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Modern turkey jacoby

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A description of the rise of Turkish Nationalism, tanzimat reforms, the CUP and Kemalism. Ends with a comparison to China during their revolutionary period.

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Modern turkey jacoby

  1. 1. MODERN TURKEY The birth of Nationalism and reformation.
  2. 2. Turkish Nationalism Modern Turkey c. 2013 Even if you do not have a widescreen display, you can still create and present 16:9 slides. PowerPoint’s Slide Show always resizes your slides to fit any screen.
  3. 3. Turkey Now (c. 2013) and Then (c. 1900) Now:  Situate in “Arab Spring” context  Gezi Park Protest (May, 2013)  AKP (current party since 2002) It’s generally viewed as a moderate Islamic regime. Secularists are skeptical of a more unsurfaced radical agenda. Some fear a slippery slope into the direction of modern Iran. Then:  Situate in “Age of Revolution” context (Russian (1915), Meiji Restoration (1830- 88), Mexican Revolution (1920) , Iranian Revolution (1906)
  4. 4. Modern Turkey  What does it mean to be modern?  How do we situate Turkey in the European and Asian context of “modernity?”
  5. 5. Reformation Under Selim (1789- 1914) Janissary Corps: Boys 8-15 Taken from outside provinces (mainly Russia) Well-educated Social Mobility Loyalty to the Sultan  Modernization couldn’t just take place in the military. An emphasis on learning modern societies and language was needed.  “The New Order” Modern weaponry and military reorganization (outside of Janissaries, which doesn’t go too well)
  6. 6. Outcomes of Tanzimat Reforms What is the point? Centralization. The Middle East sought to centralize in a similar way that the Europeans did, but obstacles occurred to formalize these relations. For example, Muhammad in Ali in Egypt attacked the Ottomans in 1839 because the Ottomans were restricting the trade of cotton. Britain and France rallied with the Ottomans to defeat the Egyptians. This indicates a shifting paradigm; Western Powers favored “established states.”  A cycle of indebtedness develops; Europeans gain greater economic and political control over Ottomans  By 19th century, the Ottomans contract huge loans, which became strings for economic and political concessions.
  7. 7. Symbolism: Woman smashing chains Widescreen Pictures
  8. 8. Tanzimat Reforms (1839- 1876) *Autocracy: A government by one person with absolute power. Dictatorship, despotism, tyranny, monocracy Q. What is the main impetus for these reforms? Colonization! Types of reforms: administrative, technological, social, political, defensive militarization  More “autocratic*”  19th century reforms: administrative – gave rulers and religion more power  Education: Students became more familiar with intellectual ideas of European Enlightenment – a “pro West” thinking develops  Military: Europeans use Ottomans for protection against Russia and Iran  Offered more opportunities for women  Legal Reforms: Influenced by Western Law – moves away from religious texts Bifurcation develops: In other words, new and old ideas live side by side.  Citizenship: Impact of growing European context (new Constitution is developed in 1876)
  9. 9. The Young Turk Revolution (1908)  Admiration of French Revolution  Young Turks came to power on basis of civilian and military coup  Well coordinated  The Young Turks admired revolution as a mark of “modernity”  The Young Turks admired Japan (the Japanese victory in 1905 over Russia (Russia at the time was viewed as a European state) confirmed their ability to overcome European grasp. Side note: many Turkish mothers named their kids Japanese names to celebrate the triumph.  1905 was a lesson, they feared violence but appreciated the constitutional outcome.  By 1906, the Iranian Revolution confirmed that the revolutionary upheaval could occur in the region with the vocabulary of Islam.
  10. 10. Committee of Union and Progress What is the C.U.P (Committee of Union and Progress?)  Revolution of 1908: Centralist movement (CUP) with organized revolts in Macedonia  They wanted a constitution and this event in 1908 is referred to as the “revolutionist” phase  It had broad and diverse leadership including Jewish and Armenian  Emphasized intellectual diversity Problems with the CUP:  Issues of diversity caused problems  Long war period: from the POV of soldiers and common people, this was period of just prolonged conflict going from one war to the next  The CUP lost popularity after the election of 1912. Newly formed Balkan states took advantage of Ottoman occupation and they attacked Ottomans in the West. This forced peace with Italians and the Ottomans then had to rally against the Balkans to defend their empire
  11. 11. Where to next? The Great War Period  CUP lost power within Ottomans  Ottomanism was meant to be inclusive but this became less urgent after the loss of vast Christian territories  **There were more WWI fronts in the Ottoman empire than any other state/nation  The Ottomans lost the most people compared to the number of combatants that they fielded  Genocide, internal revolt and lost of territory devastated the Ottomans Kemalism  He rises to leadership after the war in 1919 (He was a war general)  His focus was on new organization and preserving as much as the state as they could; they lost a lot of territory during the Great War period.  Six Day Speech: (1926) Kemal recounts the events of the past seven years and he offers systematic and tactical moves one-by-one  After the treat of 1926, a new nation is forged
  12. 12. • Impact of autocratic rulers • Impact of “revolutionary” atmosphere. (Meiji Restoration vs Iranian and Russian Revolution) • Collapse of imperial systems (Europe) • Secular vs religious cultural divides • Defacto “colonization:” China and the Ottoman empire served as “semi colonies” with “informal” empires. • Challenges to modernity: Both China and the Ottomans faced industrial challenge and were “indebted” to Europeans • Both China and the Ottomans experienced a rise of nationalism that had significance in the future Ottoman and Chinese Comparisons
  13. 13. Slide Show Tips  To present in true widescreen, you’ll need a computer and, optionally, a projector or flat panel that can output widescreen resolutions.  Common computer widescreen resolutions are 1280 x 800 and 1440 x 900. (These are 16:10 aspect ratio, but will work well with 16:9 projectors and screens.)  Standard high definition televisions resolutions are1280 x 720 and 1920 x 1080.  Use the Test Pattern on the next slide to verify your slide show settings.
  14. 14. Widescreen Test Pattern (16:9) Aspect Ratio Test (Should appear circular) 16x9 4x3

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