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The Cowboy WestAnd The Industrial East by Baker Lawrimore http://www.forgecattle.com/Cowboy%20Up.JPG
Military Homestead Act Political During the 1860s, many men wanted to go to move west Exoduster Social due to its wonderful land. The An African Homestead Act gave 160 American who acres of land for free to any moved from the member of a family that is post-reconstruction head of the household. From South to Kansas 1862-1900 about 600,000 after the passing of families took this offer and the Homestead Act moved west. in 1862 1857 1862 1862 1864Frederick Law Sand Creek MassacreOlmstead Most of the Cheyenne thought theyA landscape were under government protectionarchitect heading and returned to Colorado’s Sandthe movement for Creek Reserve. General SR Curtisplanned urban sent a message to militia Colonelparks. Made plans John Chivington saying he didn’t wantfor Central Park, peace until the Native AmericansNY City suffered more. On November 29th,(Greensward) with Chivington & his troops attackedCalvert Vaux. Also Cheyenne and Arapaho Indiansplanned the killing over 150 people, mostlylandscaping at women and children.Asheville’s ownBiltmore Estate. http://www.museumsyndicate.com/images/1/8307.jpg http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/homestead-act/images/homesteading-family.gif
The Grange Transcontinental Railroad Oliver Kelley started the A railroad line running from Patrons of Husbandry as the Atlantic to the Pacific a social and educational Coasts of North America outlet for isolated farmers. completed in 1869. This organization became Because of the railroad, known as the Grange and time differences in the fought against the country were noticed. Railroad industry in the People began considering 1870’s. The Grange Professor C.F. Dowd’s idea helped form farmer’s of splitting the earth into 24 alliances and taught time zones. members how to organize to bring about change. 1864 1867 1869 Credit Mobilier Formed by stockholders in the Union Pacific Railroad. Company laid track and charged approximately three times the value and kept the profits. Congress investigated and uncovered that the company had stolen 23 million dollars.http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQdpwDNsW3RPtGpux3fe2AKWy81vloxW2ap8Zhj6d5aQskmffT3 http://www.icsm.gov.au/mapping/images/time_zones.jpg
Andrew Carnegie Entered the steel business in 1873. Had risen from poverty Jacob Riis and by 1899 the Carnegie Steel Company made more steel than A photographer, all of Great Britain. Used new journalist and social techniques and equipment, Social Darwinism reformer who hired talented workers, and Charles Darwin’s exposed poor used horizontal and vertical theory of biological conditions in integration to make a lot of evolution, applied to tenements through money and to control the steel human laissez faire his photography. industry. economics. 1869 1870’s 1873 Mid1870’sTweed RingWilliam M. Tweed led thisgroup in a scheme using ofthe NY County Court House.Taxpayers paid 13 milliondollars for the construction ofthe Court House—10 millionmore than it cost. Ring brokeup win 1871 when the publicfound out about the scheme.Tweed escaped from jailduring his second sentenceand was caught in Spain dueto a political cartoon byThomas Nast. http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQHVaoFe_X3EI8n-l193mJB4xixjnJT2fCJDs0Dif9Dd5yxrvgBgQ http://explorepahistory.com/kora/files/1/2/1-2-60B-25-ExplorePAHistory-a0b9z8-a_349.jpg
George Armstrong CusterAfter hearing Custer’s report ofgold found in the Black Hills in1874, many people flooded toWyoming. The NativeAmericans living thereprotested against the largenumbers of people. In June of1876, Custer and his troopsmet Native American soldiersat Little Bighorn River andCuster and all of his men werekilled. 1874 1876 1876 Sitting Bull Battle of Little Bighorn The leader of the Hunkpapa Native Americans under the Sioux Tribe. He was a warrior, leadership of Gall, Sitting Bull, and spiritual leader, and a Crazy Horse defeated American medicine man. He led his troops led by George Armstrong people with strength of Custer. character and purpose. His most famous battle was at Little Bighorn River where he killed George Armstrong Custer. http://previewmysite.com/purehistory.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/528a-MAJOR-GENL-GEO.-A.-CUSTER-BEFORE- CUSTERS-LAST-STAND-c.-U.S.-ARMY-MILITARY-HISTORY-INSTITUTE1.jpg http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRWDmAs6AMoVHsdq7AZKUGMNvGjr2Z02FiBi-VfKSINP_0Rwt9ykw http://etc.usf.edu/maps/pages/5000/5060/5060.gif
