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Thesis Presentation

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Thesis presentation on the effect participation in a health and nutrition fair on undergraduate students.

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Thesis Presentation

  2. 2. BACKGROUND The elderly are at an increased risk for low fruit and vegetable intake due to:  Cost  Preparation  Mental limitations  Poor oral health  Multiple chronic diseases Meta- Analysis  Inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of CHD and stroke.  Fruit and vegetable intake can be used to prevent some chronic conditions  Awareness, education, and intervention is key.Dauchet, Luc & Amouyel, Philippe & Hercberg, Serge & Dallongeville, Jean. (2006). Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of coronaryheart disease: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. The Journal of nutrition, 136.
  3. 3. PURPOSETo investigate the To investigate the relationships effect of between fruit and participation in a vegetable servings health and nutrition in relation to self- fair on the attitudes efficacy, stage of of undergraduate change, and quality nutrition students in of life at a nutrition reference to service education health learning and fair. volunteerism.
  4. 4. METHODS: HEALTH FAIR Date: Thursday, April 14, 2011 Location: Villa St. Benedict Time: 2:30 – 7:30pm  2:30-3:00 students set up booths  3:00 – 7:00 active participation in the health fair  7:00 – 7:30 clean up Educational Booths provided by Benedictine University undergraduate students Other booths provided by Benedictine University exercise physiology students and other outside vendors
  5. 5. METHODS: HEALTH FAIR PLANNINGStudent booth topics selectedVendors and donors contactedPlanning with Nutrition instructorMeeting with NUTR 280 students, topics chosenRoom layout designedIndividual meetings with NUTR280 students for grading of educational booth and interactive componentRaffle prizes acquired
  6. 6. METHODS: STUDENT TOPIC BOOTHSHeart Disease (11)Diabetes (4)Weight Management (7)Functional Foods (6)Food Safety
  7. 7. METHODS: HEALTH FAIR Advertisement  March 2011  Marketing flyers were created and distributed at Villa St. Benedict. Flyers contained information on the date, time, and location of the health fair. It also included information on the complimentary services that would be offered at the fair. Instrumentation  Community Health and Nutrition Fair Questionnaire (CHFQ)  Service Learning and Volunteerism Questionnaire (SLVQ)
  8. 8. SURVEY ADMINISTRATION AND SAMPLING Elderly Undergraduates Administered during  Administered one time, the Health Fair one week following the fair  The raffle was held every  4 raffle tickets were drawn and 20 minutes for the “Grand those students received prizes Prize Winner”  Students in the Spring Health Fair Subjects semester of NUTR280:  Inclusion criteria: 50 years Community Nutrition and older, attendance to the health fair.  Inclusion criteria: all students enrolled in the class who participated in the health fair and present on the night the survey was administered
  10. 10. LITERATURE REVIEW – STAGE OF CHANGEGreene G,Fey-Yensan N, Padula C,Rossi S,Rossi J,Clark P. Differences in psychosocial variables by stage of change for fruits and vegetablesin older adults J Am Diet Assoc 2004;104:1236-1243.
  11. 11. LITERATURE REVIEW- SELF-EFFICACY Part of the Social Cognitive Theory If belief in oneself is achieved, a person feels more motivated to complete the task. Good for predicting fruit and vegetable intake higher in the action and maintenance phaseBandura, A. (1998). Health promotion from the perspective of social cognitive theory.Psychologyand Health, 13, 623-649.
  12. 12. NEED FOR THIS RESEARCH  According to the CDC, fruit and vegetable consumption among the elderly is low.  Do the SOC and self- efficacy theory still apply to the elderly?  Need more research to look at the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on disease stateState-Specific Trends in Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Adults --- United States, 2010. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Web. 07 Nov. 2011. <>.
