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  1. 1. Introduction to Information Technology Turban, Rainer and Potter John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright 2005 Chapter 6 1
  2. 2. Mobile, Wireless, and Pervasive Computing Chapter 6 2 “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc,”
  3. 3. Chapter Outline Mobile Computing and Commerce : Overview Benefits, and Drivers. Wireless Local Area Networks, Wi-Fi, and Voice Portals. Mobile Personal Service Applications Mobile Applications in Financial Services. Mobile Shopping, Advertising, and Customer Service Mobile Intrabusiness Applications. Location- Based Computing. Inhibitors and Barriers of Mobile Computing. “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 3
  4. 4. Learning Objectives Discuss the characteristic, attributes, and drivers of mobile computing and m-commerce . Describe personal service application of m-commerce. Describe the emergence of Wi-Fi and voice portals. Discuss m-commerce application in financial service. Describe m-commerce applications in shopping, advertising, and customer service. Describe the use of mobile computing in enterprise and supply chain applications. Describe location- based commerce (l-commerce). Discuss the key characteristics and current uses of pervasive computing. Describe the major inhibitors and barriers of mobile computing and m-commerce. “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 4
  5. 5. 6.1 Mobile Computing and Commerce: Overview, Benefits, and Drivers  Mobile computing. A computing model designed for workers who travel outside the boundaries of their organizations or homes.  Mobile Devices. Portable computers such as PDAs and other handhelds.  Wireless mobile computing. The combination of mobile devices used in a wireless environment. “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 5
  6. 6. Mobile commerce ( m-commerce)  Any e-commerce done in wireless environment, especially via the Internet.  Personal Digital Assistant (PDA): A handheld wireless computer.  Short Messaging Service (SMS): Technology that allows for sending of short text message on some cell phone.  Global Positioning System (GPS): A satellite- based tracking system that enables the determination of GPS device’s location.  Bluetooth: Chip technology that enables temporary, short- range connection ( data and voice) between wireless devices.  Wireless Application Protocol ( WAP): A set of communication protocols designed to enable different kinds of wireless devices to talk to a server installed on a mobile network, so users can access the Internet.  Smartphone: Internet- enabled cell phone that can support mobile application “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 6
  7. 7. The Attributes of M-computing and M-commerce  Mobility implies portability: user can carry a mobile device with them  Broad reach: people can be reached at any time. These two characteristics create five value-added attributes that break the barriers of geography and time, ubiquity, convenience, instant connectivity, personalization , and localization of products and services. “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 7
  8. 8. The Attributes of M-computing cont…  Ubiquity: fill the need for real- time information and communication , independent of the user’s location.  Convenience and instant connectivity: easy and fast access the web, intranets, and other mobile devices without booting up a PC or placing a call via a modem.  Customization: Information can be customized and sent to individual consumers as an SMS.  Localization: knowing where a user is physically at any particular moment is key to offering relevant products and services. “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 8
  9. 9. Drivers of M-computing and M-commerce  Widespread availability of mobile devices.  No Need for a PC.  The “ Cell Phone Culture”.  Vendor Marketing.  Declining Prices and Increasing. Functionalities.  Improvement of Bandwidth. “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 9
  10. 10. The landscape of mobile computing and commerce “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 10
  11. 11. 6.2 Wireless Local Area Networks, WI-FI, and Voice Portals  Wireless LAN(WLAN): A local area network (LAN) without the cables; used to transmit and receive data over the airwaves.  Wireless access point: An antenna connecting a mobile device ( Laptop or PDA) to a wired local area network.  Hotspot: A small geographical perimeter within which a wireless access point provides service to a number of users.  802.11b: Technical standard developed by the IEEE, on which most of today’s WLANs run; WLANs employing this standard have communication speed of 11 mbps.  (Wi-Fi): wireless fidelity. Another name for the 802.11b standard on which most WLANs run. “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 11
  12. 12. 6.3 Mobile Personal Service Applications  Hotel Services Go Wireless  Wireless Telemedicine  Mobile Portals “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 12
  13. 13. 6.4 Mobile Application in Financial Service  Mobile Banking  Wireless Electronic Payment Systems  Micropayments  Mobile (Wireless) Wallets  Wireless Bill Payment “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 13
  14. 14. 6.5 M-shopping, Advertising, and Customer Service  Shopping from Wireless Devices  Location-Based Advertising  Mobile Support of Consumers “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 14
  15. 15. 6.6 Mobile Intrabusiness Applications  Support of mobile workers with wearable devices such as: Screen, Camera, Touch-panel display, Keyboard, and Speech Translator  Job Dispatch “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 15
