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AGORACreating the Historic Fabric for Providing Web-enabled Access to Objects in Dynamic Historical Sequences ISAB 2012 Site Visit 13-Dec-2012
Overview • Team • Goals and Key results • Events Narratives • Event Descriptions in Agora • Demos • Pilots • Dissemination Collaborations • Reﬂection
Science Team • VU History department • Susan Legêne • Chiel van der Akker • Computer Science • Guus Schreiber • Lora Aroyo • Marieke van Erp • Lourens van der Meij
Heritage Team • Rijksmuseum Amsterdam • Geertje Jacobs • Beeld en Geluid • Johan Oomen • Also part time PhD candidate in Agora
develop a social platform in which museum objects are placed in an explicit (art)historic context in order to provide a more complete illustrated description of historical events, which ﬁnally is complemented by the user-created narratives to support reﬂections on the meaning of digitally mediated public history in contemporary society AGORA Goal
AGORA in numbers • 15 papers, posters • 2 demos, 3 collections, presentations 2 platforms • 12 (inter)national • 2 BSc students conferences (graduated) • 1 book chapter (in • 4 MSc students (3 review) graduated) • 5 workshops • 1 history intern at the• 2 panels Rijksmuseum • 2 Best Poster awards
Key Contributions • Digital Hermeneutics (WebSci 11, best paper nomination) • combining cultural heritage, Web the public • analysis of historical narratives • reﬂections on the evolving notion of historical events how user topics become essential for their understanding • Automatic Heritage Metadata Enrichment with Historic Events (MW2011, paper) • stream of use cases, methods techniques • events community, panels workshops • The notion of events historic events (Museum Transﬁguration (book under review) • thesaurus of historic events
Conclusion: events are notprecisely circumscribed • Both lay people and experts don t usually agree on what events are • Events carry different perspectives • The vagueness of events is part of their semantics • The perspectives are also part of their semantics
Antoine Watteau, Pélerinage à lîle de Cythère, 1717/18 Oil on canvas (129 x 194 cm), Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin
his Pilgrimage to Cythera, based directlyon the imagery and ideology of twoballets produced at the Opéra andrelated works at the théâtre de la foire,may be seen as the most completeexpression of an operatic, proto-Enlightenment vision of an alternative,utopian society . G. Cowart, The Triumph of Pleasure. Louis XIV thePolitics of Spectacle, (University of Chicago Press,2008), xv.
Description vs. Narration ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Identiﬁcation vs. Signiﬁcance Re-description vs. Retroactive alignment (stabbing as killing) vs. (stabbing as end of the Republic rather than its renewal)(painting as rococo-painting) vs. (painting as exemplifying proto- Enlightenment) Documentation vs. Exhibition
Pattern-based Event Extraction • Seed list of 400 events • Find text snippets on the Web around seed events • Consolidate snippets and extract patterns • Result: 503 scored patterns (1132 pattern variances): • @ takes place and @ took place (variations in style)
Pattern-scores: examples PATTERN E-‐nr UC A B TC UC*TC veldslagen|uit|de| 8 0.014 1438 2520 0.570 0.007 verwoest|Ejdens|de| 21 0.031 378 1600 0.236 0.007 Ejdens|de| 11 0.011 783923 35400000 0.022 0.0002 het|einde|van|de| 4 0.004 50770 6120000 0.008 0.00003 ontkennen|van|de| 3 0,001 3176 7480 0.424 0.003 was|voor|de 3 0.003 967 1590000 0.0006 0.000001 E-‐nr: number of unique events in the ﬁrst 1000 snippets (predeﬁned list of 400) UC: #unique events/#snippets (max 1000) A: total occurrences of the events with the paYern B: frequency of the paYern TC: A/B high score: combinaEon is speciﬁc, not much noise expected low score: paYern combines with many other possible non-‐events UC*TC: product of both scores. High: relevant and highly speciﬁc, but oen not frequent.
