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El instruction clil

Is there any instructional method to teach content through English as a foreign language?
Different Approaches to an Instructional Model

Manuel F. Lara Garrido - lara25@bepnetwork.com

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El instruction clil

  1. 1. EnglishEnglish LanguageLanguage InstructionInstruction forfor CLILCLIL Lleida 2010 Is there any instructional method to teach content through English as a foreign language? Different Approaches to an Instructional Model Manuel F. Lara Garrido bilingeduc@lara25.com
  2. 2. English Language Instruction for CLIL Building Academic English Competence …. teachers need more practical awareness of the language that is what I call the lifeblood of learning in all classes. (Jeff Zwiers, 2008, p. XV)
  3. 3. 06/04/16 Three concepts we have to work on: 1.CLIL 2.Instruction in English 3.Academic English Competence (Academic Literacy Competence in English)
  4. 4. To teach academic subjects through a Foreign Language - English The main goal in our context:The main goal in our context:
  5. 5. What kind of Instruction can we use in order to instruct Content through a Foreign Language?
  6. 6. Sheltered Instruction Three aspects we have to take into account
  7. 7. A means for making grade-level academic content (e.g., science, social studies, math) more accessible (understandable and comprehensible) for CLIL students. S.I. - Sheltered Instruction 1S.I. - Sheltered Instruction 1
  8. 8. S.I. - Sheltered Instruction 2S.I. - Sheltered Instruction 2 A means for promoting students’ English language Development (ELD) and literacy.
  9. 9. S.I. - Sheltered Instruction 3S.I. - Sheltered Instruction 3 A means for providing support to students while performing the required tasks in English. Explicit instruction of learning strategies. Scaffolding
  10. 10. ScaffoldingScaffolding Scaffolding is one of the main characteristics of Shetered Instruction
  11. 11. What is Scaffolding?What is Scaffolding? Scaffolding is an instructional technique whereby the teacher models the desired learning strategy or task, then gradually shifts responsibility to the students.
  12. 12. What is its purpose?What is its purpose? Scaffolding essentially means doing some of the work for the student who isn't quite ready to accomplish a task independently. Like the supports that construction workers use on buildings, scaffolding is intended to be temporary. It is there to aid the completion of a task and it is eventually removed.
  13. 13. 06/04/16 Sheltered Instruction cannot work just on Content or just on Language. Language & Content have to go together.
  14. 14. M.A.K. Halliday (1993) says: You can neither teach content without language nor teach language without content. Both, Language & Content go together.
  15. 15. Language is not a domain of human knowledge (except in the special context of linguistics, where it becomes an object of scientific study); language is the essential condition of knowing, the process by which experience becomes knowledge. (Halliday, 1993, p.94)
  16. 16. Teachers should be aware of the power of language in the development of what students learn. “Learning language” and “learning through language” are simultaneous. (Halliday, 1993)
  17. 17. 06/04/16 Language is a system which relates what is being talked about (content) and the means used to talk about it (expression). Linguistic content is inseparable from linguistic expression. In subject matter learning we overlook the role of language as a medium of learning and in language learning we overlook the fact that content is being communicated. Mohan (1986)
  18. 18. 06/04/16 Two types of Sheltered Instruction 1. S.I. focused on Language: Language teaching through Content 2. S.I. Focused on Content: Content teaching through Language Language & Content should go toguether.
  19. 19. Let's have a look to some instructional models, sheltered instruction models.
  20. 20. 06/04/16 Building Bridges: New Competences in the EFL Classroom 20 English Language DevelopmentEnglish Language Development (ELD)(ELD)
  21. 21. ELD – English LanguageELD – English Language DevelomentDeveloment English Language Development (ELD) is an instructional model designed to systematically develop the English language proficiency of English learners. ELD instruction emphasizes the development of all four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. ELD is defined as instruction to develop knowledge of English language skills and content-area vocabulary (academic English) through the medium of academic content and subject matter.
  22. 22. Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners (A veteran teacher helps understand current research and put theory into practice) By Andrea J. Spillett
  23. 23. 06/04/16 Building Bridges: New Competences in the EFL Classroom 23 Systematic ELD A Focused Approach for English Learner Instruction A coherent approach for developing proficiency in English is essential to any plan for increasing the academic achievement of English learners. This must include explicit language support for literacy and content instruction taught in English, as well as a plan for providing instruction in English as its own subject of study.
