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Why bother about Ocean Sustainability

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Why bother about Ocean Sustainability

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"Why bother about the sustainability of the world's OCEANS" is first in the series of environmental sustainability presentations of WOW Bali International Initiative. This is a continuing documentation of learning resources about global efforts and initiatives aimed at reviving the world's ocean environment and marine and coastal ecosystems. Ultimately, this will show how the earth's oceans are interconnected to human survival and sustainable development.

You may add information and photos (preferably CC0 License; No attribution required photos) with source links and credits into the presentation. Let's collaborate!

"Why bother about the sustainability of the world's OCEANS" is first in the series of environmental sustainability presentations of WOW Bali International Initiative. This is a continuing documentation of learning resources about global efforts and initiatives aimed at reviving the world's ocean environment and marine and coastal ecosystems. Ultimately, this will show how the earth's oceans are interconnected to human survival and sustainable development.

You may add information and photos (preferably CC0 License; No attribution required photos) with source links and credits into the presentation. Let's collaborate!

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Why bother about Ocean Sustainability

  1. 1. BIODIVERSITY
  2. 2. NATURALRESOURCES
  3. 3. OCEANSDRIVECLIMATE HYDROLOGICALCYCLES &
  4. 4. Oceans, seas, islands and coastal areas form an integrated and essential component of the Earth’s ecosystem and are critical for global food security and for sustainable economic prosperity and the well‐being of many national economies, particularly in developing countries. -Johannesburg Plan of Implementation “ ”
  5. 5.
  6. 6. In 2008, fish provided 3 billion people with at least 15 per cent of their animal protein. The same year, fish and aquatic plant sales amounted to $106 billion, and the fisheries industry provided livelihoods for about 540 million people, or 8 per cent of the world’s population. -UNCSD 2012 In 2012, fisheries produced roughly 160 million tons of fish and generated over US$129 billion in exports while securing access to nutrition for billions of people and accounting for 16 percent of total global animal protein. -World Bank 2015
  7. 7. Humans have developed and maintained strong ties with the marine environment for health, survival and recreation, utilizing the seemingly endless ocean resources available to us. But ocean resources and its resilience are finite. Unfortunately many of our daily activities, whether they intimately involve the ocean or take place hundreds of miles from the nearest coast, threaten the ocean. -SeaWeb “ ”
  8. 8.
  9. 9. “ ”
  10. 10. Pervasive poverty in coastal communities is coupled with extensive degradation of coastal resources. In the past 50 years, the proportion of degraded coral reefs in Indonesia has increased from 10 to 50 percent. -World Bank 2009
  11. 11. Minerals and energy. Businesses turn to the oceans as a source of minerals and rare earth elements and natural gas as resources on land start to decline. Genetic materials. Pharmaceuticals and biotechnology breakthrough create demand for marine genetic resources. Living marine resources. Global fish catch, deep-sea species such as corals and sponge, and other marine organisms are transformed into around 18,000 products for human consumption. Interconnected -Global Ocean Commission INCREASING DEMAND FOR RESOURCES drivers of ocean decline
  12. 12. Deep-sea access and exploitation. Deep-sea oil extraction and mineral mining have been expanding across vast areas of the ocean including the Arctic. Vessels (distance and depth). Advancement in fishing vessel engine and equipment technology allows for the operation of bigger trawls to catch greater quantities of fish. Increased (over-) extraction. Large scale commercial fishing in the high seas is made possible through more sophisticated equipment such as sonar and fish aggregation devices. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES Interconnected -Global Ocean Commission drivers of ocean decline
  13. 13. Overfishing. FAO reports that 2/3 of ocean fish stock are exploited to their maximum sustainable capacity, while 1/3 is already depleted beyond limit. The World Bank added the about USD50 billion is wasted annually due to mismanagement in the fisheries sector. are below 10% of their historical level. Overcapacity. While global fish stocks is already on constant decline, the global fishing capacity is continuously increasing due to heightening competition. Subsidies. Governments (Japan, China, EU, Russia and the US) issue at least USD30 billion in subsidies to the fisheries sector, encouraging unsustainable fishing practices. Illegal Unreported Unregulated (IUU) Fishing. 35%o the global wild marine catch are illegal, unregulated and unreported, posting annual losses of USD23.5 billion. IUU fishing is linked to other international crimes such as drug smuggling and human trafficking. DECLINE OF FISH STOCKS Interconnected -Global Ocean Commission drivers of ocean decline
