3. The aims of this module are to enable students to develop the following
theoretical understanding, values and competencies regarding
supporting of upper primary learners’ learning of English:
• Analyse key issues underpinning learning support as well as syllabus guidelines.
• Evaluate learning support of issues about the teaching-learning of grammar.
• Analyse learning support about listening and speaking.
• Discuss learning support of issues about reading.
• Propose learning support in issues about writing.
• Analyse learning support in issues about prose.
• Discuss learning support in issues about poetry.
• Evaluate learning support about issues of assessment in English.
4. Module assessment and quality assurance:
• Continuous assessment per semester module consists of one assignment of 100
marks for modules of 8 credits.
• A 50% semester / continuous assessment mark is required for admission to
• Where practical work is applicable, a 60% pass is required and such work could
account for 50% of the continuous assessment mark.
• A final pass mark of 50% is required, calculated by 60% of the examination mark and
40% of the semester / continuous assessment mark. A sub-minimum of 50% must
be attained in the examination.
• The setting and marking of examination papers are moderated.
5. Units covered in this presentation:
• Unit 1
• Unit 2
• Unit 3
• Unit 4
• Unit 5
• Unit 6
• Unit 7
• Unit 8
• Unit 9
6. The Three Domains of Learning
• Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (skills)
• Cognitive: mental skills (knowledge)
• Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (attitude or self)
7. Physical domain
• Psychomotor objectives are those specific to discreet physical functions, reflex
actions and interpretive movements.
• Traditionally, these types of objectives are concerned with the physically encoding
of information, with movement and/or with activities where the gross and fine
muscles are used for expressing or interpreting information or concepts.
• This area also refers to natural, autonomic responses or reflexes.
• If the activity is simply something that is physical, which supports another area,
affective or cognitive, the objective is called physical rather than psychomotor
8. Cognitive domain
• The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills
• This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and
concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills.
• There are six major categories of cognitive processes, starting from the simplest to
the most complex.
• The categories can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. That means that the first
ones must normally be mastered before the next one can take place.
9. Emotional domain
• The affective domain is the final of three domains in Bloom's Taxonomy, with the
other two being the cognitive and psychomotor.
• The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia, 1973) includes the manner in which
we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms,
motivations, and attitudes.
10. How to reinforce positive emotions and value
• Prompt motivation.
• Spark curiosity.
• Nourish intellect, talent, and power.
• Encourage connections.
• Monitor growth.
• Accept special considerations.
11. Strategies that can be used to increase memory
• Understanding and remembering.
• Activation of prior knowledge.
• Maintenance rehearsal versus elaborative rehearsal.
• Multiple sensory and multiple format instruction.
• Proactive and retroactive interference.
• Episodic and semantic memory systems.
• Perceptual and conceptual priming.
• Classical or associative conditioning.
• Non-associative or evaluative learning.
• Encoding and retrieval practice
12. • Encoding and retrieval practice.
• Retrieval cues and the encoding specificity hypothesis.
• Mnemonic methods.
Integrated skill instruction and Segregated skill
instruction in the English classroom.
Integrated skill instruction Segregated skill instruction
• People use language skills in normal
communication, and it clashes with the direction in
which language teaching experts have been
moving in recent years.
• Exposes English language learners to authentic
language and challenges them to interact naturally
in the language.
• Learners rapidly gain a true picture of the richness
and complexity of the English language as
employed for communication.
This approach allows teachers to track
learners' progress in multiple skills at the
• The mastery of discrete language skills such as
reading and speaking is seen as the key to successful
learning, and language learning is typically separate
from content learning
• Segregated-skill ESL/EFL classes present instruction in
terms of skill-linked learning strategies.
An extreme example is the grammar-translation
method, which teaches learners to analyse
grammar and to translate (usually in writing) from
one language to another.
This method restricts language learning to a very
narrow, non-communicative range that does not
prepare learners to use the language in everyday
14. Ways in which inconsistent body language hinder
listening for the speaker’s emotions
• If you say one thing, but your body language says something else, your listener will
probably feel that you are being dishonest. For example, you cannot say “yes” while
shaking your head “no”.
• Negative body language: If you disagree with or dislike what is being said, you may
use negative body language to rebuff the other person’s message, such as crossing
your arms, avoiding eye contact or tapping your feet.
• You do not have to agree or even like what is being said, but to communicate
effectively without making the other person defensive, it is important to avoid
sending negative signals.
• In addition, avoid being distracted by critical evaluations of the speaker. Focus on
what the speaker is saying - the message -rather than the messenger.
15. The value the pre-writing technique has for ESL
learners in the English class
• It is essential for the writer whose first language is not English.
• Especially at the lower levels of proficiency, learners have a limited lexicon and
therefore often have difficulty expressing their ideas. Therefore, teachers assist
second language learners to generate vocabulary and grammatical structures
relevant to the topic.
• Models and samples are often helpful.
16. General aims of teaching learners prose
• To understand the passage and grasp its meaning.
• To read with correct pronunciation, stress, intonation, pause and articulation of
• To enable learners to understand the passage by silent reading.
• To enrich their active and passive vocabulary.
• To express the ideas of the passage orally and in writing.
• To enjoy reading and writing.
• To develop their imagination.
17. Aims of teaching poetry in the upper primary
• Language awareness.
• Critical analysis.
• Creativity and enthusiasm.
18. Purpose of a diagnostic assessment
• Diagnostic assessment is an essential device in a teacher’s “tool kit”.
• It can be used to diagnose strengths and areas of need in all learners.
• Diagnostic assessment involves the gathering and careful evaluation of detailed data
using learners’ knowledge and skills in a given learning area.
• The data assist teachers to plan for appropriate pedagogy and targeted learning to
more effectively scaffold the learning needs of their learners.
• Consequently, diagnostic assessment is used ‘for learning’ where taking action to
adjust teaching plays a significant role in improving learning outcomes for all
19. The characteristics of a quality learning
Advantages and disadvantages of multiple-choice
• Often test literacy skills.
• Provide unprepared learners the
opportunity to guess, and with
guesses that are right, they get credit
for things they don’t know
• Expose learners to misinformation
that can influence subsequent
thinking about the content
• Takes time and skill to construct
(especially good questions).
• Quick and easy to score, by hand or
• Can be written so that they test a wide
range of higher-order thinking skills
• Can cover lots of content areas on a
single exam and still be answered in a