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Effective policies for reducing climate emissions from consumption

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Presentation for municipal and regional employees working with reducing household climate emissions. What emissions to reduce (transport, food, and home energy), how (principles of policy design), and what works (research on effective policies and a smorgåsbord of good examples). Slides mostly in English.

Publicado en: Medio ambiente
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Effective policies for reducing climate emissions from consumption

  1. 1. Effekter av styrmedel och återgärder för minskad klimatpåverkan från konsumtion Mechanic’s Magazine, Knight & Lacey, London, 1824. Annenberg Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania Kimberly Nicholas, PhD Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies (LUCSUS) @KA_Nicholas
  2. 2. @KA_Nicholas Figur 5. Växthusgasutsläpp från konsumtion i Sverige fördelat på kategorierna livsmedel, boende, transporter och shopping för privat konsumtion samt offentlig konsumtion, och regionalt mål till år 2030 (ton CO2 ekv/person/år). Källa: SCB51 Mellan år 2010 ochår 2015 minskade vårakonsumtionsbaserade utsläpp med drygt 10 procent. Det kan varamöjligt att halveraväxthusgasutsläppen från vår konsum-Persson, 2018. Ett klimatneutralt och fossilbränslefritt Skåne. Fokus på transporter, livsmedel, boende
  3. 3. @KA_Nicholas Konsumptionsbaserade utsläpp som ske halvera till 2030
  4. 4. @KA_Nicholas Livsmedel Boende Transporter Nicholas & Wynes, 2017, Environmental Research Letters
  5. 5. 3 policy mechanisms to reduce climate pollution 1. Improve efficiency @KA_Nicholas After Moberg et al., 2018, Energy Efficiency.
  6. 6. 3 policy mechanisms to reduce climate pollution 2. Substitute consumption 1. Improve efficiency @KA_Nicholas After Moberg et al., 2018, Energy Efficiency.
  7. 7. 3 policy mechanisms to reduce climate pollution 2. Substitute consumption 1. Improve efficiency 3. Reduce consumption @KA_Nicholas After Moberg et al., 2018, Energy Efficiency.
  8. 8. Many possible policy instruments Policy category Policy instruments Economic instruments Credits Grants Taxes & deductions Information policies Information campaigns Research requests Public goods & services Planning Public company Infrastructure Regulation Prohibitions/bans Standards IPCC categories, after Moberg et al. 2018, Energy Efficiency @KA_Nicholas
  9. 9. Effective policy is complimentary + comprehensive Photo: Michal Bednarek @KA_Nicholas
  10. 10. Photo: Michal Bednarek @KA_Nicholas Effective policy is complimentary + comprehensive
  11. 11. Effective policy is inclusive & fair State FirmsCivil society The ”governance triangle”- after Abbott and Snidal (2009) @KA_Nicholas
  12. 12. Need bottom-up action & fairness for 1.5°C @KA_Nicholas IPCC 1.5°C Report, 8 October 2018 Twitter summary:
  13. 13. Reduced car use saves most emissions* Wynes, Nicholas, Zhao, & Donner. 2018. Environmental Research Letters ”Measuring what works: quantifying GHG emission reductions of behavioral interventions to reduce driving, meat consumption, and household energy use.” N=39 studies *Zero studies on reducing flying • Rewards • Parking management • Telecommuting + target new arrivals; free transit/e-bike • Defaults/nudge • Carbon footprint label +Goal/planning • Feedback • Instructions • Rewards @KA_Nicholas
  14. 14. Make tasty plant-based food the norm @KA_Nicholas 14
  15. 15. Designing Climate Policy Energy Innovation Climate Policy Simulator:
  16. 16. Energy Innovation Climate Policy Simulator: @KA_Nicholas
  17. 17. Moberg et al., 2018, Energy Efficiency. ”Mobility, food and housing: Responsibility, individual consumption, and demand-side policies in European deep decarbonization pathways.” @KA_Nicholas
  18. 18. Kriterier för hållbar transportsystem Lena Smidfelt Rosqvist & Christer Ljungberg, 2009 ” Bättre införande av åtgärder för ett hållbart transportsystem” @KA_Nicholas
