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EnglishEnglish LanguageLanguage InstructionInstruction forfor
Is there any instructional method to teach content
through English as a foreign language?
Different Approaches to an Instructional Model
Manuel F. Lara Garrido
English Language Instruction for
Building Academic English
…. teachers need more practical awareness of the language
that is what I call the lifeblood of learning in all classes.
(Jeff Zwiers, 2008, p. XV)
Three concepts we have to
2.Instruction in English
3.Academic English Competence
(Academic Literacy Competence in
To teach academic subjects
through a Foreign
Language - English
The main goal in our context:The main goal in our context:
What kind of Instruction
can we use in order to
instruct Content through a
Three aspects we have to take into account
A means for making grade-level
content (e.g., science, social studies,
more accessible (understandable and
comprehensible) for CLIL students.
S.I. - Sheltered Instruction 1S.I. - Sheltered Instruction 1
S.I. - Sheltered Instruction 2S.I. - Sheltered Instruction 2
A means for promoting
students’ English language
Development (ELD) and
S.I. - Sheltered Instruction 3S.I. - Sheltered Instruction 3
A means for providing support to
students while performing the
required tasks in English.
Explicit instruction of learning
Scaffolding is one of the main
characteristics of Shetered
What is Scaffolding?What is Scaffolding?
Scaffolding is an instructional
technique whereby the teacher
models the desired learning strategy
or task, then gradually shifts
responsibility to the students.
What is its purpose?What is its purpose?
Scaffolding essentially means doing some of the
work for the student who isn't quite ready to
accomplish a task independently. Like the
supports that construction workers use on
buildings, scaffolding is intended to be
temporary. It is there to aid the completion of a
task and it is eventually removed.
Sheltered Instruction cannot
work just on Content or just
Language & Content have to
M.A.K. Halliday (1993) says:
You can neither teach content
without language nor teach
language without content. Both,
Language & Content go together.
Language is not a domain of human
knowledge (except in the special
context of linguistics, where it becomes
an object of scientific study); language
is the essential condition of knowing,
the process by which experience
becomes knowledge. (Halliday, 1993,
Teachers should be aware of the
power of language in the
development of what students learn.
“Learning language” and “learning
through language” are
simultaneous. (Halliday, 1993)
Language is a system which relates what is
being talked about (content) and the means
used to talk about it (expression). Linguistic
content is inseparable from linguistic
expression. In subject matter learning we
overlook the role of language as a medium of
learning and in language learning we overlook
the fact that content is being communicated.
Two types of Sheltered
1. S.I. focused on Language:
Language teaching through
2. S.I. Focused on Content: Content
teaching through Language
Language & Content should go
Let's have a look to some
instructional models, sheltered
06/04/16 Building Bridges: New Competences in the EFL Classroom 20
English Language DevelopmentEnglish Language Development
ELD – English LanguageELD – English Language
English Language Development (ELD) is an
instructional model designed to systematically
develop the English language proficiency of
English learners. ELD instruction emphasizes the
development of all four language skills: listening,
speaking, reading and writing.
ELD is defined as instruction to develop
knowledge of English language skills and
content-area vocabulary (academic English)
through the medium of academic content and
Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners
(A veteran teacher helps understand current research
and put theory into practice)
By Andrea J. Spillett
06/04/16 Building Bridges: New Competences in the EFL Classroom 23
A Focused Approach for English Learner Instruction
A coherent approach for developing proficiency in English is
essential to any plan for increasing the academic achievement of
English learners. This must include explicit language support for
literacy and content instruction taught in English, as well as a
plan for providing instruction in English as its own subject of
CBI - Content Based InstructionCBI - Content Based Instruction
Content based instruction (CBI) is a
teaching method that emphasizes
learning about something rather
than learning about language.
Nevertheless, CBI is an effective
method of combining language and
CBI is "...the integration of particular content with language
teaching aims...the concurrent teaching of academic subject
matter and second language skills" (Brinton et al., 1989, p. 2).
CBI approaches "...view the target language largely as the
vehicle through which subject matter content is learned rather
than as the immediate object of study" (Brinton et al., 1989, p.
CBI is aimed at 'the development of use-oriented second and
foreign language skills' and is 'distinguished by the concurrent
learning of a specific content and related language use skills'
CBI is "...an approach to language instruction that integrates
the presentation of topics or tasks from subject matter classes
(e.g., math, social studies) within the context of teaching a
second or foreign language" (Crandall & Tucker, 1990, p. 187).