  16. 16. Intrabusiness Workflow Application Before Wireless With Wireless Work orders are manually assigned by multiple supervisors and dispatchers Work orders are automatically assigned and routed within minutes for maximum efficiency.. Field service technician commute to dispatch center to pick up paper work orders Home-based filed services technicians receive first work order via mobile terminal and proceed directly to first assignment. Manual record keeping of time, work completed, and billing information. Automated productivity tracking, record keeping and building updates Field service technicians call for new assignments and often wait because of radio traffic or unavailable dispatcher. Electronic transmittal of additional work orders with no waiting time Completed work orders are dropped off at the dispatch center at the end of the day for manual entry into the billing tracking system. Uncompleted orders are manually distributed to available technicians. Overtime changes often result. Technicians close completed work orders from the mobile terminals as they are completed . At the end of shift. The technicians sign off and go home. “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 16
  17. 17. 6.7 Mobile Enterprise and Supply Chain Applications  Support of customers and business partners  Supply chain applications “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 17
  18. 18. 6.8 Location-Based Commerce  Location based commerce (l. commerce):M-commerce transactions targeted to individuals in specific locations, at specific times. “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 18
  19. 19. L-commerce Technologies Providing location- based services requires the following technologies. Position- determining equipment (PDE): This equipment identifies the location of the mobile device. Mobile positioning center (MPC): The MPC is a server that manages the location information sent from the PDE Location-based technology: The technology consist of groups of servers that combine the position information with geographic- and location- specific content to provide an l-commerce service Geographic content: Geographic content consists of streets, road map, addresses, routes, landmarks, land usage , Zip codes and the like. Location-specific content: Location-specific content is used in conjunction with the geographic content to provide he location of particular services. “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 19
  20. 20. GPS and GIS  Global Positioning Systems (GPS). A wireless system that uses satellites to enable users to determine their position anywhere on the earth  Geographical Information System (GIS). System that integrate GSP data onto digitized map displays. “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 20
  21. 21. Telemetry Applications  Telemetry is the science that measures physical remoteness by means of wireless transmission from a remote source (such as a vehicle) to a receiving station. “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 21
  22. 22. Barriers to L-commerce  Accuracy  The cost- benefit justification  The bandwidth of GSM networks  Invasion of privacy “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 22
  23. 23. 6.9 Pervasive Computing  The term pervasive computing also goes by the names ubiquitous computing, embedded computing or augmented computing.  Pervasive computing: invisible, everywhere computing that is embedded in the objects around us.  (RFID) radio frequency identification. Generic term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify individual items. “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 23
  24. 24. Contextual Computing and Context Awareness  Context awareness. Capturing a broad rang of contextual attributes to better understand what the consumer needs and what products or service might be interest.  Contextual computing. Active adaptation of the contextual environment for each user, at each point of computing. “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 24
  25. 25. Applications of Pervasive Computing  Smart homes  Smart applications  Smart cars  Smart “Things”  Large Scale Pervasive Systems “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 25
  26. 26. 6.10 Inhibitors and barriers of mobile computing  The usability and other technical problems  Ethical and legal issues  Failures in mobile computing and M-Commerce “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 26
  27. 27. Technical and other limitations of mobile computing Limitation Description Insufficient bandwidth Sufficient bandwidth is necessary for widespread use and it must be inexpensive. It will take a few years until 3G is in many places .Wi-FI solves some of the problem. Security standards Universal standards were not available in 2003 . It may take 3 or more years to have them . Power consumption Batteries with long life are needed for mobile computing . Color screens and Wi-FI consume more electricity , but new chips are solving some of the power-consumption problems. Transmission interferences Weather and terrain problems as well as distance-limited connection exist with some technologies . Reception in tunnel and some building is poor GPS accuracy GSP may be accurate in a city with tall buildings WAP limitations According to, in 2002 there were only about 50,000 WAP sites (compared to millions of Web sites) . WAP still is a cumbersome process to work with. Potential health hazards Potential health damage from cellular radio frequency emission is not known yet . However, more car accidents are related to drivers who were talking (some places bar the use of cell phones while you drive ) also, cell phones may interfere with sensitive medical devices. Legal issues Potential legal issues against manufactures of cell phones and against service provides exist, due to the potential health problems Human interface with device Screen and keyboards are too small and uncomfortable and tedious for many people to use Complexity Too many optional add-ons are available (e.g., battery chargers, external keyboards, headset, microphone, cradles) . Storing and using the optional add-ons can be a problem “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 27
  28. 28. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for information should be addressed to the permission department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The publisher assumes no responsibility for error, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information herein. “ Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons Inc.” Chapter 6 28