel Escalator
• Spiral Parallel escalators
• Multiple Parallel escalators
• Crisscross escalators
• Curved Escalator
• Step Type Escalator
• Wheelchair - Accessible Escalator
Parallel Escalator
•Parallel escalators are those types of escalators that face in the
same direction. These escalators use more floor space than other
escalator arrangements, which are found in impressive forms.
On the others hand, it has been found that these are less efficient
and more expensive than other escalators.
Spiral Parallel escalators
Spiral parallel escalators are the arrangement that
forces the users to move because they are installed in
places where the walking area is very long.
Multiple Parallel escalators
•Multiples parallel two or more Escalators are those
escalators that travel in the same direction simultaneously
next to one or two escalators that travel in the other
direction.
Crisscross Escalator
•The crisscross escalator is the most popular
arrangement of escalators that place the entry and
exit at opposite ends of the Escalator at its upper
and lower ends.
Curved Escalator
•These Escalators are curved either to the left or to
the right. This Escalator is mostly those which are
used in places where stairs need to be attached with
the help of any landing. Curved escalators are
installed either to enhance the architectural beauty
or to save space.
Step Type Escalator
Step-type escalators are stair-like devices that
transport passengers up or down a vertical distance.
They are also referred to as stepped conveyors or
simply “steps”.
Step-type escalators are useful when the vertical
distance is too great for conventional elevators and
people movers to be practical, such as in department
stores and shopping malls
Wheelchair - Accessible Escalator
Wheelchair-accessible escalators are designed to
accommodate wheelchairs and other mobility
devices, including walkers, crutches and canes.
They are located in high-traffic areas of a facility
such as an airport or train station.
Special features required for lifting and
arrangement and installation
Risks associated with lifting operations
Risks of manual lifting
Jobs in the construction industry with manual
lifting tasks are: scaffolding, bricklaying and
processing plasterboard.
•musculoskeletal disorders
•low back pain
Workers Affected by
Requirements for lifting equipment
lifting equipment should be
• Sufficiently strong, stable and suitable for the proposed
use.
• Positioned or installed to prevent the risk of injury
• Visibly marked with any appropriate information to be
taken into account for its safe use
• Where equipment is used for lifting people it is marked
accordingly, and it should be safe for such a purpose
Maintenance and inspection
• Accidents may happen because lifting equipment is
not inspected and maintained regularly.
• Testing Methods include
visual examination
functional checks,
measurements of wear,
traditional non-destructive testing
load testing.
Installing the Lift
1. Setting the Columns in Place
2. Adding the Carriage
3. Raising the Drive Base for Mechanical Lift Installation
4. Assembling and Setting the Gates and Enclosures
5. Wiring the Electrical Components
6. A Final Check
Travelators
•Travelators also known as autowalks, passenger
conveyors and moving pavements. They provide
horizontal conveyance for people, prams, luggage
trolleys, wheelchairs and small vehicles for
distances up to about 300 metres.
Travelators Specifications
•Travelators are generally provided in areas where people need to walk
long distances with luggage, baggage carts or shopping carts. A
Travelator is generally flat, but can be slightly inclined.
Arrangement of Escalators and Travelators
• Single Unit
suitable for small retail stores where available floor space
is restricted.
• Continuous Arrangement
(One-way Traffic)
This arrangement is used mainly in retail stores to link
three sales levels.
• Interrupted Arrangement (One-Way Traffic)
Due to spatial separation of the building , the
arrangement has upward or downward direction
Arrangement of Escalators and Travelators
• Parallel, Interrupted Arrangement
(Two-Way Traffic)
This is used mainly in retail and public
transportation buildings with heavy traffic volumes.
It should be possible to reverse the direction of
travel depending on the traffic flow.
Crisscross, Continuous Arrangement (Two-Way Traffic)
This allows customers to travel quickly to the upper
flows without any waiting time. Frequently used to make
an attractive feature of the escalators in the center of
retail stores
UNIT 1       	MACHINERIES
ELEVATOR CONTROL SYSTEM
Controls
Lifting operations include the use of
• Cranes
• Gin wheels
• Hoists
Cranes - There are four key aspects to the safe use of
cranes
• Planning lifting operations
• Safe systems of work
• Supervision of lifting
• Thorough examination
Types of elevator control systems
1- Single Automatic operation
There is no collective function within the elevator
control system. This is also a task-oriented system that
has a momentary push button. With this operation,
the elevator will move towards the requested floor
once the command is made. After this, the lift car will
wait for any further commands. This kind of operation
is mostly used in material lift applications
2- Selective collective operation
This kind of operation works in a simple way which makes commuting
to different floors a lot easier. When people board an elevator and have
different destinations, the selective collective operation method will go
in one direction and will drop the passengers to their destination on the
way. Such elevators do not alter their route according to the floors
selected but stick to their own direction and thus save time. Such a type
of operation is commonly used in commercial lifts and Limited
Use/Limited Application elevator
Types of elevator control systems
3- Group automatic operation
For large buildings with many elevators which
are controlled with programmable
microprocessors to respond.