  14. 14. Climate change and acidification. The ‘deadly trio’ of acidification, warming, and deoxyfication are damaging the world’s oceans, which absorb large amounts of greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide. Today’s level of acidification is unparalleled in the last 300 million years with massive impact on marine biodiversity. Destructive fishing. Bottom trawling destroys about 15 million sqm of marine ecosystems across the ocean floor. Destructive fishing also include shark finning and driftnet deployment. Pollution. Unregulated dumping of chemicals and massive plastic pollution have toxic impacts on oceans and marine life. CLIMATE CHANGE, BIODIVERSITY AND HABITAT LOSS Interconnected -Global Ocean Commission drivers of ocean decline
  15. 15. •Interconnected -Global Ocean Commission drivers of ocean decline Patchwork Sectoral Governance. Existing high seas governance framework lacks basis on modern ecosystem understanding; is weak, fragmented and poorly implemented. Compliance and enforcement. Weak enforcement and limited power to sanction illegal fishing activities in the maritime industry. New and emerging issues. No governance framework exists for energy production, geoengineering operations, and genetic resource exploration and exploitation in the in the high seas. WEAK HIGH SEAS GOVERNANCE
  16. 16. -UNESCO POLLUTION AND WASTE Land-based sources account for approximately 80% of marine pollution, globally.“ ” 120,548 plastic bottles end up in landfills or the ocean every minute. -Jeff Bennett "Marine debris – trash in our oceans – is a symptom of our throw-away society and our approach to how we use our natural resources." -UNEP
  17. 17. -UNESCO POLLUTION AND WASTE Plastic pollution threatens wildlife. “ ”-Plastic Pollution Coalition There are now close to 500 dead zones with a total global surface area of over 245,000 km², roughly equivalent to that of the United Kingdom. “
  18. 18. Loss of habitat and biodiversity is increasingly impairing the ocean’s capacity to provide food and other services.The extinction of fish species could lead to starvation or under- nourishment. -UNESCO “ ”
  19. 19. Environmental changes can affect the dynamics of waterborne diseases. When sea-surface temperatures increase, pathogens can become more concentrated in seawater, threatening to contaminate seafood and drinking water supplies in coastal communities. When sea levels rise, low-lying areas can become inundated with contaminated water. -The National Academy of Science “ ”
  20. 20. Coastal communities are the first to be affected by the declining vitality of seas and oceans.
  21. 21. We must accept it as our collective shared obligation and responsibility to ensure that we leave to future generations a planet that is productive and plentiful.The negative consequences of what is taking place beneath the waves must be brought to the forefront of international decision-making on sustainability, governance and development. -Global Ocean Commission
  22. 22. Integrated ecosystem approaches and diversification of livelihoods and enterprise can improve sustainable development in all three pillars by providing the benefits of increased productivity and resilience of living marine resources (environmental pillar), by reducing the vulnerability of the coastal poor (social pillar) and increased incomes (economic pillar). -UNESCO
  23. 23. The steps to building better coastal environmental management begin by appreciating the need for more sustainable practices, and the urgency with which sustainability should be achieved, while being confident that we already have most of the needed tools. -UN University “ ”
  24. 24. Find out as much as you can about this problem and educate your friends. Get involved: there are probably cleanup efforts happening near you! Don’t discard anything near the coast, when you go to the beach make sure you pick up after yourself. -UNESCO
  25. 25. Ban toxic products from your boat-maintenance and don’t throw anything overboard. Use and overflow system to avoid oil spills, and maintain your boat regularly to avoid leaks. -UNESCO
  26. 26. Try to avoid using single-serving plastic items and replace them by reusable items (cloth bags, reusable cups and silverware, non-plastic bottles). -UNESCO
  27. 27. Try to green your household and gardening chemical products, use them sparingly and wisely. Don’t use fertilizers before it rains or pour oil or chemicals down the drain: they would just end up in the ocean! -UNESCO
  28. 28. Refuse excess packaging, try to re-use and recycle as much as possible. Remember that very little of the plastic produced each year is actually recycled and much of it finds its way to the ocean. -UNESCO
  29. 29. Moreoncommunitysolutionssoon…
  30. 30. www.pexels.com www.lifeofpix.com www.muhammaddiyah.or.id en.wikipedia.org www.molecularecologist.com www.parade.com www.theschoolinthecloud.org

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