  13. 13. METHODS: SAMPLING Participants who attended the Health FairDescriptive Statistics for Health Fair Participants Std. N Minimum Maximum Mean Deviationage 58 51.00 94.00 79.0345 11.84396Valid N 58(listwise)
  14. 14. STUDY DEMOGRAPHICSGender Race
  15. 15. H 01: THERE IS NO DIFFERENCE BETWEENMENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH.Chi-square Test x 2 (4)= 21.55=p<.001Null Hypothesis: Rejected
  16. 16. H 02( A) : T H E RE I S N O DI F F E RE NCE I N T HE N UM BE R OF VE G E TABLE SE RVI N GS BE T W E E N P RE AC T I ON STAG E OF C H A N G E GROUP A N D AC T I ON STAG E OF C H A N G E G ROUP.Stage of change frequencies Number of vegetable Stage of servings per day Valid change 2 Frequency Percent category Preaction m=2.36Valid Precontemplation 7 12.5 Preaction n= 35 Action m=3.29 Contemplation 17 30.4 (t(52)= -3.306, p<.01, Preparation 11 19.6 d= 1.002 Action 7 12.5 Action n= 21 Maintenance 14 25.0 Total 56 100.0Missing 999.00 Rejected p=.002 2Total 58
  17. 17. H 02( B) : T H E RE I S N O DI F F E RE NCE I N T H E N UM BE R OF F RUI T SE RVI N GS BE T W E E N P RE AC T I ON STAG E OF C H A N G E G ROUP A N D AC T I ON STAGE OF C H A N G E G ROUP.Stage of change frequencies Stage of Number of fruit Valid change 2 servings per day Frequency Percent categoryValid Precontemplation 8 14.3 Preaction Preaction m=2.12 n= 43 Contemplation 17 30.4 Action m= 3.38 Preparation 18 32.1 Action 5 8.9 Action (t(52)= -4.44, p<.01, n= 18 d= .89 Maintenance 8 14.3 Total 56 100.0 Rejected p<.001Missing 999.00 2Total 58
  18. 18. H 03( A) : T H E RE I S N O DI F F E RE NCE I N T H E N UM BE R OF LI N KE DDI SE A SE S A N D P RE AC T I ON STAG E OF C H A N G E G ROUPBE T W EEN AC T I ON STAG E OF C H A N G E G ROUP FOR F RUI T. Diseases that were considered Linked  High Blood Pressure  High Blood Cholesterol  Low HDL  High Triglycerides  Heart Problems  Overweight/Obese  Cancer Linked Disease m= 1.78 (t(54)= .072, p=.837) Accepted p=.837
  19. 19. H 03( B) : T H E RE I S N O DI F F E RE NC E I N T H E N UM BE R OF LI N KE DDI SE A SE S A N D P RE AC T I ON STAG E OF C H A N G E G ROUPBE T W EEN AC T I ON STAG E OF C H A N G E G ROUP FOR VE G E TA BLE . Diseases that were considered Linked  High Blood Pressure  High Blood Cholesterol  Low HDL  High Triglycerides  Heart Problems  Overweight/Obese  Cancer Linked Disease m= 1.78 (t(54)= . 072, p= .479). Accepted p= .479).
  20. 20. H 04(A) : THERE ARE NO PREDICTORS FOR NUMBER OF FRUIT SERVINGS.Predictors of Fruit Servings  Stage of change fruit- preaction and action group  Number of vegetable servingsResults  (F(3,48)= 9.768, p<.001  R2 of .379Regression Equation  1.150(SOC fruit2) + .320 (number of vegetables per day) Rejected p<.001
  21. 21. H 04(B) : THERE ARE NO PREDICTORS FOR NUMBER OF VEGETABLE SERVINGS.Predictors of Vegetables Servings  Stage of change vegetable- preaction and action group  Number of fruit servings  GenderResult  (F(3,52)= 594291.41, p<.001  R2 of 1.0.Regression Equation  1(number of fruit per day) + .755 (stage of change vegetable intake 2)-.921 (Gender)
  22. 22. CONCLUSION Distinguished the importance between mental and physical health as separate entities instead of together. Provided insight for the confidence and importance the elderly have for fruit and vegetable intake The number of fruit and vegetables consumed was significantly different between the stage of change categories. The number of disease was not connected to ties of motivation. The number of vegetables predicted with 100% variance. The number of fruit can be predicted with close to 40%.