  24. 24. CBI - Content Based InstructionCBI - Content Based Instruction Content based instruction (CBI) is a teaching method that emphasizes learning about something rather than learning about language. Nevertheless, CBI is an effective method of combining language and content learning.
  25. 25. CBI is "...the integration of particular content with language teaching aims...the concurrent teaching of academic subject matter and second language skills" (Brinton et al., 1989, p. 2). CBI approaches "...view the target language largely as the vehicle through which subject matter content is learned rather than as the immediate object of study" (Brinton et al., 1989, p. 5). CBI is aimed at 'the development of use-oriented second and foreign language skills' and is 'distinguished by the concurrent learning of a specific content and related language use skills' (Wesche, 1993). CBI is "...an approach to language instruction that integrates the presentation of topics or tasks from subject matter classes (e.g., math, social studies) within the context of teaching a second or foreign language" (Crandall & Tucker, 1990, p. 187).
  26. 26. Content Based Instruction in EFL Contexts Stephen Davies sdavies@ miyazaki-mic.ac.jp Miyazaki International College (Miyazaki, Japan) The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. IX, No. 2, February 2003
  27. 27. 06/04/16 Building Bridges: New Competences in the EFL Classroom 27
  28. 28. The SIOP ModelThe SIOP Model The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Its main goal is to make content material more comprehensible to English Language Learners. The model was developed by Jana Echevarria, Mary Ellen Vogt and Deborah J. Short. The SIOP Model includes the following eight components:
  29. 29. Lesson Preparation * Clearly defined content objectives for students * Clearly defined language objectives for students * Content concepts appropriate for age and educational background * Supplementary materials used to a high degree, making the lesson clear and meaningful (e.g., graphs, models, visuals) * Adaptation of content (e.g., text, assignment) to all levels of student proficiency * Meaningful activities that integrate lesson concepts (e.g., surveys, letter writing, simulations, constructing models) with language practice opportunities for reading, writing, listening, and/or speaking
  30. 30. Building Background 1. Concepts should be directly linked to students’ background experience. This experience can be personal, cultural or academic. 2. Links should be explicitly made between past learning and new concepts. 3. Key vocabulary is emphasized. New vocabulary is presented in context. The number of vocabulary items is limited.
  31. 31. Comprehensible Input 1. Use speech that is appropriate for students' language proficiency. 2. Make the explanation of the task clear using step-by-step manner with visuals. 3. Use of a variety of techniques to make content concepts clear. Teachers need to focus attention selectively on the most important information. Introduce new learning in context. Help students learn strategies such as predicting, summarizing.
  32. 32. Strategies 1. Provide ample opportunities for students to use learning strategies. Learning strategies should be taught through explicit instruction. You want students to develop independence in self-monitoring. 2. Consistent use of scaffolding techniques throughout the lesson. Introduce a new concept using a lot of scaffolding and decrease support as time goes on. Restate a student's response or use think-alouds 3. Use of a variety of question types, including those that promote higher level thinking skills.
  33. 33. Interaction Provide students with: 1. frequent opportunities for interactions about lesson concepts which encourage higher level thinking skills. 2. grouping which supports language and content objectives. Cooperative groups, buddies, pairs, large and small groups 3. ample wait time for responses 4. opportunities for clarification in native language, if possible.
  34. 34. Practice and Application Lessons should include: 1. hands-on materials or manipulatives for student practice. 2. activities for students to apply content and language knowledge in the classroom. 3. activities that integrate all language skills :listening, speaking, reading and writing.
  35. 35. Lesson Delivery 1. Content and Language objectives supported by lesson delivery. 3. Students engaged 90% to 100% of the period. 4. Pacing of the lesson appropriate to students’ ability level.
  36. 36. Review and Assessment * Comprehensive review of key vocabulary * Comprehensive review of key content concepts * Regular feedback to students on their output * Assessment of student comprehension and learning of all lesson objectives (e.g., spot checking, group response) throughout the lesson
  37. 37. The SIOP Model follows Krashen's idea that second language acquisition is enhanced by comprehensible input (Krashen, 1982; 1985), which is a key pedagogical technique in content-based instruction; however, comprehensible input alone is not enough —students need form-focused content instruction (an explicit focus on relevant and contextually appropriate language forms to support content learning) (Swain, 1985) The SIOP Institute.
