Model verbs

lena0894
Vietnam university of
commerce

English grammar in
use
By: Group 6
Teacher: Ms Hoang Thu Ba
Members of group 6
• Vu Thi Thu Huyen
• Nguyen Thi Le
• Ha Thi Thuy Linh
• Nguyen Thi Hoa
• Nguyen Thi Thu Thuy
• Nguyen Thi Quynh
Model verbs
Modal verbs
• Definition
• List
• Structure
• Use of modal verbs
detail
• Notes
• English grammar in use
Modal verb
definition
• 1. They are a part of the

verbal phrase
• Example: I must get there
before 7 o’clock
• 2. They always
accompany, assist or hep
the other verb
• They add
abstract(modal)
List of modal verbs
•
•
•
•
•

Can
Be able to
Have to
Should
may

•
•
•
•
•

Could
Must
Need
Ought to
Might
Modal
verbs
structu
Modal verbs
structure
• 1. How do we use modal verbs ?
 Affirmative (+): S + Modal + V

She can swim
 Negative(-): S + Modal(n’t or not) + V
She can’t swim
 Interrogative(?): (Wh) modal + S + V ?
Why can she swim?
Can I sing?
Modal verbs
structure
• 2. Modal verbs are used with infinitves
without “to”(bare infinitives) with
exception of “ought to”
• Example: We should study harder.
I ought to go home now
 Notice: Have to is studied with

modal verb but it’s not pure modal
verbs as it needs auxiliary verbs
and has –s in the third person
Modal verbs
structure to
• 3. Modal verbs do not add –s or –es

the third singular. They are invariable
verbs.
• Example: He can sing
but: He cans sing
• 4. They don not have infinitives or –ing
forms:
• Example : canning – oughting to
Modal verbs
structureto form
• They don’t need auxiliaries
•
•
•
•

short answers or negative and
interrogative sentences:
Example :She shouldn’t eat it
She doesn’t should eat it
Example: May I help you? –
Yes, you may
Do I may help you? – yes, you do
Groups of modal verbs
We are going to study them from two
points of view:
Numbers of meanings or concepts that they
express: single, double
Modal meanings that they express: ability,
possibility, permission…..
Model verbs
Ability: can, could, be
able to

• Present: can
Example: I can ski
Negative form: can’t
Example: I can’t ski
Interrogative: Can I ski?
Ability: can, could, be
• Past: Could :To

able to

express general ability in the

past
Example :
When he was a child, he could ski well
Ability: can, could, be
able to

• Be able to: semi-modal verbs
(1)use instead of “can”
(2)use in all the tenses
(3)Specific ability
 Example: (1)I am able to play the piano

(2) When he was child, he was
able to ski well
(2) Next week,they’ll be able to
vote (future)
(3) The bus was full but he was
able to find a good seat.
obligati
on
Obligation: must, have to
Must
• Speaker

Have to
• The other

 You must be at home at
10 o’clock(I insist)
 You must get up early in
the morning (I say so)

 I must be at home at 10
o’clock (my parents
insist)
 You have to turn left
here ( it’s law)
Obligation: must, have to
Notice:
• Must have no past form
sorry I am
• Must
have to
late,
• Example I had
Did I have
to take the to
go there?

children to
school
Obligation: must, have to
 Have to: semi- modal verbs
use in all tenses
o Example: I hate having to get up early
I hate musting get up early
 Notice: use auxiliary verbs (do/ does/ did) in
negative form and interrogative form
o Example: What time do you have to start work?
We don’t have to study
Did you have to walk home last night?
Obligation: mustn’t, don’t have to
Mustn’t

Don’t have to

• Describe something is
prohibited

• Describe something is
not necessary

You mustn’t wash
that sweater. It is
has to be dry
cleaned

You don’t
have to get
up early
Advice:

should, ought to

• Express advice and recommendation
o Example: Candidates should be friendly
= Candidates ought to be friendly
Negative: Candidates shouldn’t be friendly
Possibi
lity
Possibility: can, may, might, could
• Can happen in the present and future
Ex1: There’s someone at the door. It’s may be
Chris.
Ex2: We aren’t sure where we are going to
tomorrow. We might go to the beach (=
perhaps we go to the beach)
Possibility: can, may, might, could
Negative form: may not, might not

Don’t use could not
• Example: Simon may not at home.
We might not go to the beach.
Deduction:must, can’t
Must
 Give a predict certainly
• It’s not very warm and you
are not wearing a coat. You
must be cold.
(= I am sure that you are cold).
 Use in affirmation

Can’t
 Give predict that don’t
certainly happen.
• Peter was here a moment
ago, so he can’t be far away.
(=It’s possible that he is far
away).
 Use in negative
Reques
ts
Request: can, could, may, will,
would

Can &could: make a request
• Form: Can/could + S + V
Can: is used to make a basic

request

o Can I open the door?
• Could: is more polite and formal

but the same function

o Could you turn off the radio?
Request: can, could, may, will, would
May is more formal than could and can
• Example:May I know your name, sir?
May, can , could is used much more polite
than imperative command
• Ex: Open the door -> Can you open the door?
Turn off the radio -> Could you turn off the
radio?
Request: can, could, may, will, would
 Will & would
• Will: use to ask sb to do st
o Example: Will you switch on the light, please?
• Would is used more polite than will but it is less
imperative.
o Example: Would you post this letter for me?
 Would always accompany with mind to give a
polite request
o Example: Would you mind switching off the light?
Model verbs
Offers: can , could, will, shall,
would

Will:willing to do st or propose to do st
ourselves.
• Ex: I’ll help you with your suitcase.