Types of elevator control systems
Machine room and Equipments
Machine room and Equipments
• Tool room
Tool room is the room where the tools are kept for
storage, prepare, repairing and machining. The
space area can be varied based on the types of
the tool room machines and applications. It may
include high end electro-mechanical equipments
for different applications like grinding, milling,
shaping, slotting of metals.
It consisting the big racks, shelves, cupboards and
workbench to store and repair the tools. Thus it can
have the facilities to design, manufacture and repair the
custom requirements.
Types of Tool room Machines
• Grinding Machine – It is categorized further in manual surface grinder,
hydraulic cylindrical grinder and centerless grinder.
• Milling Machines – These are used to shape the metals and solid
materials as per the defined or custom specifications.
• Shaping Machine – V Belt shaping with wide industrial acceptance to cut
metals in curvature shape or angularly.
• Slotting Machine – Metal & wood slotting is the prime requirements to
cut and shape the metal slots on the head of metal and wood to create
screws, bolts, wood screws and automobile custom parts.
• Bandsaw Machine – It is specialized for irregular cutting and curving of
the metal shapes with precision accuracy.
• Hacksaw Machine – It is used in wide range of industries for long time.
• Toolroom Setup
• Tool room setup is the process to setup precision equipments as
per the custom prototype machining for the operation, repairing and
production.
1 de 44

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UNIT 1 MACHINERIES

  • 2. UNIT 1 MACHINERIES • Introduction of lifts and Escalators -Special features required for lifting arrangement and installation-Travelators – Controls - Machine room and equipments.
  • 3. Building services -Introduction • Building services are the systems installed in buildings to make them comfortable, functional, efficient and safe. Building services might include: •Building control systems. •Energy distribution. •Energy supply (gas, electricity and renewable sources such as solar, wind, geothermal and biomass).
  • 4. • They ensure that a building is functional and safe, and play a significant role on the sustainability and energy demand of a building. • Building maintenance refers to activities performed to retain and restore the functionality of residential and commercial properties. • It includes tasks such as cleaning, landscaping, and electrical system maintenance. It aims to preserve a safe, functional, and comfortable environment for tenants at all times.
  • 5. Introduction to Lifts and elevators • An elevator can be defined as an electric lift which is used as vertical transportation of goods as well as people among the floors in buildings using bins otherwise silos.
  • 6. Types of Lift and Elevator • Hydraulic Elevator • Pneumatic Elevator • Cable Driven or Traction Elevator • Capsule Lift • Building Lift • Passenger Lift • Freight Elevator • Residential Elevators
  • 10. Cable Driven or Traction Elevator • It consists of steel cables as well as hoisting ropes that run above a pulley which is connected to the motor. • This is geared otherwise gearless-traction type elevator. other side a counterweight is connected to car that travels up & down on its guide rails. • The car is controlled by the weight of the counter.
  • 17. Introduction of Escalators • An escalator is a moving staircase which carries people between floors of a building or structure. It consists of a motor-driven chain of individually linked steps on a track which cycle on a pair of tracks which keep the step tread horizontal.
  • 18. Types of Escalators • Parallel Escalator • Spiral Parallel escalators • Multiple Parallel escalators • Crisscross escalators • Curved Escalator • Step Type Escalator • Wheelchair - Accessible Escalator
  • 19. Parallel Escalator •Parallel escalators are those types of escalators that face in the same direction. These escalators use more floor space than other escalator arrangements, which are found in impressive forms. On the others hand, it has been found that these are less efficient and more expensive than other escalators.
  • 20. Spiral Parallel escalators Spiral parallel escalators are the arrangement that forces the users to move because they are installed in places where the walking area is very long.
  • 21. Multiple Parallel escalators •Multiples parallel two or more Escalators are those escalators that travel in the same direction simultaneously next to one or two escalators that travel in the other direction.
  • 22. Crisscross Escalator •The crisscross escalator is the most popular arrangement of escalators that place the entry and exit at opposite ends of the Escalator at its upper and lower ends.
  • 23. Curved Escalator •These Escalators are curved either to the left or to the right. This Escalator is mostly those which are used in places where stairs need to be attached with the help of any landing. Curved escalators are installed either to enhance the architectural beauty or to save space.
  • 24. Step Type Escalator Step-type escalators are stair-like devices that transport passengers up or down a vertical distance. They are also referred to as stepped conveyors or simply “steps”. Step-type escalators are useful when the vertical distance is too great for conventional elevators and people movers to be practical, such as in department stores and shopping malls
  • 25. Wheelchair - Accessible Escalator Wheelchair-accessible escalators are designed to accommodate wheelchairs and other mobility devices, including walkers, crutches and canes. They are located in high-traffic areas of a facility such as an airport or train station.