Results • 2444 event candidates checked manually. • Precision 56.3% • Examples of erroneous event candidates: • Mouths of Dutch girls • German occupiers vs German occupation • Examples of incomplete events: • Revolution of 12 • First battle of
Events: a computational perspective • Instantiated Event Types • Sortal nouns with a PP and NE: Battle of Stalingrad, Death of John Lennon • Normalised verbs with a PP and NE: Excavation of Troy, Election of Obama • Referential adjective with an event type and a named entity: American invasion of Iraq • Named Events as Proper Names • Transparent proper names: Great War • Opaque proper names: 9/11, Pearl Harbour
Mismatch target text • In 90% of museum records event name is not mentioned • but, often mention of participants, locations times ⇒ Create event instances from (semi-)structured sources ⇒ Link to records through participants, locations, times
Demo Functionalities • Event browsing through themes, events structure object and event properties; RMA and BG sub-collections; alignment of their vocabularies; using the SEM model for enrichment with event information • Collection browsing event browsing and object clustering, as well as through a map or a narrative view • Proto-narratives are auto-generated based on user s navigation path and organized in types, e.g., a topological, conceptual, or biographical
Pilot 1: University History Students • VU History department • 13 undergraduate history students • volunteered to do demo assignment as part of Cultural Sources of Political History course • Students formulated a research question and tried to answer it with the demo • 2 groups: • Group A used demo with narratives • Group B used demo without narratives
Pilot 1: University History Students • Analysis of student reports Survey • Reports speciﬁed the research question and answer found • Students speciﬁed which pieces of information came from the demo, or from other sources • Students were able to correctly identify relevant objects and historical context • Proto-narratives helped form overarching narrative • Majority would like extra information • Demo did encourage different search approach
Pilot 2: Secondary School Students • Oelbert gymnasium Oosterhout • Two classes (44 pupils) 3rd year secondary school • As part of theme Indonesia in the history lesson they had to answer one of two research questions • What was the view of the Dutch Indies population on the police actions ? • What was the view of the Dutch population on the police actions ? • Assignment was done in class • Results collected through click logs and online survey
Pilot 2: Secondary School Students • Results • 64% were able to correctly identify relevant objects to their research question • 41% were able to situate the objects in their historical context, pairs answering the Dutch perspective question did better on this • proto-narratives were not perceived as very useful • pupils expressed need for extra information in the demo
Pilot 3: Remembrance Community • focus group 6-person (3m, 3f) with roots in the Dutch Indies, part of second generation Dutch Indies community • Indisch Herinneringscentrum Bronbeek, Arnhem, the Netherlands • participated in a workshop on Internet History Writing on Decolonization in Dutch Indies • how they deal with their memories, e.g., sharing, preserving how they participate in the community
Pilot 3: Remembrance Community • Design Rationale for CH Communities Online: • objective representation of objects in historical context • users exploring the meaning of collection objects • community for sharing members perspectives • Membership as a sense of belonging identiﬁcation • Inﬂuence of individuals in a group • Fulﬁllment of needs in terms of beneﬁts and rewards • Shared emotional connections to stories
Dissemination at CH events • Demonstrating Agora at MW2011, MW2012 • Events panel @DISH2010 and @CRESC • Ignite Amsterdam (Marieke van Erp) • Kom Je Ook and PhDO (Johan Oomen Lora Aroyo) • CMN2010 (Chiel van den Akker) • KNAW E-Humanities group (Susan Legêne) Best poster @ DISH’09 and SIREN11
Dissemination at CS events • Organizing a series of events workshops • DeRiVE (2011, 2012) @ISWC • PATCH (2011, 2012) @UMAP, @MM • Lora Aroyo • Understanding of events (keynote iSemantics2012) • Events annotation (keynote SemWeb meetup NYC) • Guus Schreiber • Web Science: The Digital Heritage Case (keynote SOFTSEM2010)
External cooperation • Piek Vossen, Semantics of History • Roxane Segers, PhD student Semantics of History • Matje van de Camp, PhD student HiTime • Yiling Lin, PhD studentUniversity of Pittsburg
Roxane Segers, PhD student Thesaurus of Historic Events • Design and use of the Simple Event Model • Journal of Web Semantics, 2011 • Extracting and Modeling Historical Events to Enhance Searching and Browsing of Digital Cultural Heritage Collections • ESWC 2010 • Hacking history via event extraction • K-CAP 2010 • Facilitating Non-expert Users of the KYOTO Platform • LREC 2010
Johan Oomen, PhD student Crowdsourcing user-generated content • User participation in cultural heritage • CT 2011 • Video Tagging: Waisda? Game • WebSci 10, Ashgate chapter • Oorlogsmonumenten crowdsourcing • MW2011 • Content selection curation infrastructure • Semantic Digital Archives 2011 • Open Content
Implications for Education • E-Humanities • Computational approaches to Humanities problems • What are the skill sets needed for a e-humanities professional/researcher? • Should we set up new types of interdisciplinary programs? • At bachelor/minor/master level?
Thank you for your attention http://agora.cs.vu.nl @agoraproject