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Cellular Respiration 
Harvesting 
Chemical Energy 
ATP
“Burn fuels” to make energy 
combustion 
making heat energy by burning fuels in one step 
CO2 + H2O + heat 
fuel 
O2 
(car...
Energy needs of life 
• Animals are energy consumers 
• What do we need energy for? 
• synthesis (building for growth) 
• ...
Where do we get energy? 
• Energy is stored in organic molecules 
• carbohydrates, fats, proteins 
• Animals eat these org...
ATP 
What is energy 
in biology? 
Adenosine Triphosphate 
Whoa! 
HOT stuff!
Harvesting energy stored in food 
• Cellular respiration 
• breaking down food to produce ATP 
• in mitochondria 
• using ...
What do we need to make energy? 
• The “Furnace” for making energy 
• mitochondria 
• Fuel 
• food: carbohydrates, fats, p...
Mitochondria are everywhere!! 
animal cells plant cells
Using ATP to do work? 
Cannot store ATP 
 too unstable 
only used in cell that produces it 
only short term energy stor...
How organisms turn fuel into ATP 
Fuel 
(carbohydrates, lipids, proteins) 
Anaerobic 
Cellular Respiration 
Oxygen present...
Let’s first look at Aerobic Respiration
Aerobic Cellular Respiration 
3 Major Steps: 
1. Glycolysis 
2. Kreb’s Cycle / Citric Acid Cycle 
3. Electron Transport Ch...
1. Glycolysis 
• Glyco = glucose lysis = splitting 
• Where: in the cytoplasm 
• Uses : glucose but NO oxygen 
• Makes: 
•...
Glycolosis (no O2 required) 
Glucose 
 
G3P 
 
2 Pyruvate
2. Krebs Cycle 
• Where? 
• in the mitochondrial matrix 
• Uses: 
- pyruvate (from glycolysis) 
• Makes: 
• NADH (electron...
Krebs Cycle 
• Two Acetyl CoA 
enter cycle to 
form Citric Acid 
one at a time
3. Electron Transport 
• Where? 
• Inner mitochondrial membrane 
• Uses: 
• NADH & FADH2 
• Remember these are like “elect...
How does the ETC make so much 
energy ? 
ATP 
Answer = chemiosmosis 
Sound familiar? 
• We learned it in photosynthesis to...
Electron Transport 
1. NADH & FADH2 drop off electrons 
1. Oxygen pulls electrons down the ETC 
2. Chemiosmosis = Hydrogen...
Electron Transport 
1 2 3
Anaerobic Respiration 
We know that aerobic cellular 
respiration requires oxygen. But 
what happens if there is no oxygen...
Anaerobic respiration 
• The anaerobic pathway that 
follows glycolysis 
O2 
• If there is no oxygen present and 
an organ...
Anaerobic Respiration 
• also known as fermentation 
• alcohol fermentation 
• lactic acid fermentation 
• no oxygen or 
n...
Anaerobic Respiration 
• Fermentation 
• alcohol fermentation 
• yeast 
O2 
• glucose  ATP + CO2+ alcohol 
• make beer, w...
Questions! 
Number your paper 1 to 4
What is the overall purpose of cellular 
respiration? 
A. to make ATP 
B. to produce H2O 
C. to store glucose 
D. to deliv...
Which represents the general sequence of 
cellular respiration? 
A. TCA cycle chemiosmosis glycolysis 
B. glycolysis Krebs...
Which stage of cellular respiration is the 
anaerobic process? 
A. glycolysis 
B. Krebs cycle 
C. electron transport
Which molecule generated by the Krebs 
cycle is a waste product? 
A. CoA 
B. CO2 
C. FADH2 
D. NADH
Answers 
1. A 
2. B 
3. A 
4. B
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8.3 cellular respiration 2014

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8.3 cellular respiration 2014

