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AmandaThe elderly are at an increased risk for low fruit and vegetable intake. due to cost, preparation, mental limitations, and health problems related to teeth. In a meta-analysis cohort study conducted by Dauchet, they looked at the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and the reduced rate of coronary heart disease. The study concluded that there was an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and the occurrence of coronary heart disease. in two meta-analysis studies there was an inverse association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the occurrence of stroke, which may be shown to protect against cardiovascular events
KellyThe main health fair topics included heart disease, diabetes, weight management, functional foods, and food safety. The disease state topics were subdivided by stage of change.Atherosclerosis, CAD (explained)Hypertension (explained)Heart disease – stanols and sterolsHeart disease types of fatsHypertension – sodium recommendationsDASH dietHeart disease – restaurant eating tipsHeart disease – navigating the grocery storeHeart disease – types of exerciseHeart disease – stress managementHeart disease – relapse preventionDiabetes (explained)Diabetes – focus on symptomsDiabetes – how to eat, exchange v CHO countingDiabetes – artificial sweetenersWeight management (explained)Weight management – medical consequences of obesityWeight management – MyPyramid guidelinesVegetarian food guide pyramidWeight management – portionsWeight management – fad dietsWeight management – maintenance/relapse preventionWhole grains and fiberFunctional foods – soyFunctional foods – phytonutrients (heart disease)Functional foods – phytonutrients (other diseases)Functional foods – pre and probioticsAntioxidantsFood safety
What was concluded from this study was that the elderly community in the earlier phases should have interventions focusing on the benefits of fruit and vegetable intake; in contrast, to those who are in the action phase should focus on obtaining the number of servings per day.A cross sectional survey with a sample size of 1,253 community residents who were 60 years and older, examined the differences of demographics and psychological variables by stage of change for five servings of fruit and vegetables per day in older adults. Volunteers were given two brief food frequency instruments about their fruit and vegetable consumption per day. The decisional balance instrument was used to determine how important it was for the elderly to eat five servings of fruit and vegetable each day. In addition, the self-efficacy instrument was used to measure their level of confidence in their ability to eat five servings of fruit and vegetable each day. The study used the 5-point Likert scale to rate their confidence levels (10).
SCT- how people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns.Evaluating behavioral change depends on the factors environment, people and behavior. SCT provides a framework for designing, implementing and evaluating programsSE- defined as a person’s belief and confidence to perform a task. If a person can see themselves performing a certain task with confidence then Bandura believed that self-management of habits can enhance health and reduce those that impair it is considered good medicineSE- has been useful for predicting fruit and vegetable intake and shown to be higher in the action and maintenance phase of the Transtheroretical Model What was concluded from this study was that the elderly community in the earlier phases should have interventions focusing on the benefits of fruit and vegetable intake; in contrast, to those who are in the action phase should focus on obtaining the number of servings per day.. A cross sectional survey with a sample size of 1,253 community residents who were 60 years and older, examined the differences of demographics and psychological variables by stage of change for five servings of fruit and vegetables per day in older adults. Volunteers were given two brief food frequency instruments about their fruit and vegetable consumption per day. The decisional balance instrument was used to determine how important it was for the elderly to eat five servings of fruit and vegetable each day. In addition, the self-efficacy instrument was used to measure their level of confidence in their ability to eat five servings of fruit and vegetable each day. The study used the 5-point Likert scale to rate their confidence levels (10).
33 percent of adults meet the recommendation for fruit consumption and 27 percent get the recommended servings of vegetables. Why Fruit and Vegetable consumption is low*Difficulty chewing. Some people have dental problems that make it harder to chew.*Changes in taste. Certain people find that food doesn't taste the same as they get older.*Mobility problems. For older people who are no longer able to drive, it may be difficult to get out and shop for fruits and vegetables.*Lack of motivation to cook. If you live alone, you may not feel like cooking just for one.*Changes in appetite. For many people, getting older means that you just aren't as hungry as you used to be.
3 outliers- were omitted from the study due to age.
A chi-square test of independence was calculated comparing mental and physical health. A significant interaction was found (x2 (4)= 21.55=p<.001).They are not independent of each Showed that the two variables can be separated within the survey. In other surveys they were considered one question. Strong enough to be seperated into 2 different questions.
There was a limited number in the SOC 5 category so the 5 different SOC were collapsed into 2 preaction and action phase to strengthen the results. An indendent t-test was calculated to compare the means of the preaction and action SOC group. Those in the preaction stage (n= 33) ate an average of one less servings of vegetable (m=2.36, sd=1.025) than those in the action stage (n= 21, m=3.29, sd= .956). (Table). Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected.Mean for vegetable servings- 2.7143
The SOC 5 was collapsed as previous stated. An independent t-test was calculated to compare the means of the preaction and action SOC group. Those in the preaction stage (n= 41) ate an average of one and a quarter less servings of fruit (m=2.1220, sd=.927) than those in the action stage (n=13, m=3.38, sd= .768) (Table). Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected.Mean number of fruit servings- 2.4286
Each participant that answered Yes or No to the Brief Health History that included the criteria for linked disease was included. The mean score was 1.78 meaning that the average had almost 2 diseases you see above.The mean of the preaction stage was not significantly lower (m=1.79, sd=1.50) than the mean of the action stage (m=1.69, sd=1.49) (Table). Therefore, the null hypothesis is accepted.