  38. 38. S.D.A.I.E. - Specially DesignedS.D.A.I.E. - Specially Designed Academic Instruction In EnglishAcademic Instruction In English S.D.A.I.E. or Sheltered English as it often still referred to in various parts of the United States was originally established as an accepted transitional step for students learning English as their second language. It allows them to move forward with academic courses such as mathematics and science while at the same time learning English through the contextual clues provided by the course of study.
  39. 39. European CLIL Can CLIL be consider a real Instructional Model?
  40. 40. What is CLIL?What is CLIL? C - Content L – Language (FL) I - Integrated L – Learning T - Teaching
  41. 41. The main question: How can we integrate ... Content: Academic Content Language: Academic English In learning and teaching academic subjects?
  42. 42. A CLIL lesson is not a language lesson neither is it a subject lesson transmitted in a foreign language. According to the 4Cs curriculum (Coyle 1999), a successful CLIL lesson should combine elements of the following: Content - Progression in knowledge, skills and understanding related to specific elements of a defined curriculum Communication - Using language to learn whilst learning to use language Cognition - Developing thinking skills which link concept formation (abstract and concrete), understanding and language Culture - Exposure to alternative perspectives and shared understandings, which deepen awareness of otherness and self.
  43. 43. 06/04/16
  44. 44. 06/04/16 David MarshDavid Marsh Every Teacher is a Language Teacher Prácticas en Educación Bilingüe/Plurilingüe nº1 CLIL is one key which is available to those teachers who want to embrace change, and it is here on our doorstep now. In CLIL every teacher is indeed a language teacher; Some teachers teach language, and others alternative subjects, but they each use an integrated approach which ensures that content, language, and thinking skills objectives are interwoven into the teaching and learning process. This is the core success of language across the curriculum.
  45. 45. Lorenza Lara and D.W. Moore (2009) consider a priority helping teachers connect language, literacy, and content during subject matter instruction. Teachers must integrate literacy instruction into the content domains.
  46. 46. We still treat language learning as separate from acquiring discipline-based knowledge. By envisioning an integrated approach to instruction, we will benefit all students. In fact, explicitly attending to the linguistic features of content-area instruction has the potential to benefit any student whose "home language," is markedly different from standard academic English. Lara L. & Moore, D.W. (2009)
  47. 47. Teachers are either fully qualified language teachers or fully qualified content subject teachers. So the language/content subject balance mentioned above is very difficult to achieve through one person, except by providing appropriate in-service training by team teaching.
  48. 48. What model of instruction can we use in order to enhance Academic Literacy in our students?
  49. 49. How can Language & Content be balanced? By means of ACADEMIC LITERACY INSTRUCTION (ALI)
  50. 50. What's Academic Language? Academic language is the language used in instruction, textbooks and exams. Academic language differs in structure and vocabulary from language used in daily social interactions. BICS & CALP Cummins, J. (1979) Academic language is the set of words, grammar, and organizational strategies used to describe complex ideas, higher-order thinking processes, and abstract concepts.
  51. 51. Why is academic language so important? • Students who master academic language are more likely to: - be successful in academic and professional settings • Students who do not learn academic language may: – struggle academically – be at a higher risk of dropping out of school
  52. 52. Literacy is broadly viewed as more than just an individual's ability to read. Literacy is an individual's ability to read, write, speak in English, compute, and solve problems at levels of proficiency necessary to function at school, on the job, in the family, and in society. The concept of literacy has evolved from the ability of an individual to read and/or write to include multiple activities (reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, symbolizing, etc.) with multiple associated texts (print, digital, video, symbolic, images, diagrams, graphs, conversations, etc.). What's Literacy?
