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Speech and Language
By: Kristine Joy Sangalang
Any deviation in the condition of
breathing and voice producing
mechanisms including the integrity of
mouth and oral cavity can cause speech
disorders. There are speech related
problems that cause ineffective
communication like problems in voice,
articulation and fluency.
2. Articulation Disorder
Errors in the formation of speech
Four basic errors in articulation
Omission (see for seen)
Substitution (wip for lip, train for
crane, doze for those)
Distortion (talt for salt, sleep for zleep)
Addition of extra sounds (Buhrown for
3. Fluency Disorders
Interrupt the natural, smooth flow of speech
with inappropriate pauses, hesitations, or
repetitions. It is characterized by unnatural
variations in speed, stress and pauses.
Examples are Cluttering and Stuttering.
Abnormal acquisition, comprehension or
expression of spoken or written language.
Individuals with language disorders
frequently have problems in sentence
processing and retrieving information
from short to long term memory. It is
present when there is a disruption in the
usual rate and sequence of the
milestones in language development.
Implies that a child is slow to develop
linguistic skills but may acquire them in the
same sequence as normal children.
Factors that contribute to
language disorders in children:
Cognitive limitations or mental retardation
Emotional deprivation or behavioral
Structural abnormalities of the speech
Classifications of language
Form Problems – cover phonology or morphology
and syntax problems that range from difficulty of
decoding spoken language, abnormal use of
prefixes to abnormal structure of words and wrong
uses of tenses.
Content Problems-Include semantic disorders
manifested in poor vocabulary development,
inappropriate use of words and poor comprehension
of meaning of words.
Use or pragmatic Problems- inability to comprehend
or use language in context or conversation on
Examples of language
Central auditory processing disorder – problem in
processing sounds attributed to hearing loss or
Aphasia – language disorder that results from
damage to parts of brain responsible for
Apraxia- also known as verbal apraxia or
dyspraxia is a condition where the child has
trouble saying what he or she wants to say
correctly and consistently.
Dysarthria – the weakening of the muscles of the
mouth, face and respiratory system affects the
production of oral language.
Speech and Language
Disorders that result from
Deafness restricts the perception of the sound
elements of a language and other sounds in the
environment with or without hearing aid.
Persons who are deaf or hard of hearing manifests
speech and language disorders.
Deaf person can develop their communication skills
manually through sign language and arbitrary
gestures and movements, or orally through speech
reading and auditory training, these adaptation
cannot approximate normal speech and language
Etiology of Speech and
Functional causes – Environmental stress or organic
in the case of cleft palate
Congenital causes – Disorder is present at birth or
acquired after birth during infancy, early childhood
and in the later years.
Causes are also traced to brain damage, ADHD,
learning disabilities, autism, schizophrenia, cerebral
palsy, vocal cord injury.
Injury, accidents and trauma can result in childhood
aphasia or loss of language functions.
Incidence and Prevalence
In the US approximately 20% of children
receiving special education services are
with speech and language disorders.
5 % of school aged children tend to have
speech and language disorders
3% has voice disorders and stuttering.
2 % - 3 % has articulation disorders.