The mean of the preaction stage was not significantly lower (m=1.79, sd=1.50) than the mean of the action stage (m=1.69, sd=1.49). Therefore, the null hypothesis was accepted. SOC 2 is not an independent predictor by itself.
While importance to increase f and v are not good predictors, SOC 2 and # of veg are good predictors of number of fruit servings. The number of fruit can be predicted with close to 40% when the equation is used.
# of fruit, SOC veg2, and Gender are excellent predictors of number of fruit servings with 100% of the variance meaning it will exactly predeict the # of vegetable servings when the equation is used. 100% of the variance was accounted for.
Health fairs are beneficial because they provide a forum for the delivery of health information on a wide variety of topics to a larger audience (Levy). Often they will be sponsored by hospitals or clinics, but the focus of this presentation will be academic health fairs; those that are executed by university students as an active learning opportunityStudents may have previous experience in data collection, but are not well-versed in applying that information. Students will have a more positive attitude toward research when they can see the practical application. A well rounded academic health fair can have student representatives from several different disciplines working together including, but not limited to, medical students, nursing, physical therapy, dental hygiene, and nutrition.Pooled resources make attaining otherwise inaccessible aims and objectives more accessible
Service learning defined: any learning experience that occurs by blending learning objectives, preparation, and reflection within a community settingDietetics is underrepresented in terms of research on service learning.Most service learning focuses on nursing, but also disciplines such as physical therapy, medical school, and social work.Gain experiential knowledge in communication both written and spoken. Students need to be able to vary the level at which they communicate to fit their audience which leads to cultural awareness and sensitivity. Service learning helps students gain knowledge in cultural awareness and sensitivity whether that culture is defined by age, race, gender, ethnicity or any other group. Students also gain self-confidence in their knowledge and in their presentation skills. In planning their participation in the health fair and executing their presentation, students need to utilize problem-solving skills. Participation increases students’ sense of responsibilityand citizenship, giving back to the community.
In general, the first 2 years of a DPD program require focus on the first two steps of bandura’s social learning theory: Attentional and Retention. These two stages call for the rote memorization and regurgitation of the material. This is accomplished through lectures, homework, quizzes and tests. The second 2 years require focus on the last two steps: reproduction and motivational. These two stages call for the creation of educational materials and hopefully motivation to share the information. Participation in health fairs provides a framework for students to progress to the second two stages. One criticism of service learning is that it may encourage students to have feelings of superiority or condescension. Students feel that they are providing information to those beneath them. Or they may see their participation as a free labor, but research shows that the best outcomes for service learning are achieved when the students are well prepared for the experience. Using Kolb’s experiential learning cycle as a roadmap for preparedness we see that students learn in a cyclic fashion, identifying a need, creating the materials, sharing the materials, reflecting on the experience and then make changes to start the cycle over again. When students are not required to engage in active reflection, the benefits of service learning are lost.
Much of the research on community based health promotion activities related to service learning is based on the success of the program to meet community based objectives, not the impact of the service learning on the students (Fournier,Gazsi,Martyr). There is a need for community based health promotion activities and their impact on service learning in nutrition students.
The sample consisted of 26 undergraduate nutrition students in the Spring 2011 section of Nutrition 280: Community Nutrition. Students ranged in age from 20 to 36 years old. There were 2 students who were outside the normal distribution of age, but it was found that their answers were not significantly different than the other students so these students were included in the group. The mean age for the sample was 22.88 years.
Students were defined as either traditional or non-traditional based on age. Traditional undergraduate students are those students 23 years or younger. Non-traditional students are those students 24 years or older. 4 of the 26 students (15.4%) were male and 22 of the 26 students (84.6%) were female. There was no statistically significant difference in students’ answers based on gender so students were not analyzed separately based on gender.
Service Learning and Volunteerism QuestionnaireThere were 15 statements regarding participation in a health fair. Students were asked to rank their agreement with the statement on a scale of 1 to 7 with 1 being strongly disagree and 7 strongly agree. The three statements with the highest means were:Health fair questionsContributed to the betterment of the community at Villa St. BenedictProvided you with an opportunity to help othersProvided you with personal satisfaction through helping othersApplied nutrition information/knowledge learned in coursesHelped develop new skillsImproved your oral communication skillsImproved your critical thinking skillsIncreased your confidence in your ability to create an education boothIncreased your confidence in sharing your nutrition knowledge with othersIncreased your confidence in performing similar activities in the futureEnabled you to critically reflect o your own values and biasImproved your understanding of how nutrition education can be integrated into community activitiesIncreased your understanding of the importance of health and nutrition education in the communityIncreased your sense of responsibility about doing something to improve the health of others in the futureMade you more likely to participate in educating others in the future
A principal component analysis was run on the 15 Health fair statements. PCA revealed 4 factors within the Health Fair questions. These factors were: Developing deeper understanding and higher order skills, Experiential learning, Self-efficacy and values, and Impact on community.The four components all had Eigen values >1 and accounted for 77.15% of the variability so these factors will be retained. These eigenvalues are particularly accurate since n<30 (n=26).