  • 26. Special features required for lifting and arrangement and installation
  • 27. Risks associated with lifting operations Risks of manual lifting Jobs in the construction industry with manual lifting tasks are: scaffolding, bricklaying and processing plasterboard. •musculoskeletal disorders •low back pain Workers Affected by
  • 28. Requirements for lifting equipment lifting equipment should be • Sufficiently strong, stable and suitable for the proposed use. • Positioned or installed to prevent the risk of injury • Visibly marked with any appropriate information to be taken into account for its safe use • Where equipment is used for lifting people it is marked accordingly, and it should be safe for such a purpose
  • 29. Maintenance and inspection • Accidents may happen because lifting equipment is not inspected and maintained regularly. • Testing Methods include visual examination functional checks, measurements of wear, traditional non-destructive testing load testing.
  • 30. Installing the Lift 1. Setting the Columns in Place 2. Adding the Carriage 3. Raising the Drive Base for Mechanical Lift Installation 4. Assembling and Setting the Gates and Enclosures 5. Wiring the Electrical Components 6. A Final Check
  • 31. Travelators •Travelators also known as autowalks, passenger conveyors and moving pavements. They provide horizontal conveyance for people, prams, luggage trolleys, wheelchairs and small vehicles for distances up to about 300 metres.
  • 32. Travelators Specifications •Travelators are generally provided in areas where people need to walk long distances with luggage, baggage carts or shopping carts. A Travelator is generally flat, but can be slightly inclined.
  • 33. Arrangement of Escalators and Travelators • Single Unit suitable for small retail stores where available floor space is restricted. • Continuous Arrangement (One-way Traffic) This arrangement is used mainly in retail stores to link three sales levels. • Interrupted Arrangement (One-Way Traffic) Due to spatial separation of the building , the arrangement has upward or downward direction
  • 34. Arrangement of Escalators and Travelators • Parallel, Interrupted Arrangement (Two-Way Traffic) This is used mainly in retail and public transportation buildings with heavy traffic volumes. It should be possible to reverse the direction of travel depending on the traffic flow.
  • 35. Crisscross, Continuous Arrangement (Two-Way Traffic) This allows customers to travel quickly to the upper flows without any waiting time. Frequently used to make an attractive feature of the escalators in the center of retail stores
  • 38. Controls Lifting operations include the use of • Cranes • Gin wheels • Hoists Cranes - There are four key aspects to the safe use of cranes • Planning lifting operations • Safe systems of work • Supervision of lifting • Thorough examination
  • 39. Types of elevator control systems 1- Single Automatic operation There is no collective function within the elevator control system. This is also a task-oriented system that has a momentary push button. With this operation, the elevator will move towards the requested floor once the command is made. After this, the lift car will wait for any further commands. This kind of operation is mostly used in material lift applications
  • 40. 2- Selective collective operation This kind of operation works in a simple way which makes commuting to different floors a lot easier. When people board an elevator and have different destinations, the selective collective operation method will go in one direction and will drop the passengers to their destination on the way. Such elevators do not alter their route according to the floors selected but stick to their own direction and thus save time. Such a type of operation is commonly used in commercial lifts and Limited Use/Limited Application elevator Types of elevator control systems
  • 41. 3- Group automatic operation For large buildings with many elevators which are controlled with programmable microprocessors to respond. Types of elevator control systems
  • 42. Machine room and Equipments
  • 43. Machine room and Equipments • Tool room Tool room is the room where the tools are kept for storage, prepare, repairing and machining. The space area can be varied based on the types of the tool room machines and applications. It may include high end electro-mechanical equipments for different applications like grinding, milling, shaping, slotting of metals. It consisting the big racks, shelves, cupboards and workbench to store and repair the tools. Thus it can have the facilities to design, manufacture and repair the custom requirements.
  • 44. Types of Tool room Machines • Grinding Machine – It is categorized further in manual surface grinder, hydraulic cylindrical grinder and centerless grinder. • Milling Machines – These are used to shape the metals and solid materials as per the defined or custom specifications. • Shaping Machine – V Belt shaping with wide industrial acceptance to cut metals in curvature shape or angularly. • Slotting Machine – Metal & wood slotting is the prime requirements to cut and shape the metal slots on the head of metal and wood to create screws, bolts, wood screws and automobile custom parts. • Bandsaw Machine – It is specialized for irregular cutting and curving of the metal shapes with precision accuracy. • Hacksaw Machine – It is used in wide range of industries for long time. • Toolroom Setup • Tool room setup is the process to setup precision equipments as per the custom prototype machining for the operation, repairing and production.