  53. 53. Teaching Disciplinary Literacy to Adolescents: Rethinking Content-Area Literacy Timothy Shanahan & Cynthia Shanahan University of Illinois at Chicago Harvard Educational Review Vol. 78 No. 1 Spring 2008     
  54. 54. Academic Literacy Academic Literacy is the ability to use reading and writing as tools for learning subject matter. [Reading] is essential in every content subject, such as history, geography, arithmetic, science, and literature. In fact, rapid progress in these subjects depends in a large degree on the ability of pupils to read independently and intelligently. It follows that good teaching must provide for the improvement and refinement of the reading attitudes, habits, and skills that are needed in all school activities involving reading. (W. S. Gray, 1925, 1-2)
  55. 55. Balanced Literacy The Balanced Literacy approach is characterized by explicit skill instruction and the use of authentic texts. Through various modalities, the teacher implements a well-planned comprehensive literacy program that reflects a gradual release of control, whereby centricity and responsibility is gradually shifted from the teacher to the students. Assessment-based planning is at the core of this model.
  56. 56. Academic literacy builds students' academic content knowledge and their reading, writing, and thinking skills at the same time. Teachers must integrate literacy instruction into the content domains. Literacy & Content
  57. 57. Literacy instruction that centers on reading and writing to learn content focuses on goal-centered reading, content comprehension, and application of content knowledge. Literacy activities provide students with practice as they develop proficiencies necessary to make meaning with content-area texts. These activities help students read print materials, learn important content vocabulary, and write about what they are learning. Academic Literacy Instruction
  58. 58. Reading & Writing are the core features of literacy Teachers should include regular and explicit instruction in reading and writing to support students' content learning and literacy development. Academic Literacy Instruction (continue)
  59. 59. Development of academic literacy is complex –need to use students’ everyday literacy practices to explicitly teach them to navigate across texts & contexts Instruction should explicitly focus on strategies/practices for critically reading across texts Instruction should take up students’ sociocultural knowledge to help make sense of academic texts Academic Literacy Instruction (continue)
  60. 60. By infusing literacy instruction with content instruction, content-area teachers support students in gaining necessary literacy proficiencies while deepening content learning. Furthermore, teachers are responsible for literacy instruction that also promotes content-area learning. Draper argues that content-area literacy instruction should promote mastery of the intellectual discourse within a particular discipline. Academic Literacy Instruction & content-area learning
  61. 61. Most of the Learning Strategies will refer to Reading & Writing as the centre of Academic Literacy CLIL students will have problems at comprehension We'll have to implement sheltered instruction strategies. What's sheltered instruction?
  62. 62. 06/04/16 Predicting and inferring. Self-questioning. Monitoring and clarifying. Evaluating and determining importance. Summarizing and synthesizing. Thinking strategies proficient readers use:
  63. 63. 06/04/16 The following skills have been identified as critical to comprehension… 1.Activating prior knowledge and making connections 2.Predicting and inferring 3.Visualizing 4.Determining the important ideas 5.Summarizing and synthesizing 6.Questioning: generating and answering 7.Monitoring and clarifying Key Comprehension Strategies
  64. 64. SQP2RSSQP2RS Survey: Explore the text before reading Question: Generate questions that we will be able to answer after we read Predict: Predict 3 things we will learn while reading Read: Take notes while reading Respond: Answer your questions and develop new ones Summarize: In 2-3 sentences summarize the reading Vogt, M.E. (2002). SQP2RS: Increasing students’ understandings of expository text through cognitive and metacognitive strategy application. Paper presented at 52nd Annual Meeting of the National Reading Conference.text
  65. 65. 06/04/16 Let's see now some projects, websites, institutions & organizations working on Academic Literacy
  66. 66. LICI (Language in Content Instruction, 229850-CP-1-2006-1-FI-LINGUA-L2PP) is a 3-year Lingua 2 project, part of the Socrates programme, carried out between the years 2006 and 2009. The project is coordinated by Heini-Marja Järvinen from University of Turku, Finland.
  67. 67. The aim of the LICI project and its products is the language of learning and instruction in a CLIL environment. The leading principle of the LICI project is that by enhancing language in content teaching, the dual focus of learning both language and content is realized optimally. The theoretical basis for linking content with language is found in general and content-specific thinking skills and strategies.