Content Based Instruction in EFL Contexts
Miyazaki International College (Miyazaki, Japan)
The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. IX, No. 2,
06/04/16 Building Bridges: New Competences in the EFL Classroom 27
The SIOP ModelThe SIOP Model
The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)
Its main goal is to make content material
more comprehensible to English Language
Learners. The model was developed by
Echevarria, Mary Ellen Vogt and Deborah J.
The SIOP Model includes the following
* Clearly defined content objectives for students
* Clearly defined language objectives for students
* Content concepts appropriate for age and educational
* Supplementary materials used to a high degree,
making the lesson clear and meaningful (e.g., graphs,
* Adaptation of content (e.g., text, assignment) to all
levels of student proficiency
* Meaningful activities that integrate lesson concepts
(e.g., surveys, letter writing, simulations, constructing
models) with language practice opportunities for
reading, writing, listening, and/or speaking
1. Concepts should be directly linked to students’
background experience. This experience can be
personal, cultural or academic.
2. Links should be explicitly made between past
learning and new concepts.
3. Key vocabulary is emphasized. New vocabulary
is presented in context. The number of
vocabulary items is limited.
1. Use speech that is appropriate for students'
2. Make the explanation of the task clear using
step-by-step manner with visuals.
3. Use of a variety of techniques to make content
concepts clear. Teachers need to focus attention
selectively on the most important information.
Introduce new learning in context. Help students
learn strategies such as predicting, summarizing.
1. Provide ample opportunities for students to use learning
strategies. Learning strategies should be taught through
explicit instruction. You want students to develop
independence in self-monitoring.
2. Consistent use of scaffolding techniques throughout the
lesson. Introduce a new concept using a lot of
scaffolding and decrease support as time goes on.
Restate a student's response or use think-alouds
3. Use of a variety of question types, including those that
promote higher level thinking skills.
Provide students with:
1. frequent opportunities for interactions about lesson
concepts which encourage higher level thinking skills.
2. grouping which supports language and content
objectives. Cooperative groups, buddies, pairs, large and
3. ample wait time for responses
4. opportunities for clarification in native language, if
Practice and Application
Lessons should include:
1. hands-on materials or manipulatives for student
2. activities for students to apply content and
language knowledge in the classroom.
3. activities that integrate all language skills
:listening, speaking, reading and writing.
1. Content and Language objectives supported by
3. Students engaged 90% to 100% of the period.
4. Pacing of the lesson appropriate to students’
Review and Assessment
* Comprehensive review of key vocabulary
* Comprehensive review of key content concepts
* Regular feedback to students on their output
* Assessment of student comprehension and
learning of all lesson objectives (e.g., spot
checking, group response) throughout the lesson
The SIOP Model follows Krashen's idea that second
language acquisition is enhanced by comprehensible
input (Krashen, 1982; 1985), which is a key
pedagogical technique in content-based instruction;
however, comprehensible input alone is not enough
—students need form-focused content instruction
(an explicit focus on relevant and contextually
appropriate language forms to support content
learning) (Swain, 1985)
The SIOP Institute.
S.D.A.I.E. - Specially DesignedS.D.A.I.E. - Specially Designed
Academic Instruction In EnglishAcademic Instruction In English
S.D.A.I.E. or Sheltered English as it often still
referred to in various parts of the United States
was originally established as an accepted
transitional step for students learning English as
their second language. It allows them to move
forward with academic courses such as
mathematics and science while at the same time
learning English through the contextual clues
provided by the course of study.
Can CLIL be consider a real Instructional
What is CLIL?What is CLIL?
C - Content
L – Language (FL)
I - Integrated
L – Learning
T - Teaching
The main question:
How can we integrate ...
Content: Academic Content
Language: Academic English
In learning and teaching academic
A CLIL lesson is not a language lesson neither is it
a subject lesson transmitted in a foreign language.
According to the 4Cs curriculum (Coyle 1999), a
successful CLIL lesson should combine elements of
Content - Progression in knowledge, skills and
understanding related to specific elements of a
Communication - Using language to learn whilst
learning to use language
Cognition - Developing thinking skills which link
concept formation (abstract and concrete),
understanding and language
Culture - Exposure to alternative perspectives and
shared understandings, which deepen awareness of
otherness and self.
David MarshDavid Marsh
Every Teacher is a Language Teacher
Prácticas en Educación Bilingüe/Plurilingüe nº1
CLIL is one key which is available to those teachers
who want to embrace change, and it is here on our
doorstep now. In CLIL every teacher is indeed a
language teacher; Some teachers teach language,
and others alternative subjects, but they each use an
integrated approach which ensures that content,
language, and thinking skills objectives are interwoven
into the teaching and learning process. This is the core
success of language across the curriculum.
