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The city states of greece

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The city states of greece

  1. 1. Greek Roots of Democracy
  2. 2. Where Is Greece Located?
  3. 3. Rise of Greek City States • Geography of Greece influenced how centers of power developed (lots of mountains/islands/valleys) • City State also called the Polis • Political unit made up of a city and surrounding lands • Due to infertile land Greeks often traveled and expanded overseas creating colonies throughout the Mediterranean from Spain to Egypt • Their travels spread their ideas about literature, art
  4. 4. Governing the City State City was built on two levels Acropolis (high city) built of marble usually dedicated to different Gods Below was the main city (marketplace, theater, homes)
  5. 5. Governing the City-State Different Types of Government Monarchy – rule by king or queen Aristocracy – rule by a privileged upper class Slowly power shifted from a monarchy to an aristocracy in this case a class of noble landowners and at first they supported the king but then once they had enough power they took over
  6. 6. Changes in Warfare As trade expanded a new middle class emerged of merchants, farmers and artisans Changes in military technology increased the power of the middle class Iron became cheaper so ordinary citizens could afford helmets and swords Phalanx New method of fighting that united citizens regardless of class and out defense in the hands of ordinary citizens
  7. 7. Changes in Warfare The new types of warfare led the two most influential city states to develop different ways of life Sparta Stressed stern discipline Athens Glorified the individual and gave more political rights to more citizens
  8. 8. Sparta: A Nation of Soldiers Government two kings and a council of Elders who advised the King An assembly made up citizens approved major decisions Citizens were male, native born Spartans over 30 Assembly elected five ephors who held the real power and ran day to day affairs
  9. 9. Sparta: A Nation of Soldiers Spartan Society Established themselves as a military state At age 7 boys began training for life in the military Girls also had a disciplined upbringing because they were expected to produce strong males
  10. 10. Athens: The Beginnings of Democracy First place democracy (government by the people) takes root Starts off as a monarchy and then develops into an aristocracy Discontent spreads amongst citizens and the merchants and soldiers begin to resent the power of the nobles and demand more rights As discontent spread Athens moved slowly towards a democracy
  11. 11. Athens: The Beginnings of Democracy Solon Wise and trusted leader who outlawed debt slavery and freed those slaves who had been sold into slavery to pay off debts opened public office to more citizens by loosening restrictions on citizenship and gave the Assembly more decision making power. Reforms ensured fairness and justice but citizenship was still limited and government positions were only open to wealthy landowners
  12. 12. Athens: The Beginnings of Democracy Because government positions were only open to the wealthy landowners tyrants (leaders who gain power by force) started to emerge They won the support of merchants and the poor by promising to make their lives better Pisistratus Gave famers/poor citizens a greater voice
  13. 13. Athens: The Beginnings of Democracy Cleisthenes Brought about a democracy in Athens Broadened role of citizens Created Council of 500 (legislature) whose members were made up of male citizens where they could debate laws before deciding whether to accept of reject them Citizens could bring charges against anyone who did them wrong PEOPLE DECIDED THE LAWS THAT WOULD GOVERN THEM
  14. 14. Athens: The Beginning of a Democracy By modern standards Athenian democracy was quite limited Only male citizens could participate in government Women had no role in public life
  15. 15. Check for Understanding Briefly describe Ancient Greece? What were the name of the two cities that emerged and what were they like?
  16. 16. Age of Pericles 460-429 B.C. Pericles believed all male citizens regardless of wealth or social class should be involved Athenians practiced direct democracy where over 6000 Assembly members would meet and decide matters Athens began to pay a salary to men who held office allowing poor men to serve Jury was established
  17. 17. Age of Pericles “Our plan of government favors the many instead of the few; that is why it is called a democracy.” ~ Pericles
  18. 18. Age of Pericles 460-429 B.C. Pericles hired the best architects and sculptors to rebuild the Acropolis that had been destroyed when Greece was attacked by Persia Although religion was important Greek thinkers start to think there are also natural laws not everything is run by God Pericles surrounded himself with such thinkers, and writers and artists transforming Athens into the cultural center of Greece
  19. 19. Age of Pericles 460-429 B.C. The Peloponnesian War Sparta wanted to end Athenian domination of the Greek world Power struggle between Athens and Sparta Fought for 27 years Spartans captured Athens ending Athenian domination of the Greek world. Athens survived as a cultural center but democracy suffered and soon corruption took over
  20. 20. Moral and Ethical Principles Greek philosophers became concerned with the idea of goodness and established standards for human behavior Sophists Questioned tradition and “accepted” ideas Said moral and ethical truths were just opinions and that success was more important Taught the art of persuasion
  21. 21. Greek Contributions to Political Thought Then Each year an assembly of citizens elect 3 nobles to rule them All citizens participate Power in the hands of the people Divided government power Now Voting for government officials All citizens vote Jury duty People have power 3 branches of government Make laws Carry out laws Judge, settle disputes