  68. 68. WIDA is a consortium of states dedicated to the design and implementation of high standards and equitable educational opportunities for English language learners. WIDA educational products and services fall into three main categories: standards and assessments, professional development for educators, and research. WIDA Consortium Wisconsin Center for Educational Research (WCER) University of Wisconsin-Madison
  69. 69. CORI – Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction
  70. 70. Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) was developed by Dr. John Guthrie and some classroom teachers and graduate students at the University of Maryland in 1993.
  71. 71. The objective of CORI in the classroom is to increase the amount of engaged reading. Engaged reading refers to reading strategically (using background knowledge, questioning, organizing graphically, summarizing, and other strategies), with motivational goals of learning from text, interacting with other students to learn, experiencing hands-on activities, and gaining conceptual understanding of science through reading.
  72. 72. The ADDIE model is a generic and simplified instructional systems design (ISD) model. ADDIE is short for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate. Idaho State University College of Education Science, Math, & Technology Education A. W. Strickland, Ph.D.
  73. 73. In the analyze phase, the instructional problem is clarified, the goals and objectives are established, and the learning environment and learner characteristics are identified. Analyze
  74. 74. The design phase is where the intructional strategies are designed and media choices are made. Design
  75. 75. Develop In the develop phase, materials are produced according to decisions made during the design phase.
  76. 76. Implement The implement phase includes the testing of prototypes (with targeted audience), putting the product in full production, and training learners and instructors on how to use the product.
  77. 77. Evaluate The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative. Formative evaluation is present in each stage. Summative evaluation consists of tests for criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users.
  78. 78. Literacy Matters offers you "the best of the best on the Web"—web sites containing background information, research-based instructional strategies, lesson plans, sample activities, guidelines, book lists, and resources to strengthen your students' literacy skills, and thus, strengthen their content learning. Literacy Matters is housed at Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) located in Newton
  79. 79. Academic Success depends on learning to read well. Learning to read well depends on rich language knowledge. Explicit English language instruction helps ensure English learners gain the knowledge they need to be academically successful.
  80. 80. The National Institute for Literacy, a federal agency, provides leadership on literacy issues, including the improvement of reading instruction for children, youth, and adults. Since its creation in 1991, the National Institute for Literacy has served as a catalyst for improving opportunities for adults, youth, and children to thrive in a progressively literate world. The National Institute for Literacy, 1775 I Street, NW, Suite 730,Washington, DC 20006, Phone: (202) 233-2025; Fax: (202) 233-2050; Website: http://www.nifl.gov. For publications contact EDPUBS at 1-877- 433-7827
  81. 81. SIM overriding goal has been to develop an integrated model to address many of the needs of diverse learners. Center for Research on Learning – The University of Kansas SIM - Strategic Instruction Model
  82. 82. 06/04/16 Building Bridges: New Competences in the EFL Classroom 82 SIM - Strategic Instruction Model (continue) For 25 years, they have conducted research designed to develop ways to help students meet the demands of life, not just in school but after they leave school as well. Their goal has been to develop an integrated model to address many of the needs of diverse learners. The Strategic Instruction Model®, or SIM®, has evolved. In essence, SIM is about promoting effective teaching and learning of critical content in schools. SIM strives to help teachers make decisions about what is of greatest importance, what we can teach students to help them to learn, and how to teach them well. They advocate trying to teach a little less content, but teaching it better.
  83. 83. CLIC - Content Literacy InformationCLIC - Content Literacy Information ConsortiumConsortium The Content Literacy Information Consortium ( CLIC) is an organized set of web links of special interest to teachers and researchers interested in issues defined by "learning to read to learn." The web sites cataloged in CLIC will provide every teacher with ideas and strategies for adopting the instructional moves that empower their students to become independent, actualized learners. Web page created by Thomas Estes and Kathie Burgess, University of Virginia.
  84. 84. 06/04/16 This website is a resource for teachers who want to use the CALLA approach, or do research on CALLA The site is maintained by Jill Robbins, who works with Anna Uhl Chamot on developing CALLA materials and workshops. The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach CALLA is designed for limited English proficient students who are being prepared to participate in mainstream content-area instruction. CALLA provides transitional instruction for upper elementary and secondary students at intermediate and advanced ESL levels. This approach furthers academic language development in English through content- area instruction in science, mathematics, and social studies. In CALLA, students are taught to use learning strategies derived from a cognitive model of learning to assist their comprehension and retention of both language skills and concepts in the content areas. CALLA was developed by Anna Uhl Chamot and J. Michael O'Malley CALLACALLA The Cognitive Academic Language LearningThe Cognitive Academic Language Learning ApproachApproach
  85. 85. VOCAL: Vocabulary and Academic Language This online site was developed to share research- based best practices for teaching and learning academic language and vocabulary. Educators have become aware of the need to boost student learning in the areas of academic language and vocabulary. Board of Education, San Diego County GetVOCALGetVOCAL 2007 Board of Education, San Diego County.