Lorenza Lara and D.W. Moore
(2009) consider a priority helping
teachers connect language, literacy,
and content during subject matter
instruction. Teachers must integrate
literacy instruction into the content
We still treat language learning as separate from
acquiring discipline-based knowledge.
By envisioning an integrated approach to
instruction, we will benefit all students. In fact,
explicitly attending to the linguistic features of
content-area instruction has the potential to
benefit any student whose "home language," is
markedly different from standard academic
Lara L. & Moore, D.W. (2009)
Teachers are either fully qualified
language teachers or fully qualified
content subject teachers.
So the language/content subject balance
mentioned above is very difficult to
one person, except by providing
appropriate in-service training by team
What model of instruction
can we use in order to
Literacy in our students?
How can Language & Content be
By means of
What's Academic Language?
Academic language is the language used in
instruction, textbooks and exams. Academic
language differs in structure and vocabulary from
language used in daily social interactions.
BICS & CALP
Cummins, J. (1979)
Academic language is the set of words, grammar, and
organizational strategies used to describe complex
ideas, higher-order thinking processes, and abstract
Why is academic language so
• Students who master academic language are more
- be successful in academic and professional
• Students who do not learn academic language
– struggle academically
– be at a higher risk of dropping out of school
Literacy is broadly viewed as more than just an individual's
ability to read. Literacy is an individual's ability to read,
write, speak in English, compute, and solve problems at
levels of proficiency necessary to function at school, on
the job, in the family, and in society.
The concept of literacy has evolved from the ability of an
individual to read and/or write to include multiple
activities (reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing,
symbolizing, etc.) with multiple associated texts (print,
digital, video, symbolic, images, diagrams, graphs,
Teaching Disciplinary Literacy to
Adolescents: Rethinking Content-Area Literacy
Timothy Shanahan & Cynthia Shanahan
University of Illinois at Chicago
Harvard Educational Review Vol. 78 No. 1 Spring 2008
Academic Literacy is the ability to use reading and
writing as tools for learning subject matter.
[Reading] is essential in every content subject, such
as history, geography, arithmetic, science, and
literature. In fact, rapid progress in these subjects
depends in a large degree on the ability of pupils to
read independently and intelligently. It follows that
good teaching must provide for the improvement
and refinement of the reading attitudes, habits, and
skills that are needed in all school activities
(W. S. Gray, 1925, 1-2)
The Balanced Literacy approach is characterized
by explicit skill instruction and the use of
authentic texts. Through various modalities, the
teacher implements a well-planned
comprehensive literacy program that reflects a
gradual release of control, whereby centricity and
responsibility is gradually shifted from the
teacher to the students. Assessment-based
planning is at the core of this model.
Academic literacy builds students'
academic content knowledge and their
reading, writing, and thinking skills at
the same time.
Teachers must integrate literacy
instruction into the content domains.
Literacy & Content
Literacy instruction that centers on reading and
writing to learn content focuses on goal-centered
reading, content comprehension, and application
of content knowledge.
Literacy activities provide students with practice as
they develop proficiencies necessary to make
meaning with content-area texts. These activities
help students read print materials, learn important
content vocabulary, and write about what they
Academic Literacy Instruction
Reading & Writing are the core features of
Teachers should include regular and explicit
instruction in reading and writing to
support students' content learning and
Academic Literacy Instruction
Development of academic literacy is complex
–need to use students’ everyday literacy
practices to explicitly teach them to navigate
across texts & contexts
Instruction should explicitly focus on
strategies/practices for critically reading
Instruction should take up students’
sociocultural knowledge to help make sense
of academic texts
Academic Literacy Instruction
By infusing literacy instruction with content
instruction, content-area teachers support
students in gaining necessary literacy
proficiencies while deepening content learning.
Furthermore, teachers are responsible for literacy
instruction that also promotes content-area
Draper argues that content-area literacy instruction
should promote mastery of the intellectual
discourse within a particular discipline.
Academic Literacy Instruction &
Most of the Learning Strategies will refer to
Reading & Writing as the centre of
CLIL students will have problems at
We'll have to implement sheltered
What's sheltered instruction?
Predicting and inferring.
Monitoring and clarifying.
Evaluating and determining
Summarizing and synthesizing.
