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AS geography grey areas and key concepts

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AQA AS Geography 'crib sheet' = Rivers, Population, Cold Envs, Energy

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AS geography grey areas and key concepts

  1. 1. AS Geography ‘grey areas’, challenges, and other important concepts All / many topics  There’s no perfect solution  It depends whose perspective you are considering  Sustainability:(1) SEE; (2) Ec v Env usually in conflict;(3) no such thingas perfect sustainability  Top down v bottom up management (e.g. re alternativetechnology, indigenous in tundra) Rivers  Hjulströmcurve – SAND easiestto erode (clay coagulates)  Hydraulic radius =cross section area / wetted perimeter – larger = less friction / roughness so faster  Deltas when rate of deposition > rate of removal by tides,waves, LsD – otherwise estuaries  Braiding=fluctuatingflow (periglacial / monsoon areas)  Rejuvenation – causes,landforms  Not ‘hard’ (physical blockingof natural processes) v ‘soft’(working WITH natural processes) butholistic  LDC flooding – greater emotional resilience?? (sh** happens,spirituality)  The storm hydrograph (sketch even if not asked for) – urbanisation / deforestation “stories” – TERMS (less interception, infiltration excess overland flow,or impermeable  steeper risinglimb, shorter lag time (flashier),higher peak discharge, exceeds bankfull)  READ UP PAKISTAN 2010 Taliban deforestation alleged, uncontrolled floodplain development (stage 3 DTM)  Physical causes contrast(Brown Willy Effectv frozen jet stream  infiltration excess v saturated overland flow)  SPECIFICS for IMPACTS of floodingin Pakistan 2010 v Boscastle2004 (S,E, E) Cold Envs  Glacial budget– accumulation v ablation –advanceor recession (some advancingTODAY due to accum)  Depositional landforms / characteristics –glacial (UNsorted, angular,no layers,clay fromabrasion,boulders fromscree/ plucking) v fluvioglacial (sorted,sub-rounded, seasonal layers)  Meltwater erosion – rapid,maybe glacial troughs,channels can go uphill dueto hydrostatics under ice  Oil,REEs, uraniumetc (Alaska,Greenland)  Krill pills (Southern Ocean) – keystone species,food webs  Thermokarst (& attempted solutions –keep heat away from ground - stilts,gravel nottarmac etc)  Periglacial –freezing / thawing – +9% vol on surface frostshattering, gelifluction  felsenmeer, scree, solifluction lobes,nivation hollows underground  frost heave  stone polygons,pingos,icewedges, etc  Indigenous (Inuit, Sami) sustainablelifestyle,butthat’s changing… e.g. tourism,Greenland suiciderate,McDs  Three general points of view in conflict:(1) exploitingTNCs, (2) ‘Western’ environmentalists / eco-groups, BUT the interesting one = locals (indigenous and otherwise) – generally pro-development, pro-jobs,anti-greenwashing (e.g. narwhal quotas) – obviously aimfor SUSTAINABILITY, but economic and social morethan environmental  Fragile environment (easily damaged due to low biodiversity,slowto regenerate (cold and DRY – high P)  READ YOUR CASE STUDY NOTES / CGP BOOK / ETC – especially reearly v more recent development Population  Stage 2/3 pyramid = concave[NB lower lifeexpectancy NOT higher death rate]  UK c.130 years DTM 2  4, Thailand 30 years  problem = RAPID ageing  Immigration / fertility link (UK,EU, Japan, USA)  Importance of BRICs (NICs, MINTs) – rapid pop.growth (not Russia) AND largepopulations AND wealth  The ‘demographic dividend’ – LDCs – IF education / employment [China in Africa…]  Population policies – antinatal Thailand vpronatal Code de Famille,SingaporeNational Night,Denmark holidays,South Korea government lights out LEARN THE SPECIFICS and how these aim for sustainable development  SPECIFICS for East Marsh v Waltham (see my sheet / notes lastweek) Energy  USA, China & India  Fossil fuel exporters mainly politically unstableetc. (Russia,MiddleEast,North Africa,socialistSouth America (Venezuela / Bolivia etc)  Fuelwood crisis(sub-Saharan Africaplus Nepal,Bangladesh,etc)  Investingin renewable etc becauseeven if not economically viable now,it will become more so in future AND desireto be ‘in the lead’when it does  “Renewable” (incl biofuels) notalways very sustainable… (or atleasthave many environmental side-effects) – e.g. HEP methane & concrete, biofuel crops pesticideand eutrophication,etc  Boserupian ideas (e.g. Elon Musk powerwall)  EF Schumacher – “Small is Beautiful”(1973) – alternativetechnology, people-centred economics  Energy conservation – more efficient (eg CHP), use less (eg jumpers, car sharing,Boris Bikes etc) - SPECIFICS  LEARN SPECIFICS for Norway v Morocco (worksheet 07) – both going ‘renewable’, Norway keeping oil in the ground, etc.

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