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Elements and Principles of Design

  1. Presented by; Kristinne Marie Claudio Visual Graphic Designer NCIII ELEMENTS AND
  3. • ART is creative human skill. • ART is communication about the self and the world using • sight - the Visual Arts • sound - Music, • words - the Literary Arts, and/or • actions (Dance and Drama). • ART can be a combination of all of these. • ART explores media, which is the materials, • images, words and actions used. • ART explores messages, subjects and objects, themes and issues.
  5. LINES and Size • Size refers to variations in the proportions of objects, lines or shapes. There is a variation of sizes in objects either real or imagined. • Line is defined as a mark that spans a distance between two points (or the path of a moving point), taking any form along the way. As an art element, line pertains to the use of various marks, outlines and implied lines in artwork and design, most often used to define shape in two-dimensional work. Implied line is the path that the viewer's eye takes as it follows shapes, colors, and form along a path, but may not be continuous or physically connected, such as the line created by a dancer's arms, torso, and legs when performing an arabesque.
  7. TEXTURE • The texture is the quality of a surface or the way any work of art is represented. Lines and shading can be used to create different textures as well. For example, if one is portraying certain fabrics, one needs to give the feeling of the right texture so that it closely resembles what the artist is trying to convey. It can be implied or real. What you can feel with your sense of touch.
  9. FORM • Form may be created by the forming of two or more shapes or as three-dimensional shape (cube, pyramid, sphere, cylinder, etc.). It may be enhanced by tone, texture and color. Form is considered three-dimensional showing height, width and depth. Examples of these are sculpture, theatre play and figurines.
  11. SPACE • Space is the area provided for a particular purpose. Space includes the background, foreground and middle ground. Space refers to the distances or areas around, between or within components of a piece. • Two types of space • Positive space refers to the space of a shape representing the subject matter. • Negative space refers to the space around and between the subject matter. Space is also defined as the distance between identifiable points or planes in a work of art.
  13. SHAPE • Shape pertains to the use of areas in two dimensional space that can be defined by edges, setting one flat specific space apart from another. Shapes can be geometric (e.g.: square, circle, hexagon, etc.) or organic (such as the shape of a puddle, blob, leaf, boomerang, etc.) Shapes are defined by other elements of art: Space, Line, Texture, Value, Color, Form.
  14. COLOR and TONE • Color pertains to the use of hue in artwork and design. Defined as primary colors (red, yellow, blue) which cannot be mixed in pigment from other hues, secondary colors (green, orange, violet) which are directly mixed from combinations of primary colors. Further combinations of primary and secondary colors create tertiary (and more) hues. Tint and Shade are references to adding variations in Value • Value, or tone, refers to the use of light and dark, shade and highlight, in an artwork. Some people also refer the lightness and darkness in an artwork as tints(light) and shades(dark). Black-and-white photography depends entirely on value to define its subjects. Value is directly related to contrast.
  15. Artwork came from Watercolor Composition: "Floating Shapes."
  17. Composition • COMPOSITION is involved with UNITY, how the elements of the artwork go together to form a oneness, a wholeness, which satisfies the eye. • COMPOSITION is about the way an artist composes or combines the elements of the work to give clarity and order to their ideas. Composition is about the way our eyes are guided around the artwork.
  18. Sample of Layout with Proper Composition of Elements
  19. Artwork came from:
  20. Unity • UNITY is the sense of ONENESS, of things belonging together and making up a coherent whole. • Artists do this by repeating elements, overlapping shapes and directing the eye of the viewer around the work from one similar element to the next or along a line or shape • The eye is directed by the principles of design and composition so that the artwork has UNITY.
  21. Sample of Artwork with Unity Van Gogh was concerned with the unity of his paintings.
  22. Balance • BALANCE is the control of the elements in attracting attention. This attention must be evenly or unevenly spread over the area to make sure interest in kept up, all the way through the art work, without being static or chaotic. • BALANCE can be symmetrical or asymmetrical • BALANCE can create movement, tension or calmness.
  23.  Two Types of Balance  Formal Balance & Informal Balance Left and right sides Left and right sides are the same. contain elements similar weight.
  24. Design showing formal BALANCE
  25. Design showing informal BALANCE
  26. Contrast and Emphasis • CONTRAST means pictorial elements that stand out because they are not alike eg. squares and circles and triangles. Red, yellow and blue contrast as they are so dissimilar. • CONTRAST can be made by putting objects together that do not normally “go” together and therefore make each other stand out more, than they would separately. • EMPHASIS is When special importance or significance is placed on or imparted to something...Stress given to a syllable, word, or phrase. • This principle is known as “The Attention Getter”
  27. Sample Artwork with Harmony and Contrast Artwork came from: http://cataclysm-
  28. Contrast Applied for Logo Designs david bernie contrast obscura Design ContrastObscura Logo
  29. Sample for Emphasis
  30. Ways to show emphasis & contrast: LARGE PRINT small print Bold Print Italics Bright Colors Fonts symbols images
  31. Proportion • PROPORTION is about realistic relationship or ratio. As an illustration, the ideal human proportion is eight heads high and the shoulders are two heads wide so artists can change these relationships or proportions for dramatic or comic effect or to emphasize a feature or quality. In cartoons the head and hands are emphasized by enlarging then beyond realistic scale.
  32. Proportion Applied in Figures Artwork came from
  33. Proportion Applied in Print Ads Artwork came from
  34. REPETITION and RHYTHM • REPETITION can be in the form of RADIATION where the repeated elements spread out from a central point. • REPETITION may be in the form of GRADATION where the repeated elements slowly become smaller or larger. • RHYTHM is about the rate the eye moves throughout the work of art. This is usually because the eye moves, jumps or slides from one similar element to another in a way similar to music.
  35. Repetition Applied to this Artwork to Produce “Fractal Art”
  36. Repetition Applied to this Artwork to Produce “Fractal Art”
  37. Dominance • DOMINANCE helps to create UNITY as the eye is attracted to a key point then led around the image by pictorial elements. • DOMINANCE can be created by contrasting pictorial elements such as line, shape, tone, texture, direction, size or colour. • DOMINANCE and BALANCE work together to bring out UNITY.
  38. Sample for Dominance
  39. Harmony • HARMONY can create feelings, similar elements can seem calm and pleasing eg. Blues and greens, rectangles and squares or groups of organic shapes, while contrasting elements create energy, vitality, tension or anger eg. triangles with circles and squares
  40. Artwork with Harmony Artwork came from:
  41. Variety • VARIETY gives an artwork interest and vitality, as the elements are repeated with enough change or difference to enhance each other. • VARIETY, contrast and harmony work together to give unity.
  42. Sample of Art with applied Variety Artwork came from:
  43. END of Presentation God Bless