Thinking strategies proficient
The following skills have been identified as
critical to comprehension…
1.Activating prior knowledge and making
2.Predicting and inferring
4.Determining the important ideas
5.Summarizing and synthesizing
6.Questioning: generating and answering
7.Monitoring and clarifying
Key Comprehension Strategies
Survey: Explore the text before reading
Question: Generate questions that we will be able
to answer after we read
Predict: Predict 3 things we will learn while
Read: Take notes while reading
Respond: Answer your questions and develop new
Summarize: In 2-3 sentences summarize the
Vogt, M.E. (2002). SQP2RS: Increasing students’ understandings of expository
text through cognitive and metacognitive strategy application. Paper
presented at 52nd
Annual Meeting of the National Reading Conference.text
Let's see now some projects,
websites, institutions &
organizations working on
LICI (Language in Content Instruction,
is a 3-year Lingua 2 project, part of the
Socrates programme, carried out between
the years 2006 and 2009.
The project is coordinated by Heini-Marja
Järvinen from University of Turku,
The aim of the LICI project and its products is the
language of learning and instruction in a CLIL
environment. The leading principle of the LICI
project is that by enhancing language in content
teaching, the dual focus of learning both language
and content is realized optimally.
The theoretical basis for linking content with
language is found in general and content-specific
thinking skills and strategies.
WIDA is a consortium of states dedicated to the design and
implementation of high standards and equitable educational
opportunities for English language learners.
WIDA educational products and services fall into three
main categories: standards and assessments, professional
development for educators, and research.
Wisconsin Center for Educational Research (WCER)
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Instruction (CORI) was developed
by Dr. John Guthrie and some
classroom teachers and graduate
students at the University of
Maryland in 1993.
The objective of CORI in the classroom is to
increase the amount of engaged reading.
Engaged reading refers to reading strategically
(using background knowledge, questioning,
organizing graphically, summarizing, and other
strategies), with motivational goals of learning
from text, interacting with other students to learn,
experiencing hands-on activities, and gaining
conceptual understanding of science through
The ADDIE model is a generic and simplified
instructional systems design (ISD) model. ADDIE is
short for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and
Idaho State University College of Education
Science, Math, & Technology Education
A. W. Strickland, Ph.D.
In the analyze phase, the
instructional problem is
clarified, the goals and
objectives are established, and
the learning environment and
learner characteristics are
The design phase is where the
intructional strategies are
designed and media choices are
In the develop phase, materials
are produced according to
decisions made during the
The implement phase includes the
testing of prototypes (with
targeted audience), putting the
product in full production, and
training learners and instructors
on how to use the product.
The evaluation phase consists of two parts:
formative and summative.
Formative evaluation is present in each
Summative evaluation consists of tests for
criterion-related referenced items and
providing opportunities for feedback from
Literacy Matters offers you "the best of the best on
the Web"—web sites containing background
information, research-based instructional strategies,
lesson plans, sample activities, guidelines, book
lists, and resources to strengthen your students'
literacy skills, and thus, strengthen their content
Literacy Matters is housed at Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC)
located in Newton
Academic Success depends on
learning to read well.
Learning to read well depends on
rich language knowledge.
Explicit English language instruction
helps ensure English learners gain the
knowledge they need to be
The National Institute for Literacy, a federal
agency, provides leadership on literacy issues,
including the improvement of reading instruction for
children, youth, and adults.
Since its creation in 1991, the National Institute for
Literacy has served as a catalyst for improving
opportunities for adults, youth, and children to
thrive in a progressively literate world.
The National Institute for Literacy, 1775 I Street, NW, Suite
730,Washington, DC 20006, Phone: (202) 233-2025; Fax: (202) 233-2050;
Website: http://www.nifl.gov. For publications contact EDPUBS at 1-877-
SIM overriding goal has been to
develop an integrated model to
address many of the needs of
Center for Research on Learning – The University of Kansas
SIM - Strategic Instruction Model
06/04/16 Building Bridges: New Competences in the EFL Classroom 82
SIM - Strategic Instruction Model
For 25 years, they have conducted research designed to develop
ways to help students meet the demands of life, not just in school
but after they leave school as well. Their goal has been to develop
an integrated model to address many of the needs of diverse
The Strategic Instruction Model®, or SIM®, has evolved. In
essence, SIM is about promoting effective teaching and learning of
critical content in schools. SIM strives to help teachers make
decisions about what is of greatest importance, what we can teach
students to help them to learn, and how to teach them well.
They advocate trying to teach a little less content, but teaching it
CLIC - Content Literacy InformationCLIC - Content Literacy Information
The Content Literacy Information Consortium (
CLIC) is an organized set of web links of special
interest to teachers and researchers interested in
issues defined by "learning to read to learn." The
web sites cataloged in CLIC will provide every
teacher with ideas and strategies for adopting the
instructional moves that empower their students
to become independent, actualized learners.
