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Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools

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Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools

  1. 1. Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Department of Architecture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, SAUDI ARABIA Department of Architectural Engineering, Assiut University, Assiut, EGYPT 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014
  2. 2. Paper/Presentation Outline 1- Introduction 1-1 Aim and Objectives 1-2 Methodology 2- Horizontal Design Studio 2-1 Theory and Application 2-2 Department of Architectural Engineering, Assiut University: A Case Study 3- Vertical Design Studio 3-1 Theory and Application 3-2 Smart Growth Unit: A Case Study 4- Horizontal Design Studio Versus Vertical Design Studio 4-1 Design of the Questionnaire 4-2 Results of the Questionnaire 5- Conclusion Remarks Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 Slide 2/38
  3. 3. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 1- Introduction 1-1 Aim and Objectives 1-2 Methodology Slide 3/38
  4. 4. 1- Introduction Design studio is .. • the heart of architectural curriculum. • the connective tissue of most architectural courses, and • the main forum of creative exploration, interaction and assimilation Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 Slide 4/38
  5. 5. 1- Introduction In an ideal design studio, students .. • investigate needs, • define problems, • explore concepts, • generate alternatives, • determine resources, • make decisions, and • take actions Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 Slide 5/38
  6. 6. 1- Introduction Ideal design studio settings allow for successful collaboration that can be classified into two types: • ‘soft collaboration’ .. i.e. less staff intervention and more students’ self-dependence, and • ‘hard collaboration’ .. i.e. more structured, process-oriented, methodical, and formal collaborative learning Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 Slide 6/38
  7. 7. 1- Introduction Advantages of collaboration in design studio include: • better clarification of tasks, • more intensive analysis, • more diverse and creative solutions, • more work in shorter time, • higher quality and overall performance, • more tacit and explicit knowledge, • new work strategies, • more managerial skills, and • shared responsibility for success. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 Slide 7/38
  8. 8. 1- Introduction To enable these advantages, architecture schools adopt different studio settings, falling under two main approaches: (1) Horizontal Design Studio (HSD) …. students of the same educational level study together, separately from those of other educational levels (2) Vertical Design Studio (VSD) …. students of multiple levels, and sometimes of different disciplines, study design courses altogether. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 Horizontal Design Studio (HSD) Vertical Design Studio (HSD) Slide 8/38
  9. 9. 1- Introduction The aim is to trace and further verify the advantages and disadvantages of both HDS and VDS systems, and highlight the transformations needed to help schools of architecture maximize advantages and minimize disadvantages. Objectives are to be accomplished: • Understanding the major differences between HDS and VDS approaches. • Tracing and verifying the advantages and disadvantages of both systems. • Highlighting the transformations needed to enable the offered opportunities and rationally react to challenges. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 1-1 Aim and Objectives Slide 9/38
  10. 10. 1- Introduction • A review on architecture schools that adopt the two teaching systems (HDS and VDS) • A case study approach was prompted • The Department of Architectural Engineering (DAE), Assiut University, Egypt (HDS system) , and • The Department of Architecture (DA), King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia (VDS system) • A questionnaire was applied at both schools (a sample of undergraduate students, graduates, and instructors was targeted). • Rationally reacting to the complexity of HDS and VDS paradigms, both systems were dissembled into their constituent key ingredients • Illustration and analysis of results Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 1-2 Methodology Slide 10/38
  11. 11. 2- Horizontal Design Studio • In the HDS (adopted by most architecture schools) students of the same educational discipline and level tackle the same design problems. • Instructors of design courses are responsible for: • the objectives of the course, the skills that the course should support students to develop, expected learning outcomes, presentation requirements, and the evaluation/assessment method. • the selection of design projects. • After successfully passing a design course, students apply for the following one under the supervision, in most cases, of other design studio instructors. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 2-1 Theory and Application Slide 11/38