  19. 19. 12 Principles for Green Urban Development 4. Small Blocks 1. Urban Growth Boundary 2. Transit Oriented Development 3. Mixed-Use 5. Public Green Space 6. Non- Motorized Transit 7. Public Transit 8. Car Control 9. Green Buildings 12. Water Efficiency 11. Waste Management 10. Renewable and District Energy 1-5: Urban Form 6-8: Transportation 9-12: Energy & Resources -> Urban Sustainability; Case study: Hammarby Sjöstad@KA_Nicholas
  20. 20. Energy Innovation: 12 Green Guidelines, @KA_Nicholas
  21. 21. 1. URBAN GROWTH BOUNDARY 2. TOD 3. MIXED-USE 4. SMALL BLOCKS 5. PUBLIC GREEN SPACE 6. WALKING AND BIKING 7. PUBLIC TRANSIT 8. CAR CONTROL 9. GREEN BUILDINGS 10. RENEWABLE AND DISTRICT ENERGY 11. WASTE 12. WATER Liuyun Xiaoqu, China The world’s most attractive cities prioritize transportation development at the human scale Dense networksof walking and biking pathsallow for shorter, more efficient, and more pleasant commutes. @KA_Nicholas
  22. 22. Wynes & Donner, 2018, Action Plan, Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions report @KA_Nicholas
  23. 23. LUCSUS: New flying less policy @KA_Nicholas
  24. 24. @KA_Nicholas
  25. 25. @KA_Nicholas Nicholas & Wynes, 2019. WRI Expert Perspective.
  26. 26. Type of intervention Example To reduce emissions from aviation Nudges Customers “nudged” by being given preportioned meal sizes (Friis et al. 2017). Change defaults in government booking systems to better support booking train travel. Prompts Participant received text-message reminders to reduce red meat intake (Carfora et al. 2017). Display a note on a travel booking website asking customer to consider linked low-carbon options. Justification Carbon footprint information of meal choices displayed (Brunner et al. 2018). Make carbon footprint of flights versus other choices more explicit in transport mapping and travel booking systems to inform travel decision. Instructions Energy saving tips provided to households (Allcott 2011). Design government and institutional travel policies that prioritize travel-free meetings, then ground- based travel (von Arnold 2018; Tyndall Centre 2019). Provide instructions and technical support for institutional videoconferencing hardware and software to lower barriers for digital alternatives to air travel (Wynes and Donner 2018). Feedback Monthly energy statement mailed to households (Carroll et al. 2014). Give institution members individual reports about personal air travel, including a comparison to the average member of the department or with a sustainable global citizen’s annual carbon budget (with normative, encouraging messages for those whose emissions are below the average). Make public the emissions of public sector employees who generate above a certain threshold in air travel emissions. Similar social pressure interventions have been effective in encouraging behaviors like voting (Davenport et al. 2010) and reduced household energy consumption (Delmas and Lessem 2014). Social modeling Neighborhood leaders model a proenvironmental behavior. Highlight and promote local destinations, emphasizing the economic benefits for local economies (e.g., collaboration of Swedish universities, regional governments and tourist agencies that includes 100 vacations reachable by train, and carbon calculator for travel plans) (Klimatsmart Semester 2019). Promote positive stories of slow travel and its health, quality time, adventure, and other benefits. Attitudes and behavior have been changed by knowing someone who flies less or doesn’t fly (Westlake 2017). Increase institutional or leadership commitment to reduced flying. @KA_Nicholas Nicholas & Wynes, 2019. WRI Expert Perspective. Suggested policy experiments to reduce flying And many more! See:
  27. 27. @KA_Nicholas Forskningsprojekt: Ingen ny tid för avgång Nicholas & Stripple
  28. 28. Conclusions • What consumption-based climate emissions to reduce? • Transport: car- and flight-free • Food: Plant-based diet • Home: fossil-free energy, efficiency • How to reduce consumption-based emissions? • Improve efficiency; substitute consumption; reduce consumption • Diverse, comprehensive policy approach • Include key actors: government, industry, civil society • What works to reduce consumption-based emissions? • Focus on car-free: rewards, parking management, travel-free • Food: defaults, nudging, labels, goals/planning • Flying: we need policy experiments- please get in touch! @KA_Nicholas