Thomas Alva Edison Established the first research Chief Joseph laboratory in Menlo Park, NJ in Succeeded his father 1876. Later, in 1880, he perfected Tuekakas as the leader of the the incandescent light bulb. He Wallawa band of Nez Perce. created an entire system for He led them when the US producing and collecting electrical government forced them to power. Because of Edison, move to the reservation in electricity became cheaper and Lapwai, Idaho. They went into more abundant. hiding in Canada. 1876 1876 1877 Alexander Graham Bell Created the telephone with the aid of Thomas Watson in 1876, opening the way for worldwide communication.http://www.google.com/search?num=10&hl=en&site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1280&bih=631&q=william+m+tweed&oq=william+m+&gs_l=img.1.1.0l6j0i24l4.1445.5268.0.7126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.580.4j2.6.0...0.0...1ac.1._wwFqXkOPPc#hl=en&site=imghp&tbs=isz:l&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=alexander+graham+bell&oq=alexander+gr&gs_l=img.1.0.0l10.7034.10838.0.119184.108.40.206.0.0.0.168.867.0j6.6.0...0.0...1c.1.ewhbeduD0EI&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.&fp=b15210cd7281f7f3&bpcl=35466521&biw=1280&bih=631 http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQmOGM9oyQR5TNqAPLgYqTcIKZALqH2ST4OCcbb_MNDtjDFLDfN
The Vanderbilt Family Dumbbell Tenements Shipped products via the Built in NY City after the Railroad to make money. Tenement House Act of 1879 William Henry Vanderbilt Nez Perce and before the second act in II along with Cyrus W. 1901. The tenements looked Native American Tribe Fields and J. Gould like dumbbells because it was indigenous to the Wallawa formed a trust with the required for all living areas to Valley. Fought what became Union Pacific, NY have a window. Therefore known as the Nez Perce war. Central, and Lakeshore there was a space between War was the result of their & Independence lines. the walls of the buildings to pursuit by the US Army and let air flow. General Oliver O. Howard. 1877 1879 1879 http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT_LxXW55Rdcl4Cb8a9o- Yh7Lpv5RCWMb3wXJ8SVbeBO-QL6cL5e-MCJHwDdghttp://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQUcFYIfzLLJr8uHkegGf_XzgMyR6gLfRwyGdLcClWAbUHiyXRC
Wild Bill Hickok Bessemer Process Toured America in the Developed 1880s in William F. independently by a Cody’s Wild West British man named Shows. These Henry Bessemer and performances helped American Iron maker make western life a part William Kelly in 1850. In of American mythology. the 1880s American manufacturers used it to make 90% of the nation’s steel. 1880s 1880s 1880s Poll Tax: An annual tax that had to be paid in order to vote. Most African Voting Restrictions Americans didn’t have the money to on African pay for it and couldn’t vote. Americans Literacy Test: Only those who Grandfather Clause: Said men could could read could vote. Some vote even if they couldn’t pay a poll tests could be in a foreign tax or pass the literacy test if their language and some others grandfather or father voted before were made harder for African January 1, 1867. This let poor whites Americans. vote, but left African Americanshttp://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRtNsmRh- behind because no black man coulddIW1eRUUycO7uyDeOEMzBBlf4Gpyb8LvP72bUevyLkuw vote before that date. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/39/Bessemer_process_DMK.jpg
Ragtime A mix of European music forms and African American spirituals played in saloons in the South. Scott Joplin became famous because of Ragtime music. 1880s 1880s 1880 Segregation John D. Rockefeller Set up the Standard Oil Company and used Separation of black and trust agreements as a kind of merger. His white races in public institutions. Began when father tricked him a lot when he was a child to make him sharper. By 1880, The Standard Oil African Americans lost Company of Ohio controlled 90% of the their voting rights. industry. In the beginning he paid his workers very little and sold oil at a lower price than he made it. Then when his competitors were out of business, he shot up his prices. http://t0.gstatic.com/images? q=tbn:ANd9GcTZIaN91RpuafEfMmKEK9vlNS2o7L4J2Ch19H5TpHElAOe- YHUX http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQWiBMou7Gpga4G3Uo- _7jlV7KZjXsxzm7iurl-uRKi96QpRDJkTwhttp://gdb.voanews.eu/DA551988-4C3A-4BEC-8E2D-D6D375F7BC9C_mw800_s.jpg