Cronbach’s alpha was run on the four health fair factors. Reliability testing on the four factors ranged from questionable to good. The reliability of the health fair portion of the questionnaire was excellent (Cronbach’s alpha was approaching 1 at 0.89).
An independent samples t-test was run comparing the mean of each of the health fair factors to the age of the students (traditional v. non-traditional). No significant results were found, all p>.05. H05 is accepted: there is no difference in health factor mean rating scores across two age categories.
Service Learning and Volunteerism QuestionnaireThere were 9 statements regarding attitudes about service learning and volunteerism. Students were asked to rank their agreement with the statement on a scale of 1 to 7 with 1 being strongly disagree and 7 strongly agree. The three statements with the highest means were:Service Learning QuestionsI prefer courses in which the material helps me to apply conceptsI prefer courses in which applied experiences are authenticLearning by doing is a necessary component for adequate training in health care professionsI am committed to making a positive differenceIt is important for me to be involved in a program to improve the communityI believe it should be mandatory for health care profession students to participate in community serviceI believe that health care professionals have a responsibility to volunteer for community serviceIn the future, I plan to do some volunteer workIn the future, I plan to help other sin need – of education, of food, etc
A principal component analysis was run on the 9 service learning statements. PCA revealed that service learning question 9 (In the future, I plan to help others in need – of education, of food, etc) was not a good fit and needed to be removed. Another PCA was run with a resulting four factors. The four components each have an Eigenvalue greater than 1.0 and account for greater than 79% of the total variability so these components will be retained. This is particularly accurate because n < 30 (n=26) for this study.
Cronbach’s alpha was run on the first two SL factors only. It was not run on the second two factors because they contain only one variable each. Reliability of the two factors ranged from questionable to good while reliability of the service learning portion of the SLVQ was questionable to acceptable.
An independent samples t-test was run comparing the mean of each of the service learning factors to the age of the students (traditional v. non-traditional). No significant results were found, all p>.05. H06 is accepted: there is no difference in service learning mean rating scores across two age categories.
A Pearson correlation was run to determine if any relationship exists between the 4 health fair factors and the 4 service learning factors based on age. No significant findings were found for a relationship between age and the four health fair factors and the four service learning factors, p>.05. A Pearson correlation was also run to determine if any relationship exists between the 4 health fair factors and the 4 service learning factors. Significant findings suggest that a relationship does exist between developing deeper understanding and higher order skills against action phase and values integration. Significant findings also suggest that a relationship does exist between experiential learning and contemplation/preparation phase for volunteerism and action phase and values integration. p<.01. H07 is rejected.
Multiple linear regression was run to determine if responses to service learning factors will predict responses to health fair factors. The regression equation for three of the service learning factors (developing deeper understanding and higher order skill, self-efficacy and values, and impact on community) with R2 of .34, .20, and .12 respectively. These three factors are not good predictors of health fair factors.
The regression equation for the fourth service learning factor: experiential learning was significant. F(4,21) = 5.30, p<.05 with an R2 of .50. Participants predicted response to experiential learning = .06(Contemplation/preparation phase for volunteerism) + .24(Action Phase and Values Integration) and accounts for 50% of the variance. Service learning factors are a good predictor of experiential learning. Therefore H08 is rejected.
No significant difference between age categories against the HF and SL factors exists. This may be due to the fact that dietetics is a helping profession and this may trump any difference that might have existed.A relationship exists between experiential learning and contemplation/preparation phase for volunteerism, and action phase and values integration. This means that those in the contemplation/preparation phase or the action phase tend to enjoy experiential learning opportunities. The correlation between action phase and values integration to developing deeper understanding and higher order skills means that those in the action phase tend to score higher on questions relating to developing deeper understanding and higher order skills such as communication and critical thinking skills.Contemplation/preparation phase for volunteerism and action phase and values integration are good predictors of experiential learning. If we know what stage of change an individual is in, we can predict their score for experiential learning.
KellyThe sample size for these studies was small: N=58 for the fruit and veggie intake in the elderly study and N=26 in the undergraduate student study.A portion of the event was held during the residents’ dinner time. Incentives were given out for filling out the elderly survey tool.Randomization was not possible for either study.Generalizability for both studies was limited due to the high percentage of females and limited in the elderly study due to the high percentage of Caucasians