  12. 12. 2- Horizontal Design Studio • Adopting the HDS system, about 200 students are enrolled in four academic years/levels. • To be granted the B.Sc. degree, students are to pass a total of 8 design courses. • The concept of the DAE’s HDS is to introduce students to a step-by-step, serial learning process, through an ordered scheme of sequential design projects. • By the end of each design course, a jury takes place, and internal and external jurors are invited to evaluate/assess the educational design products. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 2-2 Department of Architectural Engineering, Assiut University: A Case Study Slide 12/38
  13. 13. 3- Vertical Design Studio • There is no agreed upon definition of the term ‘Vertical Design Studio’ (VDS) nor a unified method to apply it. • For the VDS system to succeed, a comprehensive set of common values, skills and techniques should be acquired. • Institutions should be willing to deal with students with various educational levels within one educational environment. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 3-1 Theory and Application Slide 13/38
  14. 14. 3- Vertical Design Studio • The VDS system might be applied • … at the undergraduate level only (The New School, New York) • …. at post graduate level (School of Architecture, University of Texas at Austin, and the Department of Architecture at Cornell University). • …. to both undergraduate and post graduate students (Department of Architecture, King Abdulaziz University, KSA) • …. to certain educational levels; e.g. to 3rd & 4th year arch. (Department of Architecture and Design, American University of Beirut) Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 3-1 Theory and Application Slide 14/38
  15. 15. 3- Vertical Design Studio • Further, VDS system is applied to students of … • the same specialization/discipline (in most cases), or to… • more than one discipline (e.g. The School of Architecture, Louisiana Tech University; and University of Bedfordshire) Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 3-1 Theory and Application Slide 15/38
  16. 16. 3- Vertical Design Studio • In the DA, King Abdulaziz University, KSA, • 2 preparatory years.. • About 54 students are enrolled in 9 VDSs. • Each VDS accommodates an average of 24 students of 4 different educational levels (6 students in each level). • Each design studio (also called a “unit”) has a ‘designation’ reflecting the architectural trend it adopts; e.g. ‘Green Architecture’, ‘Sustainable Architecture’, Human Architecture’, ‘Smart Growth’ etc. • Design studio instructors are responsible for setting up a teaching plan for all levels. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 3-2 Smart Growth Unit: A Case Study Slide 16/38
  17. 17. 3- Vertical Design Studio • SGU teaching plan tackle 8 design issues: (1) Rationality and minimalism, (2) Beauty and experience, (3) Flexibility and organization, (4) Style and character (5) Energy efficient design (6) Housing (7) Urbanity, and (8) Integration (graduation project), respectively. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 3-2 Smart Growth Unit: A Case Study Slide 17/38
  18. 18. 3- Vertical Design Studio • Adopting the VDS system, SGU students are categorized into 6 vertical groups (to be assigned educational /managerial tasks). • At the beginning of every year, senior students organize a three-week workshop to teach fresh students the computer skills and presentation techniques that they should achieve; e.g. Revit, AutoCAD, Adobe Photoshop, etc. • Senior students assist their younger colleagues throughout the design process under the supervision of instructors. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 3-2 Smart Growth Unit: A Case Study Slide 18/38
  19. 19. 3- Vertical Design Studio Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 3-2 Smart Growth Unit: A Case Study Slide 19/38
  20. 20. 4- Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio • HDS & VDS hold vast potentials as models for integrated learning. • Due to the dissimilarity between architecture schools in applying HDS and VDS systems, advantages and disadvantages differ from a school to another. • To verify the advantages and disadvantages, two case studies, namely: DA and DAE, were selected, and a questionnaire was applied • 48 DAE respondents, and • 41 DA respondents; • a total of 89 DAE and DA associates have responded , out of approximately 200 recipients. • Results are supported by the personal observation of the author. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 Slide 20/38
  21. 21. 4- Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio • Due to… • the complexity of HDS and VDS systems, and • the richness of the issues that to be investigated, …… the design of the questionnaire dealt with the key ingredients that constitute both studios, rather than dealing with the studio model as a whole. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 4-1 Design of the Questionnaire Slide 21/38
  22. 22. 4- Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio • The 5 key-ingredients are: • students (same-level versus multiple-level), • instructors (multiple versus same instructors), • teaching/learning environment (a changeable place versus a fixed place), • the evaluation process (changeable jurors versus same jurors), and • the social relationships among students, and between students and instructors • Responding to that, the questionnaire is divided into 5 sections; each part focuses on one key ingredient. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 4-1 Design of the Questionnaire Slide 22/38