  1. 1. Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP
  2. 2. “Burn fuels” to make energy combustion making heat energy by burning fuels in one step CO2 + H2O + heat fuel O2 (carbohydrates) aerobic respiration making ATP energy (& some heat) by burning fuels in many small steps ATP ATP + CO2 + H2O (+ heat) food (carbohydrates) O2
  3. 3. Energy needs of life • Animals are energy consumers • What do we need energy for? • synthesis (building for growth) • reproduction • active transport • movement • temperature control (making heat)
  4. 4. Where do we get energy? • Energy is stored in organic molecules • carbohydrates, fats, proteins • Animals eat these organic molecules  food • digest food to get ATP • fuels for energy (ATP) • raw materials for building more molecules • carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids
  5. 5. ATP What is energy in biology? Adenosine Triphosphate Whoa! HOT stuff!
  6. 6. Harvesting energy stored in food • Cellular respiration • breaking down food to produce ATP • in mitochondria • using oxygen = “aerobic” respiration • usually digesting glucose food • but could be other sugars, fats, or proteins O2 ATP C6H12O6 6O2 6CO2 ATP 6H2O Glucose Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Water ATP
  7. 7. What do we need to make energy? • The “Furnace” for making energy • mitochondria • Fuel • food: carbohydrates, fats, proteins • Helpers • oxygen • enzymes • Product • ATP • Waste products • carbon dioxide • water food O2 Make ATP! Make ATP! All I do all day… And no one even notices! ATP enzymes CO2 H2O
  8. 8. Mitochondria are everywhere!! animal cells plant cells
  9. 9. Using ATP to do work? Cannot store ATP  too unstable only used in cell that produces it only short term energy storage  carbohydrates & fats are long term energy storage Adenosine TriPhosphate A working muscle recycles over 10 million ATPs per second Whoa! Pass me the glucose & oxygen! ATP ADP work Adenosine DiPhosphate
  10. 10. How organisms turn fuel into ATP Fuel (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins) Anaerobic Cellular Respiration Oxygen present? no yes Alcoholic Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation Makes only a little Aerobic Cellular Respiration ATP Makes a LOT of ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP
  11. 11. Let’s first look at Aerobic Respiration
  12. 12. Aerobic Cellular Respiration 3 Major Steps: 1. Glycolysis 2. Kreb’s Cycle / Citric Acid Cycle 3. Electron Transport Chain
  13. 13. 1. Glycolysis • Glyco = glucose lysis = splitting • Where: in the cytoplasm • Uses : glucose but NO oxygen • Makes: • Pyruvate (passed to Kreb’s Cycle) • A little ATP • NADH (electron bus… headed to the Electron Transport Chain)
  14. 14. Glycolosis (no O2 required) Glucose  G3P  2 Pyruvate
  15. 15. 2. Krebs Cycle • Where? • in the mitochondrial matrix • Uses: - pyruvate (from glycolysis) • Makes: • NADH (electron bus) • FADH2 (electron bus) • A little ATP (energy) • Carbon Dioxide (waste product)
  16. 16. Krebs Cycle • Two Acetyl CoA enter cycle to form Citric Acid one at a time
  17. 17. 3. Electron Transport • Where? • Inner mitochondrial membrane • Uses: • NADH & FADH2 • Remember these are like “electron buses” that drop off electrons to the ETC • Oxygen • Pulls electrons down the ETC and accepts them at the end of the ETC • This is why we die if we don’t get oxygen! • Makes: • Water (waste product) • A BUNCH of A T P (whoohooo… big energy!)
  18. 18. How does the ETC make so much energy ? ATP Answer = chemiosmosis Sound familiar? • We learned it in photosynthesis too!
  19. 19. Electron Transport 1. NADH & FADH2 drop off electrons 1. Oxygen pulls electrons down the ETC 2. Chemiosmosis = Hydrogen ions diffuse from an area of high concentration (outside the membrane) to an area of low concentration (inner-membrane space) through ATP synthase. • Hydrogen ions then help to bond a third phosphate group to ADP creating lots of ATP
  20. 20. Electron Transport 1 2 3
  21. 21. Anaerobic Respiration We know that aerobic cellular respiration requires oxygen. But what happens if there is no oxygen available? O2 Answer = Anaerobic Cellular Respiration
  22. 22. Anaerobic respiration • The anaerobic pathway that follows glycolysis O2 • If there is no oxygen present and an organism needs energy, the cell may use anaerobic respiration to continue producing ATP
  23. 23. Anaerobic Respiration • also known as fermentation • alcohol fermentation • lactic acid fermentation • no oxygen or no mitochondria (bacteria) • makes very little ATP • large animals cannot survive using only fermentation O2 yeast bacteria
  24. 24. Anaerobic Respiration • Fermentation • alcohol fermentation • yeast O2 • glucose  ATP + CO2+ alcohol • make beer, wine, bread • lactic acid fermentation • bacteria, animals • glucose  ATP + lactic acid • bacteria make yogurt • animals feel muscle fatigue Tastes good… but not enough energy for me!
  25. 25. Questions! Number your paper 1 to 4
  26. 26. What is the overall purpose of cellular respiration? A. to make ATP B. to produce H2O C. to store glucose D. to deliver oxygen
  27. 27. Which represents the general sequence of cellular respiration? A. TCA cycle chemiosmosis glycolysis B. glycolysis Krebs cycle electron transport C. electron absorption catalysis phosphorylation D. aerobic pathway anaerobic pathway fermentation
  28. 28. Which stage of cellular respiration is the anaerobic process? A. glycolysis B. Krebs cycle C. electron transport
  29. 29. Which molecule generated by the Krebs cycle is a waste product? A. CoA B. CO2 C. FADH2 D. NADH
  30. 30. Answers 1. A 2. B 3. A 4. B

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