  24. 24. LITERATURE REVIEW – HEALTH FAIRS Forum for the delivery of health information Students will have a more positive attitude toward research Interdisciplinary approach Pooled resourcesLevy K, Lehna C. A service-oriented teaching and learning project. Pediatr Nurs. 2002;28(3):219.Mason DJ, Calvacca LR. Health fair: Providing a learning experience through a community service project. J NursEduc. 1982;21:39-47Maltby H. Use of health fairs to develop public health nursing competencies. Public Health Nursing.2006;23(2):183-189
  25. 25. LITERATURE REVIEW – SERVICE LEARNING Service Learning defined: any learning experience that occurs by blending learning objectives, preparation, and reflection within a community setting Service Learning in Dietetics is under represented Gain experiential knowledgeGilboy MB. Incorporating Service Learning in Community Nutrition. Topics inClinical Nutrition. 2009;24(1):16-24.Leonard LG. Primary health care and partnerships: Collaboration of acommunity agency, health department, and university nursing program. J NursEduc. 1998;37(3):144-148.Fournier AM, Harea C, Ardalan K, Sobin L. Health fairs as a unique teachingmethodology. Teaching & Learning in Medicine. 1999;11(1):48-51
  26. 26. LEARNING THEORIES Bandura’s Social Learning Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory CycleAttentional – Memorization ofmaterialRetention – Regurgitation ofmaterialReproduction - Engage in creatingeducational materialsMotivational – Become motivatedto share the informationFournier AM, Harea C, Ardalan K, Sobin L. Health fairs as a unique teaching methodology. Teaching &Learning in Medicine. 1999;11(1):48-51Kolb D, Boyatzis R, Mainemelis C. Experiential learning theory: Previous research and new directions.Perspectives on thinking, learning, and cognitive styles. Mahwah, NJ US: Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesPublishers; 2001:227-247.
  27. 27. NEED FOR THIS RESEARCHService Learning in Dietetics is under representedMost outcomes focus on success of the program to meet objectivesNeed more research focused on impact to students
  28. 28. METHODS: SAMPLINGSpring 2011 Nutrition 280: Community Nutrition26 undergraduate nutrition studentsDescriptive Statistics for Undergraduate Student Participants N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. DeviationAge in years 26 20.00 36.00 22.88 3.85Valid N (listwise) 26
  29. 29. STUDY DEMOGRAPHICS Age: Traditional Gender: Male vs. vs. Non-traditional Female80.8% traditional 84.6% female19.2% non traditional 15.4% male
  30. 30. TOOL: SLVQ: HEALTH FAIR (HF)Provided you with personal satisfaction through helping others (m=6.50)Applied nutrition information/knowledge learned in courses (m=6.42)Improved your understanding of how nutrition education can be integrated into community activities (m= 6.46)
  31. 31. PCA: HEALTH FAIR (HF) QUESTIONS4 factors Developing Deeper Understanding and Higher Order Skills (5 variables) Experiential Learning (4 variables) Self-efficacy and Values (4 variables) Impact on Community (2 variables)These four factors account for 77% of the variance in the health fair variables
  32. 32. RELIABILIT Y FOR HEALTH FAIR (HF) FACTORSReliability Statistics for Health Fair Factors Cronbachs Level of Internal Alpha N of Items Reliability Developing Deeper .83 5 Good Understanding and Higher Order Skills Experiential Learning .80 4 Good Self-efficacy and Values .76 4 Acceptable Impact on Community .67 2 Questionable to Acceptable Health Fair Variables .89 15 Excellent
  33. 33. H 05 : T H E RE I S N O DI F F E RE NC E I N H E A LT H FAC TOR M E A NRAT I NG SC ORE S AC ROSS T WO AG E CAT E G ORI ES,T RA DI TIONAL A N D N ON -T RA DI TIONAL UN DE RG RA DUATEST UDE NT S.Developing deeper t(24) = .016, p>.05understanding andhigher order skillsExperiential t(24) = -.90, p>.05Self-efficacy and values t(24) = 1.00, p>.05Impact on community t(24) = .69, p>.05 H05 is accepted
  34. 34. TOOL: SLVQ: SERVICE LEARNING (SL)I prefer courses in which applied experiences are authentic (m=6.77)Learning by doing is a necessary component for adequate training in health care professions (m=6.92)I am committed to making a positive difference (m=6.88)
  35. 35. PCA: SERVICE LEARNING QUESTIONS (SL)4 factors Contemplation/Preparation phase for Volunteerism (3 variables) Action Phase and Value Integration (3 variables) Curricular Requirement (1 variable) Curricular Preference (1 variable).These four factors account for 79% of the variance.
