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vertical takeoff and landing(VTOL) aircraft

VTOL concept and types of VTOL aircrafts

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vertical takeoff and landing(VTOL) aircraft

  1. 1. VTOL
  2. 2. • A vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft is one that can hover, take off, and land vertically. This classification includes fixed-wing aircraft as well as helicopters and other aircraft with powered rotors, such as cyclogyros/cyclocopters and tiltrotors. Some VTOL aircraft can operate in other modes as well, such as CTOL(conventional take-off and landing), STOL (short take-off and landing), and/or STOVL(short take-off and vertical landing). Others, such as some helicopters, can only operate by VTOL, due to the aircraft lacking landing gear that can handle horizontal motion. VTOL is a subset of V/STOL (vertical and/or short take- off and landing).
  3. 3. HELICOPTERS • The helicopter's form of VTOL allows it to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forwards, backwards, and laterally. These attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft would usually not be able to take off or land. The capability to efficiently hover for extended periods of time is due to the helicopter's relatively long, and hence efficient rotor blades, and allows a helicopter to accomplish tasks that fixed-wing aircraft and other forms of vertical takeoff and landing aircraft could not perform at least as well until 2011. • On the other hand, the long rotor blades restrict the maximum speed to about 250 miles per hour (400 km/h) of at least conventional helicopters, as retreating blade stall causes lateral instability.
  4. 4. AUTOGYRO • Autogyros are also known as gyroplanes or gyrocopters. The rotor is unpowered and rotates freely in the airflow as the craft travels forward, so the craft needs a conventional powerplant to provide thrust. An autogyro is not intrinsically capable of VTOL: for VTO the rotor must be spun up to speed by an auxiliary drive, and vertical landing requires precise control of rotor momentum and pitch.
  5. 5. GYRODYNE • Gyrodynes are also known as compound helicopters or compound gyroplanes. A gyrodyne has the powered rotor of a helicopter with a separate forward thrust system of an autogyro. Apart from take-off and landing the rotor may be unpowered and autorotate. Designs may also include stub wings for added lift.
  6. 6. CYCLOGYRO • A cyclogyro or cyclocopter has a rotary wing whose axis and surfaces remain sideways across the airflow, as with a conventional wing
  7. 7. • Convertiplane • A convertiplane takes off under rotor lift like a helicopter, then transitions to fixed-wing lift in forward flight.
  8. 8. • Tiltrotor • A tiltrotor or proprotor tilts its propellers or rotors vertically for VTOL and then tilts them forwards for horizontal wing-borne flight, while the main wing remains fixed in place.
  9. 9. • Tiltwing • A tiltwing has its propellers or rotors fixed to a conventional wing and tilts the whole assembly to transition between vertical and horizontal flight.
  10. 10. • Tail-sitter • A tail-sitter sits vertically on its tail for takeoff and landing, then tilts the whole aircraft forward for horizontal flight.
  11. 11. FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS OF VTOL DESIGN • A number of unique problems characterize the design and operation of jet VTOL aircraft. Two fundamental problems stand out because they tend to have the greatest impact upon the selection of a VTOL propulsion concept and upon the design and sizing of the aircraft: balance and thrust matching.

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