1881 1881 1883 Booker T. Washington Assimilation Joseph Pulitzer Believed racism would end when black people Plan where Native Americans would Bought NY World required more skills and give up their culture and become newspaper in 1883. He proved they were useful. Americans. Many sympathizers created the large Sunday Born a slave but supported this even after reading edition, comics, women’s graduated from Virginia’s Helen Hunt Jackson’s book a Century news, and sports. He Hampton Institute. By of Dishonor. competed with William 1881, he was the head of Randolph Hearst’s Tuskegee Normal and Morning Journal. By Industrial Institute, now 1898, both papers’ called Tuskegee circulations surpassed University. one million copies daily.http://t0.gstatic.com/images? http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSHO5nMba7_j95w-q=tbn:ANd9GcSoW4OYs72aMA0Q26wT1nDGug0aJejJT0AzcVtlizt2z-vojMG3 VoLN7fITEAfjz4gSF1keBytDKz7ZdLtgXIz
Mid 1880s 1886 1887Political Machine Hay Market Affair Dawes ActAn organized group that controlled On May 4th 1886, 3000 people Passed in 1887, this act was meantpolitical party actions in a city. gathered in Chicago at Hay Market to Americanize Native Americans. ItReceived financial support by Square to protest police brutality. split up the reservations and gavehelping businesses and voters. Someone tossed a bomb into the 160 acres of land to head ofWorked like a pyramid. At the police line and seven officers and households and 80 acres tobottom there were precinct several workers died. Police turned unmarried adults. Government wascaptains and ward captains and at against the union. supposed to sell remaining land tothe top was the city boss. settlers and give the money to the Native Americans. However the Government did do this. http://t2.gstatic.com/images? q=tbn:ANd9GcQei5Kmrnij_K4rztdBXu3NnTThxRG9iB5ePmjpSlEMcHUDJCnm
Late 1880s 1888 1890s Samel GompersSoddy George Eastman Led the cigar makersA house made by Developed an alternative union to join other craftpioneers in the west out to heavy glass plates on unions in 1886.of sod that was warm in cameras. Used flexible President of thethe winter and cool in the film with a coat of gelatin. American Federation ofsummer. They were In 1888, he created his Labor. From 1890-1915small and offered little Kodak camera and sold the average weeklylight and air. Insects and it and a 100 picture roll of wages rose from $17.50snakes and it leaked film for $25. to $24.00 and the workwhen it rained. week went down from 54.5 hours to 49 hours. http://t3.gstatic.com/images? q=tbn:ANd9GcSjYcjIBsnCretHJ5z53zrDF7Ab4S7GnSZ8O01EEC5burlnSA-I3g http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSV6OkPbjmZLxXwHdpg0e52qJgpDpVnqmN8F- NVjgDqZsIhbtqLiw
1890s 1890 1890 Sherman Anti-Trust Act Wounded KneeSettlement House This act made it illegal in 1890 to On December 28, 1890, the 7thCommunity centers in slum form a trust interfering with free trade Calvary rounded up 350 Nativeareas that gave assistance to between states or with other Americans and brought them topeople in the area, especially countries. Eventually government the camp at Wounded Knee.immigrants. Many workers stopped enforcing it because the Someone fired a shot and thelived in the house to learn consolidation of businesses soldiers opened fire with theabout the living conditions. continued. canon. 300 unarmed NativeThey provided educational, Americans were killed incultural, and social services. minutes. This battle brought theCharles Stover and Stanton period of Native American warColt created the houses in to an end.NY. http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRlxzf7Kc3IRhZy85iDpVoUkwiiT- ztJGnfZ3Hwq7hKgGfF7P71
1892 1892 1892 1892Scab Ellis Island Omaha Platform Ida B. WellsStrike breakers. One Immigrant inspection 1892 National Convention Born a slave, she movedcase was on June station in NY Harbor. of the Populist Party. to Memphis in the early29, 1892 when the About 20% of the daily Economic reforms 1880s to be a teacher.president of immigrants were detained included increase in She became the editor ofCarnegie Steel for about a day. Two money supply, graduated a local paper with theCompany’s percent were usually income tax, federal loan persistent theme of racialHomestead Plant in denied entry. Usually program. justice in her reports. HerPennsylvania, Henry processing took about 5 theme became a crusadeClay Frick hired hours. Those with health on March 9, 1892 whenscabs to work in problems were sent three African Americanplace of strikers. home. From 1892-1924, businessmen were 17 million immigrants lynched in Memphis. passed though Ellis Island. http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRVUOe5u-yUNRzH-0LAknLFdhISErSYnVlNoMu73UnLfx5tXrx0 http://keyconversationsradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/Ida-B-Wells.jpg