Can &could: (Ability) to offer to do st for sb
• Ex: I can post this letter for you?
I could lend you some money if you want.
Offers: can , could, will, shall,
would
Sometimes use Can or could to permit but
actually we are propose ourselves to do st.
Can I make
• Ex:
you cake to
eat?
Offers: can , could, will, shall,
would

Sometimes use Can or could to
permit but actually we are
propose ourselves to do st.
Offers: can , could, will, shall,
would

Would accompany with Like, Prefer, Rather to
give the propose and invite provel
• Ex: Would you like to go to a party on
Saturday?
• Ex 2: Would you like me to help you?
• Ex 3: Would you prefer to stay in or go out this
evening?
• Ex 4: Would you rather stay in or go out this
evening?
•
Suggesti
ons
Suggestions
We use ‘shall’ to ask sb for suggestion

• Ex: Shall

we play tennis tomorrow?
Suggestions
Other ways :
let’s + V: Let’s watch TV
Why don’t We + V: Why don’t we
play tennis?

How/ what about + Ving/
N
How about playing tennis?
PERFECT MODAL
VERBS
Could have
We use could have + Past participle to:
Show we had the ability to or the opportunity
to do st in the past but we did not do it
• Ex: You could have helped me. Why didn’t
you?
Show the action that almost happen but didn’t
• Ex: Be careful! The car could have knocked you
over!
May/might
have
Express a weak possibility in the past
• Ex: I don’t know where I lost my umbrella. I
might have left it on the train. I might have
dropped it. Or I might have left it at the shop. I
really don’t know
Must have
Show we are almost sure something happened
in the past (past logical conclusion)
• A: John was terribly tried yesterday and when
I called him last night, he didn’t answer the
phone.
• B: He must have fallen asleep
should have/ shouldn’t have + P
Talk about unfulfilled obligation in the past
• Ex: You should have returned the book to the
library on time. Now you have to pay for fine.
Talk about regrets
• Ex: You should have let your daughter marry
the man she loved. She’s so unhappy now.
• Ex: You shouldn’t have spoiled your son like
this. Now he is out of control
Needn't have
• Needn't have + past participle : to talk
about an action which was done but which
was unnecessary.
• Ex1: I needn't have made so much food for the
party. Nobody was very hurry.
Play game together
Thanks for
listening
1 de 47

