2. • The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an international consortium that develops
web standards. W3C’s Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) focuses on making the web
accessible to people with disabilities.
• Web Accessibility Initiative brings together people from industry, disability
organizations, government, and research labs from around the world to develop
guidelines and resources to help make the Web accessible to people.
• Web Accessibility Initiative broadly focuses on ;
3. • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)
• WCAG materials include guidelines and techniques for making websites and web applications work better for people with disabilities, as well as
for older users with accessibility needs due to ageing.
• User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG)
• UAAG explains how to make web browsers and media players accessible.
• Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG)
• Authoring tools are used to create web content. Examples of authoring tools are HTML editors and content management systems (CMS).
WAI Focuses Areas
+ = WCAG
4. The four guiding principles of accessibility in WCAG are:
Three levels of conformance: A, AA, AAA
Divided into 63 success criteria in WCAG 2.0 in 2008 and 28 additional
success criteria are added to existing WCAG 2.1 in 2018.
5. About 56.7 million people, 19% of the population, had a disability in 2010,
according to a broad definition of disability, with more than half of them
reporting the disability was severe.
About 8.1 million people had difficulty seeing, including 2.0 million who
were blind or unable to see.
About 7.6 million people experienced difficulty hearing, including 1.1
million whose difficulty was severe. About 5.6 million used a hearing aid.
About 19.9 million people had difficulty lifting and grasping. This includes,
for instance, trouble lifting an object like a bag of groceries, or grasping a
glass or a pencil.
2010 U.S. Census: Nearly 1 in 5 have disability
6. United States: Americans with Disabilities Act - 1990
United Kingdom: Disability Discrimination Act - 1995
Australia: Disability Discrimination Act - 1992
Ireland : Disability Act of 2005
Accessibility Testing is important to ensure legal
Following are the legal acts by various governments -
9. Examples of Good Practice for Visual Disabilities
Images & controls should have equivalent text alternatives
Text, images & page layouts can be resized without losing information.
Video content has text or audio alternatives, or audio-description track.
Text and images have sufficient contrast between foreground and
Provide consistent, predictable navigation.
Avoid using color alone to identify links or controls.
11. Audio content, including videos, provide captions or transcripts.
Media players provide volume controls.
Media players provide options to adjust caption text size and colors.
No interactions that rely on using voice only.
Examples of good practice for auditory disabilities
13. Provide full keyboard support
All links, menu items, controls accessible via keyboard (Tab, Shift+Tab, & Return
No keyboard traps
Provide sufficient time to complete tasks.
Provide consistent, predictable, simple navigation and page functions.
Link targets, buttons should be of sufficient size.
Good practice for physical disabilities
15. Provide simple navigation and page layouts that are easy to understand
Avoid, when possible, complex sentences that are difficult to read or
Avoid moving, blinking, or flickering content. Or provide method to
Video, animations, or audio content can be paused or stopped.
Simple text is supplemented by images, graphs, or illustrations.
Good practice for cognitive disorders
16. Accessibility Testing can be performed in 2 ways, and
Manual testing can be performed towards WCAG checklist
and tester need to sign off.
How to do Accessibility Testing
17. There are various tools which can check the accessibility of the website. Some of
these popular tools are listed below-
Achecker - Accessibility Checker is a web accessibility evaluation tool. By
entering web page URL or by uploading its HTML file web accessibility can be
examined. It is a free tool that gives the choice to choose report format.
Wave - Wave is a free web accessibility tool. This tool can be used to check the
intranet, pass-word protected, dynamically generated, or sensitive web pages
TAW - In TAW tool, you can either choose to test a single page or multiple pages
by "spider" a site
Accessibility Valet - It is a tool that allows you to check web pages against
WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines) compliance
Tools for Automated testing
18. Accessibility Developer Tools - It is a Chrome extension. It does and accessibility audit. The results of the audit
show accessibility rules that are violated by the Page Under Test. The extension has high reviews and is frequently
Quick Accessibility Page Tester - Quick Page Accessibility Tester is a bookmark that you can click to get a quick
analysis of the web page (https://accessify.com/tools-and-wizards/accessibility-tools/favelets/quick-page-test/)
aDesigner - This is a tool developed by IBM which simulates the experience of visually impaired individuals so that
the designer can better understand the needs of disabled people and develop applications accordingly.
WebAnywhere - This is a browser based tool that works similarly to the screen readers like Jaws. It assists the
readers how to read the web page. (http://webanywhere.cs.washington.edu/)
Vischeck - This tool is used to simulate how a web page or an image will be viewed by people affected with color-
blindness. This can be done by entering URL or uploading images. (http://www.vischeck.com/)
Web accessibility toolbar -WAT is an extension of Internet explorer or Opera that offers web page designers with
useful features in the analysis of web page. One best feature is GreyScale feature which helps to find low contrast
spots in the design. ( https://developer.paciellogroup.com/resources/wat/ )
Tools for Automated testing