  23. 23. 4- Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 4-2 Results of the Questionnaire Key Ingredient 1 – Students (a) Same educational level (HDS) Slide 23/38
  24. 24. 4- Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 4-2 Results of the Questionnaire Key Ingredient 1 – Students (b) Multiple educational levels (VDS) Slide 24/38
  25. 25. 4- Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 4-2 Results of the Questionnaire Key Ingredient 2 – Instructors (a) Fixed teaching team (VDS) Slide 25/38
  26. 26. 4- Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 4-2 Results of the Questionnaire Key Ingredient 2 – Instructors (b) Multiple teaching teams (HDS) Slide 26/38
  27. 27. 4- Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 4-2 Results of the Questionnaire Key Ingredient 3 – Teaching/Learning Environment (a) One teaching/learning environment (VDS) Slide 27/38
  28. 28. 4- Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 4-2 Results of the Questionnaire Key Ingredient 3 – Teaching/Learning Environment (b) Multiple teaching/learning environments (HDS) Slide 28/38
  29. 29. 4- Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 4-2 Results of the Questionnaire Key Ingredient 4 – Evaluation/Assessment (a) Evaluation/assessment in the VDS Slide 29/38
  30. 30. 4- Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 4-2 Results of the Questionnaire Key Ingredient 4 – Evaluation/Assessment (b) Evaluation/assessment in the HDS Slide 30/38
  31. 31. 4- Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 4-2 Results of the Questionnaire Social Relationships within the HDS and VDS (a) Social relationships within the HDS Slide 31/38
  32. 32. 4- Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 4-2 Results of the Questionnaire Social Relationships within the HDS and VDS (b) Social relationships within the VDS Slide 32/38
  33. 33. 4- Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 4-2 Results of the Questionnaire General Preferences • Single versus multiple levels (which levels) • Fixed versus multiple teaching teams • Fixed versus multiple teaching environments • Fixed versus multiple evaluation teams • HDS versus VDS as a general preference Slide 33/38
  34. 34. 5- Conclusion Remarks • Differences between HDS and VDS systems can be briefly characterized by the contrast between: • Homogeneity and diversity, • sameness and multiplicity, and • multiculturalism and mono cultural. • HDS can be characterized by pluralism, consistency, clarity, and stability • VDS can be characterized by continuous development, accumulation, and liberation. • The segmentation of help both systems into their key ingredients would help architecture schools refine the systems they teach design studio according to, or even develop a new one; reaching at a compromise. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 Slide 34/38
  35. 35. 5- Conclusion Remarks • The questionnaire results highlighted the satisfaction expressed by the majority of DA respondents of the system they are adopting (90%). • This satisfaction is supported by almost one third of DAE respondents who claimed the VDS as a generally preferred system. • While DAE students might be aware of the teaching plan of all design courses, their counterparts in the DA have a better chance to not only ‘know’ but also ‘participate’ in the teaching plan. • The quality of VDS products is expected to be much better than in HDS, since skilled students, right or wrong, can give a hand. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 Slide 35/38
  36. 36. 5- Conclusion Remarks • The VDS is considered a micro knowledge society, in which tacit and explicit knowledge can be better generated, transferred, and applied. • The VDS model is in consistence with teaching to small groups of students, whereas, it needs more effort from the HDS instructors to do. • Hard collaboration; i.e. more structured, formal and process oriented collaboration, is strongly recommended for VDS system, and instructors are therefore to play more roles in the studio. • VDS instructors have greater opportunities to develop the teaching paradigm • VDS system allows instructors to, not only apply the ‘given’ curriculum, but also to define their ‘hidden’ curriculum. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 Slide 36/38
  37. 37. 5- Conclusion Remarks • It is strongly recommended to have a fixed place for all design courses. • The evaluation system of VDS, as applied in the DA, is strongly recommended to benefit from the experience of the DAE, since DAE respondents showed a higher degree of satisfaction. • Most DA respondents and two thirds of the DAE respondents showed their gratification for the atmosphere created by the VDS model which promotes better social relationships. • The VDS system, as applied in the DA, is not just a traditional classroom for pedagogical and ideological learning. It can be considered as a complex social organization. Dr. Khaled Ali Youssef Horizontal Design Studio versus Vertical Design Studio: A Tale of Two Architecture Schools 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville - 17th-19th November 2014 Slide 37/38
  38. 38. Thanks for attention

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