Web page created by Thomas Estes and Kathie Burgess, University of
This website is a resource for teachers who want to use the CALLA
approach, or do research on CALLA The site is maintained by Jill
Robbins, who works with Anna Uhl Chamot on developing CALLA
materials and workshops.
The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach CALLA is
designed for limited English proficient students who are being
prepared to participate in mainstream content-area instruction. CALLA
provides transitional instruction for upper elementary and secondary
students at intermediate and advanced ESL levels. This approach
furthers academic language development in English through content-
area instruction in science, mathematics, and social studies. In
CALLA, students are taught to use learning strategies derived from a
cognitive model of learning to assist their comprehension and
retention of both language skills and concepts in the content areas.
CALLA was developed by Anna Uhl Chamot and J. Michael O'Malley
The Cognitive Academic Language LearningThe Cognitive Academic Language Learning
VOCAL: Vocabulary and Academic
This online site was developed to share research-
based best practices for teaching and learning
academic language and vocabulary.
Educators have become aware of the need to boost
student learning in the areas of academic
language and vocabulary.
Board of Education, San Diego County
2007 Board of Education, San Diego County.
Students need to increase their ability to
comprehend text, to write and speak more
academically, and to apply these skills
across the curriculum.
While this is especially critical for CLIL
students, all learners need to improve in
ELD Strategies - Best Practices andELD Strategies - Best Practices and
Resources for Teachers of EnglishResources for Teachers of English
ELDStrategies.com, a comprehensive web resource for
teachers of English learners. ELDStrategies.com will
highlight effective English Language Development
(ELD) strategies and instructional practices, as well
as recommended teaching resources for educating
second language learners.
Project GLADProject GLAD
Guided Language Acquisition Design
Project GLAD (Guided Language Acquisition Design)
is an effective instructional model for teaching English
language development (ELD) and literacy.
GLAD is a strandards-based ELD instructional model
that promotes high levels of academic language and
achievement for students at all levels of English
Middle School Literacy Develoment Using
The program is strategically designed to create a
coherent school-wide effort that gives students
the sustained exposure to academic language
they need for success in school.
SHELTERED INSTRUCTION &
CLIL LESSON PLANNING: SHELTERED INSTRU
Platform - BEP
PLATAFORMA DE EDUCACIÓN BILINGÜE
Chamot, A.U. & O'Malley, J.M., (1994). The CALLA Handbook: Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Approach, Pearson
COYLE, D., 1999. Theory and Planning for Effective Classrooms: Supporting students in content and language integrated learning
contexts: planning for effective classrooms. In: Learning through a foreign language: models, methods and outcomes. Centre for
Information on Language Teaching & Research, London, UK, pp. 46-62
Cummins, J. (1979) Cognitive/academic language proficiency, linguistic interdependence, the optimum age question and some other
matters. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 19, 121-129.
Echevarria, J, Vogt, M & Short, D, (2008). Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model, Pearson, U.S.
Gray, W. S. (1925). Reading activities in school and in social life. In G. M. Whipple (Ed.), The Twenty-Fourth Yearbook of the National
Society for the Study of Education: Part I (pp. 1-8). Bloomington, IL: Public School Publishing Company
Halliday et al. 1993 : Halliday, M.A.K. and J.R. Martin, Writing science: Literacy and discursive power , Pittsburgh: University of
Pittsburgh Press, 1993; London: Falmer Press, 1993.
Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practices in second language acquisition. NY: Pergamon Press.
Krashen, S. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. NY: Longman.
Lorenza Lara and D.W. Moore (2009)
Lara, L., & Moore, D.W. (2009, October). Literacy Instruction for Adolescent English Learners: An Interview With Lorenza Lara . Journal
of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 53(2), 173–175. doi: 10.1598/JAAL.53.2.8en
David Marsh (2009), Every teacher is a Language Teacher, Prácticas en Educación Bi/Plurilingüe, nº1, Prácticas en Educación
Mehisto, P., Marsh, D. & Frigols, M.J. (2008). Uncovering CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning in Bilingual and
Multilingual Education. Macmillan Education.
Mohan, B. A. (1986). Language and Content. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Shanahan, Timothy & Cynthia, Teaching Disciplinary Literacy to
Adolescents: Rethinking Content-Area Literacy
Timothy Shanahan & Cynthia Shanahan
University of Illinois at Chicago
Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. In S.
Gass & C. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition (pp. 235-253). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Vogt, M.E. (2002). SQP2RS: Increasing students’understandings of expository text through cognitive and metacognitive strategy
application. Paper presented at 52nd
Annual Meeting of the National Reading Conference.
Zwiers, J. (2008). Building Academic Language: Essencial Practices for Content Classrooms. Jossey-Bass Teacher, U.S.A.