1894 1894 1896 Pullman Strike Eugene V. Debbs After the Panic of 1893, Bimetallism Attempted to form the Pullman company An issue in the 1896 American Railway Union laid off 3000 out of their election, this was a (ARU). Most members 5800 employees. It also monetary system where were unskilled or semi- cut pay by 25-50% and the government gives skilled laborers. In 1894, after paying rent, workers citizens either gold or the new union won a took home less than six silver in exchange for strike for higher wages. dollars a week. Strike paper currency or In two months it had was called in 1894 and it checks. People who 150,000 members. It became violent. Many believed in this—mostly failed after a strike. strikers were fired. farmers or laborers-- Eugene Debbs was were called silverists. jailed. The ARUhttp://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSagDLSxYrbH_dFd_c6- boycotted Pullman cars.R5dRAj6aPcZdHfqd6-0oAgpBXPdZ65m
Plessy vs. Ferguson A Supreme Court case testing segregation’s constitutionality. The Court found that separation of races in public accommodations—as long as they were “separate, but equal,”-- did not violate the 14th amendment. It allowed segregation to go on for 60 more years. The case was overturned by Brown vs. Board of Education in 1954. 1896 1896 1896 1896William McKinley William Jennings Bryan Cross of Gold SpeechRepublican candidate Democratic candidate Speech made by Williamfor the 1896 presidential for the 1896 presidential Jennings Bryan at theelection. He had election. He gave the Democratic National Conventionmillions of funds Cross of Gold speech. in 1896. Speech condemned thebacking him. He was He believed in the free gold standard saying, “You shallfirmly committed to the silver economy. He not press down upon the brow ofgold standard. He won campaigned in 27 labor this crown of thorns, youthe campaign with 7 states sometimes shall not crucify mankind upon amillion votes. making 20 speeches a cross of gold.” day. He got 6.5 million votes and lost the election. http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQOGJf-QGP7DFLVQLp0p08Olkwtab53SFgYwdpv3AcA6lbJMjA0 http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ5d3ofGTGf5_htsBCbMWknvgEVHDfptLf8ayXnsyiWxMYRe-JR
Late 1890s 1898 1901 Monopoly William Randolph HearstVaudeville A single business with complete Main competitor ofA form of entertainment control over the industry’s production. Joseph Pulitzer and thein which people It can determine wages and prices. NY World. He purchasedperformed songs, dance, One way to create a monopoly is to the NY Morning Journalcomedy, juggling, and create a holding company to buy out in 1895. He wrote aboutfemale chorus lines. Was all competitors. US Steel was one of exaggerated tales andconsider an American the most successful holdinginvention because it scandals. By 1898, the companies, buying out Carnegie competing papers soldoffered something to Steele in 1901. one million copies a dayattract everyone. each. http://www.thepeoplesayproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/vaudeville2.jpg http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQtedFJaIYjtpIjAS9NiMXqMGWHJsrYr8IAa16to-hHyA2-cxhDjQ
1903 1905 1905 Socialism Orville and Wilbur Wright W.E.B. Dubois A political system that promotes Started as bike makers in equal distribution of wealth and First African American to Dayton, Ohio. Made their communal ownership. Advocated by receive doctorate from own glider with a 40’4” German philosopher Karl Marx. The Harvard. He strongly wingspan and a four Industrial Workers of the World disagreed with Booker T. cylinder internal (IWW) was started in 1905 by Washington’s belief that combustion engine. They socialist William “Big Bill Haywood.” racism would end over made their first flight on time. In 1905, he founded December 17, 1903, at the Niagara Movement Kitty Hawk, NC. It was 120 which believed blacks feet and 12 seconds long. should seek a liberal arts education so that Africanhttp://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTZzIgcuWN-_E4nAJ09SCuh8_y_jQ-djE2qHaYF40Scsnr1toXn Americans would have http://www.biography.com/imported/images/Biography/Images/Profiles/D/W.E.B.-Du-Bois- educated leadership. 9279924-1-402.jpg
1910 1910 1911Angel Island Mail Order Catalog Debt PeonageAsian immigrants to America came to Montgomery Ward and Mexicans and African Americansthe inspection station at Angel Island Sears Roebuck brought were forced into this system. It was aoff the coast of San Francisco. retail merchandise to system that bound laborers into50,000 Chinese immigrants came small towns through their slavery in order to work off the debt ofthrough Angel Island between 1910 mail order catalogs which an employer. In 1911, it was declaredand 1940. pictured items for sale. a violation of the 13th amendment. By 1910, 10 million Americans shopped by mail. http://t0.gstatic.com/images? q=tbn:ANd9GcRMGTWDGp9Wmh0W5acR0_fvHozhaA2pvIQesz4Dhnc64UnHZaJE
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