3. Pax Romana
The Roman Emperor
Roads and Aqueducts
Religion in the Golden Age
4. The Pax Romana
The two centuries from the reign of Augustus until the
death of Marcus Aurelius are known as the Golden Age of
Rome, or the Pax Romana (Roman Peace).
the core of
Market in Pompeii, by Antonio Niccolini
5. The Roman Emperor
In ancient Rome, there
was no such title or office as
The term “Roman
emperor” is a convenient
term to describe the single
man who, from Augustus on,
had all of the power that had
been shared by many officers
in the Republic.
Emperors used a number
of titles: Imperator
(commander), princeps (first
(venerable), and caesar.
6. Praetorian Guard
Created during the late
Republic, it was an elite squad
assigned to guard the
Augustus transformed the
Guard into the emperor’s
private army, which served as
the police force in Rome and
other Italian cities.
It had legionary strength. A
third of its members were
stationed in Rome, where they
dressed as civilians but carried
weapons. In modern times, the
term has been used to
Members of the Guard were
describe an elite military
paid 50% more than
legionaries of comparable rank. force protecting a
7. The Praetorian Guard was an important force in the
Principate. It could put an emperor in office, keep him
there, or get rid of him.
The Guard was weakened by Diocletian and eliminated by
Constantine in the early 4th century.
was a form of
private, were a
the glory and
importance of As with military organization and
Rome and the weaponry, in architecture the Romans
emperor. were great innovators. Arches, columns,
domes and concrete, known and used by
others, became something new and
different in Roman hands.
10. While stands the Coliseum, Rome shall stand;
When falls the Coliseum, Rome shall fall;
And when Rome falls - the world.
- Lord Byron, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage
known as the
ever built in
Empire. It held
15. Public Bathing in
Public bathing was an important
part of Roman social life in the
Baths of Caracalla
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1899
16. A visit to the baths was a part of daily life for Romans. The
baths were a place to relax and meet with friends. Women
and men of all classes used the public baths. Sometimes
there were separate facilities or hours for women;
sometimes men and women bathed together.
17. A trip to the baths would include exercise to work up a
sweat, a soak in warm, hot and cool pools, and a
cleansing massage with a strigil (pictured) which was
used to scrape off aromatic oils and accumulated dirt.
The Romans did not use soap.
18. Roman baths
ranged from small
facilities to large
built and operated
by the state.
Baths were found
Rome, and in
19. Baths of Caracalla
The Caracalla baths, the second-largest bath complex in
ancient Rome, included two public libraries, one with texts
in Greek and the other Latin.
21. Roads and
miles of them,
parts of the
centers and the
Roman road in Pompeii
Photo by Paul Vlaar
22. The roads were
By legions to
march quickly to
where they were
goods over great
By Romans to
travel around the
The roads were built
to last; some are
still used today.
Via Appia – The Appian Way
24. The arcades of the Aqua Claudia with the Anio
Novus on top, two of the aqueducts of Rome.
(Constructed in 36-50 under Caligula and Claudius)
Photo by Wilke Schram
The Roman waterway system, which brought fresh water
to private homes as well as public baths and fountains,
was one of the engineering marvels of the ancient world.
The Romans also developed indoor plumbing and sewers
to carry waste away from homes.
26. Eleven water lines
brought water to
Rome from sources
as far as 60 miles
Most of the system
was composed of
and tunnels, but
when the pipes had
to cross valleys, or
as they approached
the city, they were
raised on Covered stone water channel,
spectacular arched Germany
aqueducts. Photo by Wilke Schram
27. The entire system was gravity-fed. Very subtle gradients
maintained the flow of water. Occasionally, a system of
pressurized pipe, called an inverted siphon, was used to
push the water a short distance uphill.
all over the
still in use
Roman aqueduct, ca. 19 BCE, Pont du Gard, France
gods as well
worship - the
cult of the
in the empire.
Temple of Augusta and Livia, Vienne, France.
Erected by Claudius.
30. Foreign Gods and
Cults from the east
became popular in
Mithras came to Rome from
Persia, through Greece.
Isis, a goddess of Egypt,
was also popular in Rome.
Many other “mystery cults”
were popular in the empire.
31. Jews in the Empire
Jews were a large
religious minority in the
In addition to their
kingdom of Judaea, there
were many Jews in Egypt,
Syria, and Greece.
There was a Jewish
Josephus was a Jewish community in Rome from at
military leader who least the 2nd century BCE.
was captured by the
Romans. He wrote a
Caesar and Augustus
history of the Jewish- passed laws protecting the
Roman War of 66-73. rights of Jews in Rome.
32. Judaea had been a
Roman ally since the 2nd
It became a province in
Jews were usually
treated with toleration
and respect, but not
Emperor Caligula insisted on placing a statue of
himself in the temple at Jerusalem. Although he was
killed before he could do so, he created resentment.
In 66, a local conflict erupted into a major rebellion
that lasted until 73. The Jews were defeated. Jewish
deaths in the rebellion are estimated to have been
between 600,000 and 1.3 million; 100,000 Jews were
taken as slaves to Rome.
The temple at Jerusalem was destroyed.
33. 960 Jewish rebels made their last stand at the hilltop
fortress of Masada.
The Roman siege of Masada is one of the most famous
examples of siege warfare.
15,000 Roman soldiers surrounded the fortress,
preventing supplies from getting in. They constructed a
massive ramp to assault the rebels on the hilltop.
face capture, the
“From one end of
Galilee to the other
there was an orgy of
fire and bloodshed."
- Josephus, Jewish
Masada and ruins on summit
34. Titus, military commander in Judaea and later
emperor, condemned 2,500 Jews to fight wild
beasts in the amphitheater at Caesarea in
celebration of his brother Domitan's birthday.
35. Early Christianity
Christianity began as a small
cult – one of many – which
grew in Palestine after the
crucifixion of the Jewish
teacher, Jesus of Nazareth.
Communities of Christians
developed around the
widely on theory and practice.
Christianity drew a following among the poor and
The empire was generally tolerant of religious practices,
but Christians’ refusal to participate in official religious
celebrations, and their practice of meeting in secret, drew
36. Christianity grew slowly in the 1st and 2nd centuries.
There were occasional episodes of persecution, as when
Nero blamed Christians for the Great Fire of Rome.
rapidly in the 3rd Spread of Christianity to 325 CE
of Christians also
increased in the
Spread of Christianity to 600 CE
Pompeii, a city in
southern Italy near
Naples, was founded
in the 6th century
It was destroyed on
August 24, 79 CE,
when Mt. Vesuvius
erupted, burying the
city under several
feet of ash and rock.
Pompeii, buried in
the explosion, was
forgotten. Computer-generated depiction of the
eruption of Vesuvius (by the BBC)
38. Ruins of Pompeii
Robert Curtis Rossetti
Pompeii was rediscovered in 1748.
Excavations have exposed a well-
preserved Roman city from the