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Social problems

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Social problems

  1. 1. SOCIAL PROBLEMS Kingsuk Sarkar, MD Asst. Prof. Dept. of community Medicine 1
  2. 2. • Individual problems • Social problems Affects large pop 2
  3. 3.  Current Social Problems: - Drug addiction/ dependence - Alcoholism - Sexually Transmitted Disease - vagrancy - Juvenile Delinquency - prostitution 3
  4. 4. • Social Health Problems: A disease may be termed as social problem and its social relevance become quite high when following happens: - When it has got predominant behavioral component in its causation - When its widespread over large geographic area and affects many( î incidence, î prevalence) 4
  5. 5. • Social Health Prob Cont. - It is severe & mortality is very high - Leads to permanent disability & crippling - Leads to discrimination & ostracism - When it disrupts trade, affects the economy of nation - Primarily economically productive population is affected 5
  6. 6. • Social Health Prob. Cont. - Growth & development of young children is affected - When treatment is out of reach for many - When the disease is incurable 6
  7. 7. Social Problems & their behavioral component Social Problems Behavioral Component Population Explosion High fertility, Early marriage, Non-acceptance of contraceptive Adverse sex-ratio or falling child sex ratio Female feticide, Infanticide, Gender bias Smoking & tobacco & alcohol abuse Habit of smoking in the family or peer group, social acceptability, seen as a social status Accidents & suicides Rash driving, disobeying traffic rules, driving under influence of alcohol, drugs or stress 7
  8. 8. Social Problems & their behavioral component, contd. HIV AIDS & STDs Pre & extra-marital sex, unprotected sex with multiple sexual partners Mental Disorder & Behavioral Problem in Children Broken families, Problem families, adjustment disorder, inability to cope with stress Insanitary Environment Open field defecation, non- acceptance of latrine, poor personal hygiene Leprosy & Tuberculosis Social stigma, fear of loosing job, low or non-utilization of treatment facilities, fatalistic attitudes 8
  9. 9. • Prostitution: - Urban social problem - Age old social evil  Causes: - Changes in environment - Breakdown of inter family relations - Parental discord - Lack of affection 9
  10. 10. - Illegitimacy - Easy access to money & wealth - Low I.Q. - Low morale - Poverty • GOI passed “The suppression of immoral traffic Act in women & girls”≠bans it in commercialized organized form • Amended & Ratified on 1986 as “Immoral Traffic (Prevention)Act” 10
  11. 11. • Delinquency: - „Delinquent‟: one showing deviation from normal behavior & has committed an offence - Theft, sexual assault, murder, burglary - Great social problem 11
  12. 12. • Causes of delinquency: - Social mal-adjustment - Poverty - Disturbed home - Drug addiction - Alcoholism - Adoption of modern life styles 12
  13. 13. • “The children act, 1960” – prevention & control of JD - Provides specialized approach towards care, protection, maintenance, training, rehabilitation: of delinquent children - Institution: Juvenile/Children‟s court, Child Welfare Board, Remand Homes, Certified Schools, After- care facilities 13
  14. 14. • Dowry System: - Innocent Custom Social Evil • Control through: “ Dowry Prohibition (Amendment) Act, 1986 - Min. Punishment for taking/ abetting dowry: 5 yrs or rigorous imprisonment & a fine of Rs.15,000/ - Well sustained effort needed to root out such evils 14
  15. 15. • Drug Addiction: - State of periodic/chronic intoxication detrimental to the individual & society - produced by repeated intake of habit-forming drugs 15
  16. 16. • Precipitating Factors: - Curiosity & natural tendency to experiment with drugs - Disturbed domestic environment: broken home, lack of communication between parents & children, - Escapism from tensions & frustrations - Adoption of western life styles - Punks) - Ignorance about ill effects of drugs 16
  17. 17. • Drug addict: a) Psychosocial dependence: overpowering desire to take the drug & obtain it by any means b) Physical dependence: if withdrawn, patient develops withdrawal symptom: irrational & violent behavior, nausea, diarrhea, watering of eye & nose c) Development of tolerance: tendency to increase the dose 17
  18. 18. • Management: a) Identification of drug addicts & their motivation for drug detoxification b) Detoxification following hospitalization c) Post-detoxification: counselling & follow-up :clinics,home visit • Simultaneous Changes in environment: home,school, college • Psychotherapy 18
  19. 19. • Preventive measures: - Education of target groups through: o Television o Radio o Leaflets o Posters Creation of mass awareness “Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic Substance Act” 1985 19
  20. 20. • Alcohol Abuse: - world-wide social& medical problem - Rapid socio-economic & cultural changes alcohol seen as symbol of prestige & social status - î in consumption & frequency 20
  21. 21. • Consequences: - Crime - Murder - Prostitution - Malnutrition - Neglect of family life - Unemployment - î debt - Delinquency - RTA - Cirrhosis, alcoholic psychosis, alcohol dependency 21
  22. 22. • Prevention: - Timely identification of risk factors - Wide ranging public education, dialogue & investigation of public attitude - Social welfare - Improved health services 22
  23. 23. • Unmarried Mothers: - strict social custom - Unfavorable tradition - Insignificant problem in India • Special Needs: - MTP - Health risks - Medical guidance - counseling 23
  24. 24. • Handicapped: - Categories :Dec. 2002, Categories Approx. No.(million) The blind 2 The hearing disabled 3 The orthopedically handicapped 10.6 The leprosy affected 0.4 The mentally retarded 0.9 The mental illness 1.1 The speech disability 2.1 24
  25. 25. • State assumes the responsibility & rehabilitates • Services avauilable in India: - Medical care - Education for the deaf, blind, orthopedically challenged - Vocational training - Job placement - Workshops - allowances 25
  26. 26. 26

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