  86. 86. Students need to increase their ability to comprehend text, to write and speak more academically, and to apply these skills across the curriculum. While this is especially critical for CLIL students, all learners need to improve in these areas.
  87. 87. ELD Strategies - Best Practices andELD Strategies - Best Practices and Resources for Teachers of EnglishResources for Teachers of English LearnersLearners ELDStrategies.com, a comprehensive web resource for teachers of English learners. ELDStrategies.com will highlight effective English Language Development (ELD) strategies and instructional practices, as well as recommended teaching resources for educating second language learners.
  88. 88. Project GLADProject GLAD Guided Language Acquisition Design Project GLAD (Guided Language Acquisition Design) is an effective instructional model for teaching English language development (ELD) and literacy. GLAD is a strandards-based ELD instructional model that promotes high levels of academic language and achievement for students at all levels of English proficiency.
  89. 89. Middle School Literacy Develoment Using Academic Language Word Generation The program is strategically designed to create a coherent school-wide effort that gives students the sustained exposure to academic language they need for success in school. Word Generation
  90. 90. SHELTERED INSTRUCTION & ACADEMIC LANGUAGE CLIL LESSON PLANNING: SHELTERED INSTRU Bilingual Education Platform - BEP PLATAFORMA DE EDUCACIÓN BILINGÜE
  91. 91. ReferenceReference Chamot, A.U. & O'Malley, J.M., (1994). The CALLA Handbook: Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Approach, Pearson Education, Longman COYLE, D., 1999. Theory and Planning for Effective Classrooms: Supporting students in content and language integrated learning contexts: planning for effective classrooms. In: Learning through a foreign language: models, methods and outcomes. Centre for Information on Language Teaching & Research, London, UK, pp. 46-62 Cummins, J. (1979) Cognitive/academic language proficiency, linguistic interdependence, the optimum age question and some other matters. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 19, 121-129. Echevarria, J, Vogt, M & Short, D, (2008). Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model, Pearson, U.S. Gray, W. S. (1925). Reading activities in school and in social life. In G. M. Whipple (Ed.), The Twenty-Fourth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education: Part I (pp. 1-8). Bloomington, IL: Public School Publishing Company Halliday et al. 1993 : Halliday, M.A.K. and J.R. Martin, Writing science: Literacy and discursive power , Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1993; London: Falmer Press, 1993. Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practices in second language acquisition. NY: Pergamon Press. Krashen, S. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. NY: Longman. Lorenza Lara and D.W. Moore (2009) Lara, L., & Moore, D.W. (2009, October). Literacy Instruction for Adolescent English Learners: An Interview With Lorenza Lara . Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 53(2), 173–175. doi: 10.1598/JAAL.53.2.8en David Marsh (2009), Every teacher is a Language Teacher, Prácticas en Educación Bi/Plurilingüe, nº1, Prácticas en Educación Mehisto, P., Marsh, D. & Frigols, M.J. (2008). Uncovering CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning in Bilingual and Multilingual Education. Macmillan Education. Mohan, B. A. (1986). Language and Content. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Shanahan, Timothy & Cynthia, Teaching Disciplinary Literacy to Adolescents: Rethinking Content-Area Literacy Timothy Shanahan & Cynthia Shanahan University of Illinois at Chicago Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. In S. Gass & C. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition (pp. 235-253). Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Vogt, M.E. (2002). SQP2RS: Increasing students’understandings of expository text through cognitive and metacognitive strategy application. Paper presented at 52nd Annual Meeting of the National Reading Conference. Zwiers, J. (2008). Building Academic Language: Essencial Practices for Content Classrooms. Jossey-Bass Teacher, U.S.A.

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