3. • Human resource management (HRM, or simply HR)
an organization's workforce, or human resources.
the attraction, selection, training, assessment, and r
ewarding of employees, while also overseeing
organizational leadership and culture, and ensuring
compliance with employment and labor laws.
• In circumstances where employees desire and are
legally authorized to hold a collective bargaining
agreement, HR will also serve as the company's
primary liaison with the employees' representatives
(usually a labor union).
4. • HR is a product of the human relations movement of
the early 20th century, when researchers began
documenting ways of creating business value through
the strategic management of the workforce.
• The function was initially dominated by transactional
work such as payroll and benefits administration, but
consolidation, technological advancement, and further
research, HR now focuses on strategic initiatives
management, succession planning, industrial and labor
relations, and diversity and inclusion.
• The history of personnel management begins around
the end of the 19th century, when welfare officers
(sometimes called ‘welfare secretaries’) came into
• They were women and concerned only with the
protection of women and girls.
• Their creation was a reaction to the harshness of
industrial conditions, coupled with pressures arising
from the extension of the franchise, the influence of
trade unions and the labor movement, and the
campaigning of enlightened employers, often
Quakers, for what was called ‘industrial betterment’.
• As the role grew there was some tension between the
aim of moral protection of women and children and
the needs for higher output.
6. FIRST WORLD WAR
• The First World War accelerated change in the
development of personnel management, with
women being recruited in large numbers to fill
the gaps left by men going to fight, which in
turn meant reaching agreement with trade
unions (often after bitter disputes) about
‘dilution’– accepting unskilled women into
craftsmen’s jobs and changing manning levels.
• During the 1920s, jobs with the titles of ‘labor
manager’ or ‘employment manager’ came into
being in the engineering industry and other
industries where there were large factories, to
handle absence, recruitment, dismissal and
queries over bonuses and so on.
• Employers’ federations, particularly in
engineering and shipbuilding, negotiated national
pay rates with the unions, but there were local
and district variations and there was plenty of
scope for disputes.
• During the 1930s, with the economy beginning to
pick up, big corporations in these newer sectors
saw value in improving employee benefits as a
way of recruiting, retaining and motivating
• But older industries such as textiles, mining and
shipbuilding which were hit by the worldwide
recession did not adopt new techniques, seeing
no need to do so because they had no difficulty in
9. SECOND WORLD WAR
• The Second World War brought about welfare and
personnel work on a full-time basis at all
establishments producing war materials because an
expanded Ministry of Labor and National Service
insisted on it, just as the Government had insisted on
welfare workers in munitions factories in the previous
• The government saw specialist personnel
management as part of the drive for greater efficiency
and the number of people in the personnel function
grew substantially; there were around 5,300 in 1943.
10. • By 1945, employment management and welfare
work had become integrated under the broad
term ‘personnel management’. Experience of the
war had shown that output and productivity
could be influenced by employment policies.
• The role of the personnel function in wartime had
been largely that of implementing the rules
demanded by large-scale, state-governed
production, and thus the image of an emerging
profession was very much a bureaucratic one.
• Following the development of poor industrial
relations during the 1960s a Royal Commission
under Lord Donovan was set up.
11. • Reporting in 19681, it was critical of both
employers and unions; personnel managers
were criticised for lacking negotiation skills
and failing to plan industrial relations
• At least in part, Donovan suggested, these
deficiencies were a consequence of
management’s failure to give personnel
management sufficiently high priority.
12. • In the 1960s and 70s employment started to develop
• At the same time personnel techniques developed
using theories from the social sciences about
motivation and organisational behaviour; selection
testing became more widely used, and management
• During the 1970s, specialisms started to develop, with
reward and resourcing, for example, being addressed
as separate issues.
• Around the mid-80s, the term ‘human resource
management’ arrived from the USA.
• The term ‘human resources’ is an interesting one: it
seemed to suggest that employees were an asset or
resource-like machines, but at the same time HR also
appeared to emphasise employee commitment and
13. EVOLUTION OF INDUSTRIAL
(1) Industrial Revolution:
a. Adam Smith: specialization and division of labor.
b. Robert Owens: Pioneer of HRM, performance
appraisal and pay for performance (fair treatment
14. 2) Scientific management
Frederic Taylor: Father of scientific management
Systematic analysis and breakdown of work
into the smallest mechanical components
and rearranging them into the most efficient
15. (3) Industrial psychology
a. Henry Fayol’s management functions:
Planning, organizing, communicating, coordinating and controlling.
b. F. & L. Gilbert's principles of work simplification
(time and motion studies).
c. Henry Gantt’s principles of work scheduling.
d. Continuation of scientific management.
16. (4) Human behavior and relations
a. The Hawthorne Studies by Westing House
The happy workers are the most productive
workers. (The Pet Milk theory)
b. Max Weber: the Ideal Bureaucracy.
c. Chris Argyris: Individual and organization—
d. Affected by the theories of behavioral
science and system theory.
17. 5. HRM in China
a. Ministry of Labor
b. Ministry of Organization of the Central Committee.
(2) Worker participation in China:
a. Worker Innovation and Workers’ Congress.
b. Stock sharing and voluntary grouping.
(3) Trade Union and its functions.
(4) Types of organizations and their HRM activities
18. • Early labor:
– No human resource management.
• Onset of industry:
– Manage factors of production.
– Industrial relations professional.
• End of WWII:
– Peacetime industry and prosperity.
– Personnel administrator.
• Civil Rights and Litigation:
– Human resource manager / compliance
• Global Business:
– Strategic human resource management
1990: Older Workers Benefit Protection Act.
1990: Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
1991: Revision of the Civil Rights Act.
1993: Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA).
1994: Uniformed Services Employment and
Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA).
• 1996: Illegal Immigration Reform and
20. • Social Security Act of 1935.
• Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA):
– Minimum wage - $.25/hour.
– 40-hour workweek.
– Overtime at time-and-one-half.
– Standards for child labor.
21. • October 1929: Stock market crash.
• 1933: Stocks down 80 percent.
– 25 percent unemployment.
– Drought – farm migration.
– Foreclosure and homelessness.
38. • Human Resource Management Requirements
• BUS 362 Survey of Human Resource
• BUS 363 Labor and Employment Law
• BUS 364 Organizational Staffing
• BUS 412 Compensation and Benefits
39. • Recognition that Human resources are critical.
• A shift from position management to work
• More innovation.
• ong range effectiveness
• Asset development and cost control.
41. HRM in India
• References about Personnel management in
Artasastra which indicates job description of
supervisor and performance linked pay foe
• Tradional craftsman goods shipped to Europe
• Master servant relationship in 17th centuary
• 1828-Robert Owen father of co-operative movement wrote a
book titled as “New view society”-Improving working
conditions and work life of labourers
• After 1850 British rulers institutionalized for running the
government which leads to personnel management system
• 1890 NMLokhande
• 1911 F W Taylor
• 1921-Hawthorn studies
• 1931-Role of Royal commission of labour
• Industrial revolution
• Awakwning of labour
• Government attitude towards labour
1941-First tripartite labour conference
Cultural and social changes
Changes in social value of labour
Changes in managerial value
III five year plans-Private and public sector projects
1970- Militancy in textile sector in Mumbai
1990Personnel management and IR in public sector
44. • After 1990 the emphasis is shifted to human values
and productivity through people
• Role of Public sector companies like BHEL, SAIL and
• 1995 Progressive efforts of in HR
• 1997- Focused on product and customer
• Leading to customer satisfaction, bench
marking, Application TQM, core
competence, empowerment and learning