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Model verbs

  • 1. Vietnam university of commerce English grammar in use By: Group 6 Teacher: Ms Hoang Thu Ba
  • 2. Members of group 6 • Vu Thi Thu Huyen • Nguyen Thi Le • Ha Thi Thuy Linh • Nguyen Thi Hoa • Nguyen Thi Thu Thuy • Nguyen Thi Quynh
  • 4. Modal verbs • Definition • List • Structure • Use of modal verbs detail • Notes
  • 6. Modal verb definition • 1. They are a part of the verbal phrase • Example: I must get there before 7 o’clock • 2. They always accompany, assist or hep the other verb • They add abstract(modal)
  • 7. List of modal verbs • • • • • Can Be able to Have to Should may • • • • • Could Must Need Ought to Might
  • 9. Modal verbs structure • 1. How do we use modal verbs ?  Affirmative (+): S + Modal + V She can swim  Negative(-): S + Modal(n’t or not) + V She can’t swim  Interrogative(?): (Wh) modal + S + V ? Why can she swim? Can I sing?
  • 10. Modal verbs structure • 2. Modal verbs are used with infinitves without “to”(bare infinitives) with exception of “ought to” • Example: We should study harder. I ought to go home now  Notice: Have to is studied with modal verb but it’s not pure modal verbs as it needs auxiliary verbs and has –s in the third person
  • 11. Modal verbs structure to • 3. Modal verbs do not add –s or –es the third singular. They are invariable verbs. • Example: He can sing but: He cans sing • 4. They don not have infinitives or –ing forms: • Example : canning – oughting to
  • 12. Modal verbs structureto form • They don’t need auxiliaries • • • • short answers or negative and interrogative sentences: Example :She shouldn’t eat it She doesn’t should eat it Example: May I help you? – Yes, you may Do I may help you? – yes, you do
  • 13. Groups of modal verbs We are going to study them from two points of view: Numbers of meanings or concepts that they express: single, double Modal meanings that they express: ability, possibility, permission…..
  • 15. Ability: can, could, be able to • Present: can Example: I can ski Negative form: can’t Example: I can’t ski Interrogative: Can I ski?
  • 16. Ability: can, could, be • Past: Could :To able to express general ability in the past Example : When he was a child, he could ski well
  • 17. Ability: can, could, be able to • Be able to: semi-modal verbs (1)use instead of “can” (2)use in all the tenses (3)Specific ability  Example: (1)I am able to play the piano (2) When he was child, he was able to ski well (2) Next week,they’ll be able to vote (future) (3) The bus was full but he was able to find a good seat.
  • 19. Obligation: must, have to Must • Speaker Have to • The other  You must be at home at 10 o’clock(I insist)  You must get up early in the morning (I say so)  I must be at home at 10 o’clock (my parents insist)  You have to turn left here ( it’s law)
  • 20. Obligation: must, have to Notice: • Must have no past form sorry I am • Must have to late, • Example I had Did I have to take the to go there? children to school
  • 21. Obligation: must, have to  Have to: semi- modal verbs use in all tenses o Example: I hate having to get up early I hate musting get up early  Notice: use auxiliary verbs (do/ does/ did) in negative form and interrogative form o Example: What time do you have to start work? We don’t have to study Did you have to walk home last night?
  • 22. Obligation: mustn’t, don’t have to Mustn’t Don’t have to • Describe something is prohibited • Describe something is not necessary You mustn’t wash that sweater. It is has to be dry cleaned You don’t have to get up early
  • 23. Advice: should, ought to • Express advice and recommendation o Example: Candidates should be friendly = Candidates ought to be friendly Negative: Candidates shouldn’t be friendly
  • 25. Possibility: can, may, might, could • Can happen in the present and future Ex1: There’s someone at the door. It’s may be Chris. Ex2: We aren’t sure where we are going to tomorrow. We might go to the beach (= perhaps we go to the beach)
  • 26. Possibility: can, may, might, could Negative form: may not, might not  Don’t use could not • Example: Simon may not at home. We might not go to the beach.
  • 27. Deduction:must, can’t Must  Give a predict certainly • It’s not very warm and you are not wearing a coat. You must be cold. (= I am sure that you are cold).  Use in affirmation Can’t  Give predict that don’t certainly happen. • Peter was here a moment ago, so he can’t be far away. (=It’s possible that he is far away).  Use in negative
  • 29. Request: can, could, may, will, would Can &could: make a request • Form: Can/could + S + V Can: is used to make a basic request o Can I open the door? • Could: is more polite and formal but the same function o Could you turn off the radio?
  • 30. Request: can, could, may, will, would May is more formal than could and can • Example:May I know your name, sir? May, can , could is used much more polite than imperative command • Ex: Open the door -> Can you open the door? Turn off the radio -> Could you turn off the radio?
  • 31. Request: can, could, may, will, would  Will & would • Will: use to ask sb to do st o Example: Will you switch on the light, please? • Would is used more polite than will but it is less imperative. o Example: Would you post this letter for me?  Would always accompany with mind to give a polite request o Example: Would you mind switching off the light?
  • 33. Offers: can , could, will, shall, would Will:willing to do st or propose to do st ourselves. • Ex: I’ll help you with your suitcase. Can &could: (Ability) to offer to do st for sb • Ex: I can post this letter for you? I could lend you some money if you want.
  • 34. Offers: can , could, will, shall, would Sometimes use Can or could to permit but actually we are propose ourselves to do st. Can I make • Ex: you cake to eat?
  • 35. Offers: can , could, will, shall, would Sometimes use Can or could to permit but actually we are propose ourselves to do st.
  • 36. Offers: can , could, will, shall, would Would accompany with Like, Prefer, Rather to give the propose and invite provel • Ex: Would you like to go to a party on Saturday? • Ex 2: Would you like me to help you? • Ex 3: Would you prefer to stay in or go out this evening? • Ex 4: Would you rather stay in or go out this evening? •
  • 38. Suggestions We use ‘shall’ to ask sb for suggestion • Ex: Shall we play tennis tomorrow?
  • 39. Suggestions Other ways : let’s + V: Let’s watch TV Why don’t We + V: Why don’t we play tennis? How/ what about + Ving/ N How about playing tennis?
  • 41. Could have We use could have + Past participle to: Show we had the ability to or the opportunity to do st in the past but we did not do it • Ex: You could have helped me. Why didn’t you? Show the action that almost happen but didn’t • Ex: Be careful! The car could have knocked you over!
  • 42. May/might have Express a weak possibility in the past • Ex: I don’t know where I lost my umbrella. I might have left it on the train. I might have dropped it. Or I might have left it at the shop. I really don’t know
  • 43. Must have Show we are almost sure something happened in the past (past logical conclusion) • A: John was terribly tried yesterday and when I called him last night, he didn’t answer the phone. • B: He must have fallen asleep
  • 44. should have/ shouldn’t have + P Talk about unfulfilled obligation in the past • Ex: You should have returned the book to the library on time. Now you have to pay for fine. Talk about regrets • Ex: You should have let your daughter marry the man she loved. She’s so unhappy now. • Ex: You shouldn’t have spoiled your son like this. Now he is out of control
  • 45. Needn't have • Needn't have + past participle : to talk about an action which was done but which was unnecessary. • Ex1: I needn't have made so much food for the party. Nobody was very hurry.