3. WHAT IS ENDOGENIC PROCESSES?
Endogenic Processes are geological processes that
occur beneath the surface of the Earth.
It is associated with energy originating in the interior of
the solid earth.
The ground we live on is moving all the time. The
Forces within the earth that cause the ground to move
are called ENDOGENIC FORCES.
4. HOW DOES ENDOGENIC PROCESS WORKS?
When the ground moves, Rock layers at the surface of
the earth are broken, twisted and shaken.
Land is destroyed in many places and created in other
When the land is shaped by Endogenic Forces we
call this ENDOGENIC PROCESSES.
5. THE MAIN ENDOGENIC PROCESS
The Main Endogenic Processes are FOLDING &
FAULTING or Tectonic Movements.
They take place mainly along the plate boundaries, which
are the zones that are not stable.
Endogenic processes cause many major landform features.
When two forces push towards each other from opposite sides, the
rock layers will bend into folds.
The process by which folds are formed are due to compressional
forces known as folding.
There are large-scale and small-scale folds. Large- scale folds are
found mainly along destructive plate boundaries.
Faulting is the fracturing and displacement of more brittle rock strata
along a fault plane either caused by tension or compression.
A break in rock along which a vertical or horizontal rock movement
has occurred is called a fault.
The process of forming a fault is faulting.
The line of fault which appears on land surface is known as fault
These lines are often lines of weakness which allow molten rock to
rise up onto the earth surface when there is active volcanic activity
10. TYPES OF FAULTING
There are three types of fault which are caused by
different endogenic forces:
Normal fault (Convergence)
Reverse fault (Divergence)
Tear fault (Transform)
Faulting forms two major landforms - block
mountains and rift valleys.
12. OTHER ENDOGENIC PROCESS (SUBSEQUENT)
These are Endogenic Processes that are subsequent to the main
Volcanism (Volcanic Activity)
Earthquake (Seismic Activity)
VOLCANISM or magmatism (also known as volcanic activity or igneous
Magma beneath the crust is under very great pressure. When folding
faulting occur, cracks or fractures which are lines of weakness are
When these lines of weakness develop downward in the crust and
the magma, they will release the pressure in the magma.
This allows magma to rise up along the lines of weakness and intrude
into the crust. Some magma may even reach the earth's surface and
An Earthquake or (Seismic Activity) is a sudden shaking or vibration
in the earth’s crust.
When plates suddenly move past each other, the built-up strain is
released along the fault, and the rock fractures.
An earthquake also can be triggered by molten rock moving up into
the chamber of a volcano before eruption.
22. IMPORTANT DETAILS
Endogenic Processes are Processes that is formed or occurring beneath the
surface of the Earth.
The Main Endogenic Processes are Folding and Faulting (or tectonic
The Subsequent Endogenic Processes are Volcanism,
Metamorphism, and Earthquakes.
Endogenic processes cause many major landform features.
Endogenic processes have been responsible for shaping the earth’s geologic
structures and the formation of many of the most important mineral resources.
24. EXOGENIC PROCESSES OR DENUDATION
Refers to activities or phenomena that occur on the Earth’s surface.
It is considered as destructive and are responsible for degradation and
sculpting the Earth’s surface.
The process that breaks down rock into smaller pieces.
The physical weathering happens when rock is physically broken into
27. FACTORS THAT AFFECT PHYSICAL WEATHERING
1. ICE WEDGING ~> H2O seeps in rock, expands, crack rocks into smaller pieces.
2. RELEASE OF PRESSURE ~> Surface rock erodes, rock flakes like onion layers.
3. GROWTH OF PLANTS ~> Roots grow into cracks and push rocks apart.
4. ANIMALS ~> Burrow and push apart rock.
5. ABRASION ~> Sand and rock carried by wind, water, ice wears away surface rock when
rocks collide. Most common in windy areas
29. FACTORS THAT AFFECT CHEMICAL WEATHERING
TER ~> Water dissolves rock chemically.
2. OXYGEN ~> Rocks that has iron in it mixes with oxygen and rusts.
3. CARBON DIOXIDE ~> CO2 dissolves in rainwater and weathers marble and limestone.
4. LIVING ORGANISMS ~> Acids from plants and roots chemically weather rock.
5. ACID RAIN ~> Air pollution reacts with clouds and falls on rock as acid rain.
31. EROSION BY WATER
EROSION BY GRAVITY
Erosion by water changes the shape
of coastlines. Waves constantly
crash against shores. They pound
rocks into pebbles and reduce
pebbles to sand. Water sometimes
takes sand away from beaches. This
moves the coastline farther inland.
EROSION BY ICE
Erosion by ice can erode the land. In
frigid areas and on some
mountaintops, glaciers move slowly
downhill and across the land. As they
move, they pick up everything in their
path, from tiny grains of sand to huge
EROSION BY WIND
Gravity pulls any loose bits down the
side of a hill or mountain. Gravity
Erosion is better known as Mass
Erosion by wind carries dust, sand,
and volcanic ash from one place to
another. Wind can sometimes blow
sand into towering dunes.
34. ADDITIONAL INFO (WEATHERING & EROSION)
REGOLITH - When weathered rock remains in place and remains in its
SEDIMENT - When weathered material is removed from the site of
TER - It is the main agent of erosion.
PEOPLE - Nowadays, people became one of the causes of erosion.
THERING AND EROSION - Weathered rock material will be removed
from its original site and transported away by a natural agent.
35. It is a natural process in which a material is carried to the bottom
of bodies of water and forms to solid.
36. Mass wasting is the movement of rock, soil and regolith
downward due to the action of gravity.
37. FACTORS THAT TRIGGERED the MASS WASTING
Rainwater adds weight
and acts as a lubricant to
It is a vibration and also a
factor that triggers mass
The lack of vegetation
cover to hold the loose
Rapid movements are
commonly found in steep
slopes while slow
movements are found on
38. CLASSIFICATION OF MASS WASTING
A slump is a type of mass wasting that results in the
sliding of coherent rock materials along a curved
The solifluction is the slow downhill
flow of soil.
39. CLASSIFICATION OF MASS WASTING
Earthflow is a downslope viscous flow of fine-
grained materials that have been saturated
water and moves under the pull of gravity
Mudflow occurs when mud travels down a
slope very quickly.
40. CLASSIFICATION OF MASS WASTING
DEBRIS SLIDE DEBRIS FLOW
A debris slide is a type of slide characterized by
the chaotic movement of rocks, soil, and debris
mixed with water and/or ice.
A debris flow is moving mass of loose mud, sand,
soil, rock, water and air that travels down a slope
under the influence of gravity
41. CLASSIFICATION OF MASS WASTING
ROCK FLOW SOIL CREEP
A Rock flow occurswhenpiecesofrockbreakloosefrom
Soil creep is a slow, gradual movement of soil or
regolith downhill over time