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Structure for reading, subsection, a paragraph, or
the interrelationship between ideas and sentences
in a paragraph.
Help to determine the main details in a passage
that support main point (aka Supporting details)
Transition words or signal words are words or
phrases used by authors to introduce the reader
to the thought pattern or pattern of organization, in
the writing and between ideas within the writing.
Transition also called signals words or phrases
because they signal how the author is arranging
As a result
Details that support the authors main points can
be expressed by either major details or minor
Major Detail – are the main points to support the
overall point in the reading
Minor Detail – are more specific points that
support the major points, usually by providing
examples of the major details.
Simple listing, order of
importance, chronological order,
sequence and process, and
spatial or place order
All patterns, except for simple listing, include items
that must be in a certain order to convey the
meaning that the author intends.
Organizational patterns allows for readers to
understand how an author has arranged
information in a passage.
Covered in this
Problem & solution
Covered in the next
Statement and Clarification
Used to describe/define and explain the meaning
of a term or concept.
For instance for examplealso
Such as in addition first
Another furthermore to illustrate
Readings answer the question:
“What is it?”
Ragtime music is a style that developed at the turn of the twentieth
century. Played primarily by piano, the “Rocking Horse Rag” is an
excellent short sample of ragtime.
Acrophobia is an intense, unreasonable fear of high places. People with
acrophobia exhibit emotional and physical symptoms in response to
being at great heights. For instance, one sufferer of extreme
acrophobia, Andrea Copeland, is unable to go above the third floor
of any building without feeling enormous anxiety. Her acrophobia
began one evening when she was working alone in her office on the
eighth floor of a large building. Suddenly she was struck with
terror. She gathered her things and left the building, Yet, she still
has no rational explanation for her fear, which is also typical of this
type of phobia.
Used to illustrate the differences or similarities of
the items being compared
These can be separated and the author may only
COMPARE or may only CONTRAST.
Different from same as similar to
As opposed to instead of although
Compared with however as well as
Either..or unless but
Football and rugby both involve two teams who try to score
points by carrying a ball into an area at the end of the field.
However, the two games differ in many ways. In football, each
team has eleven players on the field. In rugby, there are fifteen
players on the field. Football players wear protective helmets
and pads. Rugby players wear no padding, although they can
choose to wear a soft leather cap. In football, players can throw
the ball to each other. In rugby, passes are illegal, and players
must move the ball down the field by running with it or kicking it.
When a football player is tackled, the game stops. Rugby,
however, is a continuous game. A tackled player must
immediately release the ball, and play continues. Rugby allows
no time-outs either.
Used to show how the facts, events, or concepts
result due to other facts, events, or concepts
Consequently may be due to since
This led to…so nevertheless if...then
Accordingly because of yet
As a result of in order to also
For this reason not only… but
Or explains the
effects of something.
Classification patterns divides a broad topic into
Widely used in academic subjects
Internet users have three types
of access choices for surfing
the Web. The first type of
access to the Internet is the old-
fashioned phone line, which is
quite slow. The second type of
access is high-speed
broadband, which enters the
house through the TV cable
line. The third type of access is
wireless broadband access.
Wireless broadband is used to
provide both fixed and mobile
Used to present a problem and possible solutions
to this problem.
Can be similar to Cause and Effect. It is basically
cause and effect with an opinion and an answer.
the problem is the question is
a solution one answer is
Restoring the Toad
Dr. Knapp doesn’t want people to sit back and let
the toad vanish. He believes that everyone is
responsible for restoring the toad species. Dr.
Knapp thinks we could help restore the toad
population if we stop mowing parts of our lawns and
let the grass grow wild to reserve space for the toad.
He also believes we need to stop using pesticides
and fertilizers. The chemicals kill the insects that
toads eat. If we preserve some spaces in our lawns
and stop using fertilizers, Dr. Knapp believes we can
save the toads.