  36. 36. RELIABILIT Y FOR SERVICE LEARNING (SL) FACTORSReliability Statistics for Service Learning Factors Level of Internal Reliability Cronbachs Alpha N of Items Contemplation/Preparation .63 3 Questionable Stage for Volunteerism Action Phase and Values .81 3 Good Integration Service Learning Variables .69 8 Questionable to Acceptable
  37. 37. H 0 6 : T H E R E I S N O D I F F E R E N C E I N S E RV I C E L E A R N I N G FAC TO R M E A N R AT I N G S C O R E S AC R O S S T WO AG E CAT E G O R I E S , T R A D I T I O N A L A N D N O N -T R A D I T I O N A L U N D E R G R A D UAT E STUDENTS.Contemplation/Preparation t(24) = -1.09, p>.05Stage of VolunteerismAction/Value Integration t(24) = -1.07, p>.05Curricular requirement t(24) = -.70, p>.05Curricular Preference t(24) = 1.84, p>.05 H06 is accepted
  38. 38. H 07 : T H E R E I S N O R E L AT I O N S H I P B E T W E E N A G E A N D M E A N S O F D E V E L O P I N GD E E P E R U N D E R S TA N D I N G A N D H I G H E R O R D E R S K I L L S , E X P E R I E N T I A LL E A R N I N G , S E L F - E F F I C A C Y A N D VA L U E S , I M PA C T O N C O M M U N I T Y,C O N T E M P L AT I O N / P R E PA R AT I O N P H A S E O F V O L U N T E E R I S M , A C T I O N P H A S EA N D VA L U E I N T E G R AT I O N O F V O L U N T E E R I S M , C U R R I C U L A R R E Q U I R E M E N T,AND CURRICULAR PREFERENCE. Developing deeper understanding and Self-efficacy Impact on higher order skills Experiential and values communityContemplation/ Pearson .065 .572** -.030 .071preparation phase Correlationfor volunteerism Sig. (2-tailed) .752 .002 .884 .729Action phase and Pearson .507** .588** .356 .338values integration Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) .008 .002 .074 .091Curricular Pearson -.049 -.121 .173 .009requirement Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) .812 .557 .398 .964Curricular Pearson -.239 .061 .089 .068preference Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) .240 .768 .665 .743 H07 is rejected
  39. 39. H 08 : SERVICE LEARNING FACTORS WILL NOT PREDICT HEALTH FAIR FACTORSHealth Fair factors Developing Understanding and Higher Order Skills F(4,21) = 2.72, p>.05 with R 2 of .34 Self-efficacy and Values F(4,21) = 1.34, p>.05 with R 2 of .20 Impact on Community F(4,21) = .74, p>.05 with R 2 of .12
  40. 40. H 08 : SERVICE LEARNING FACTORS WILL NOT PREDICT HEALTH FAIR FACTORS Health Fair factor Experiential Learning Formula F(4,21) = 5.30, p<.05 with an R 2 of .50 Equation Experiential Learning = .06(Contemplation/preparation phase for volunteerism) + .24(Action Phase and Values Integration) and accounts for 50% of the variance Rejected p <.05
  41. 41. CONCLUSIONS Age does not af fect the mean rating scores for Health Fair (HF) factors and Service Learning (SL) factors There is no correlation between age and any of the Health Fair (HF) or Service Learning (SL) factors. There is a correlation between Experiential Learning and Contemplation/Preparation Phase for Volunteerism, and Action Phase and Values Integration. There is also a correlation between Developing Deeper Understanding and Higher Order Skills and Action Phase and Values Integration. Contemplation/preparation Phase for Volunteerism and Action Phase and Values Integration, service learning factors, are good predictors of Experiential Learning, a health fair factor. If future results confirm the current findings, the survey tool can be pared down to those questions within the Experiential Learning, Contemplation/Preparation Phase for Volunteerism, and Action Phase and Values Integration factors.
  42. 42. STRENGTHSReliable data collection tools CHFQ and SLVQAll surveys coded and entered by researchersIncentive to participateParticipation rate for in-class survey
  43. 43. APPLICATIONSUseful in developing future service learning opportunities to undergraduate studentsUseful in designing undergraduate nutrition coursesMental health and Physical health can be separated in future surveys than as one question.The number of vegetables predicted with 100% variance could be used in future thesis.
  44. 44. WEAKNESSESSmall sample sizeEvent held during dinner time of the residentsIncentive given out for filling out survey toolNo control, no randomizationGeneralizability, limited High % of female High % of Caucasian
  45. 45. FUTURE RESEARCH Shorten the time for the health fair and end the fair when the residents go to dinner. Larger venue or more tables to create better traffic flow It would be interesting to do pre - and post test of the SLVQ to see if there is any change in attitudes as a result of the health fair Repeat both studies for larger N to increase generalizability