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EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SPORTS 
INJURIES IN NIGERIA 
By 
Dr. Oluwatoyosi Owoeye (Ph.D) 
Department of Physiotherapy, College of Me...
Outline 
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
• Definition of Key Terms 
• Background 
• Why is the Present Topic Important? 
• Injury Ri...
Definition of Key Terms 
? 
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
3
Epidemiology 
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
• The study of the determinants of disease events 
(sports injuries) in populations (M...
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Athletes! 
•Recreational/Amateur 
•Semi-professional 
•Professional 
5
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Injury in Sports 
• Dictionary definition of sport injury… 
• Other several definitions!!! For a lon...
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Other Injury Definitions 
• Acute Injury vs Overuse Injury 
• Recurrent Injury 
• Injury Rate – Prev...
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Applications….! 
• Studies conducted in different parts of the world 
can be justifiably compared wi...
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Why is the Present Topic Important? 
• To keep participants in action! 
- Prevention – 
• …..persona...
Background 
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
• Epidemiologic research methods form the 
cornerstone of public health; and same applie...
Injury Risk Management Model (Fuller et al, 2012) Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
11
The Nigeria Factor!! 
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
• In Nigeria prevention is our cure…! 
• Prevention of injuries should always ...
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
• The frequency and characteristics of sports 
injuries have been shown to vary not only with 
diffe...
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Peculiarity in the Nigerian Cohort 
…………Nigerian athletes are faced with huge challenges 
14
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
(Owoeye et al, 2013) 
15
We also need to remember…! 
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Participation in a vigorous sports exposes players 
not only to MS injur...
What exactly are the figures??? 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 
0 
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
17
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
QUICK 
BACKGROUND! 
Looking back 5 years… 
18
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
19
…From Popular Scientific Search Engines 
2009 – 2014 (5-year period) 
• Pubmed 
• Google Scholar 
• Researchgate 
Dr Owoey...
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
General Sports… 
21
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Owoeye et al (2009) - Int J Rheum 
A Retrospective Study of Sports Injuries 
Reported at the Nationa...
Distribution of Injuries in Selected Sports Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
23
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Owoeye (2010) - Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, 
Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 
Pattern and Man...
Severity of Injuries 
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
25
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Specific Sports 
26
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Basketball 
27
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Owoeye et al (2012) - Sports Medicine, 
Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & 
Technology 
Incidenc...
Body Parts Injured Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
29
Owoeye et al (2013) – OA Sports Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Medicine 
Musculoskeletal injuries among professional 
players of th...
Injury Distribution by Body Location Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
31
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Marathon Athletes 
32
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Ogwumike and Adeniyi (2013) - BMC Sports 
Science, Medicine, and Rehabilitation 
The SPLASH/ICPC int...
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Boxers 
34
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Oke et al (2012) - Global Advanced 
Research J of Med and Med Sci 
Nature and Incidences of musculos...
Injuries by Type and Body Location Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
36
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Karate 
37
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Owoeye et al (2012) - Unpublished 
Injury Profile in Nigerian Karate Athletes 
• A prospective surve...
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Volleyball 
39
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Owoeye et al (2014) – In view 
Injuries in Volleyball Players: Assessment 
of Nigerian Players at th...
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Football 
41
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Owoeye et al (2014) – Br J Sports Med 
Lower Extremity Injuries among Nigerian 
Male Youth Football ...
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Akodu et al (2012) - Afri J of Med & Med Sci 
Incidence and Characteristics of Injuries 
during the ...
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Owoeye et al (2014) - J Sports Sci & Med 
Efficacy of the FIFA 11+ Warm-up Programme in 
Male Youth ...
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Recreational Athletes 
45
Owoeye et al (2014) – In View 
Sports Participation, Injuries and Risk 
Factors among UNILAG Students 
• Males 58.3% *TL 
...
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Conclusion 
• Epidemiology of sports injuries for prevention is a 
continuum 
• This review provides...
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
• Injuries mostly range from minimal/mild injuries to 
moderate injuries 
• Injury trend appears to ...
Recommendations 
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
• Government and stakeholders should fund research 
relating to prevention of injur...
End Note 
Not everything that counts can be counted, 
and not everything that can be counted 
counts 
▫ Albert Einstein 
T...
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! 
@owoeyeoba 
obowoeye@unilag.edu.ng 
07032602437 
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
51
References 
Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 
Available on request… 
52
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Epidemiology of Sports Injuries in Nigeria

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Epidemiology of Sports Injuries in Nigeria...

In Nigeria prevention is our cure…! Prevention of injuries should always be a priority and is even more important when treatment possibilities are restricted, as in many parts of Africa (Constantinou, 2010). ….documenting injury epidemiology and conducting injury surveillance studies is fundamental and first step in the sequence of prevention on sports injuries.

We hope to have a Nigerian Model for Sports Injury Prevention in the nearest future.

-Dr OBA Owoeye

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Epidemiology of Sports Injuries in Nigeria

  1. 1. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SPORTS INJURIES IN NIGERIA By Dr. Oluwatoyosi Owoeye (Ph.D) Department of Physiotherapy, College of Medicine, UNILAG Keynote Lecture at the 2014 NOH, Igbobi Annual Scientific Conference/Workshop tagged “Sports Injuries”
  2. 2. Outline Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 • Definition of Key Terms • Background • Why is the Present Topic Important? • Injury Risk Management Model • What Exactly are the figures? • General Sports • Specific Sports • Summary • Recommendations • End Notes 2
  3. 3. Definition of Key Terms ? Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 3
  4. 4. Epidemiology Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 • The study of the determinants of disease events (sports injuries) in populations (Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 2009) • Science that deals with the study of the causes, distribution, and control of disease (sports injuries) in populations (American Heritage Medical Dictionary, 2004) 4
  5. 5. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Athletes! •Recreational/Amateur •Semi-professional •Professional 5
  6. 6. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Injury in Sports • Dictionary definition of sport injury… • Other several definitions!!! For a long time …>>> confusion and complexities in developing sports injury prevention models • In 2005/2006… Medical Commissions of UEFA, FIFA and IOC published consensus statements on definitions for sports injuries (…..Fuller et al, 2006) ▫ MEDICAL ATTENTION… ▫ TIME-LOSS 6
  7. 7. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Other Injury Definitions • Acute Injury vs Overuse Injury • Recurrent Injury • Injury Rate – Prevalence vs Incidence • Injury Mechanism • Injury Severity Gold standard definitions! 7
  8. 8. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Applications….! • Studies conducted in different parts of the world can be justifiably compared with one another, thus enhancing and consolidating a global model for injury prevention • BUT! …… sports medicine and science researchers in developing countries must follow the gold standard • Nigeria is doing that… research team at UNILAG 8
  9. 9. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Why is the Present Topic Important? • To keep participants in action! - Prevention – • …..personal, social benefits & economic benefits... • #exerciseismedicine #sportsforhealth • …high level of participation… UNILAG Study (Owoeye et al, 2014)  Male students 78.4%  Female 41.2% 9
  10. 10. Background Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 • Epidemiologic research methods form the cornerstone of public health; and same applies to athletes’ health • As much as injuries can be prevented in sports, they can not be totally eliminated 10
  11. 11. Injury Risk Management Model (Fuller et al, 2012) Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 11
  12. 12. The Nigeria Factor!! Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 • In Nigeria prevention is our cure…! • Prevention of injuries should always be a priority and is even more important when treatment possibilities are restricted, as in many parts of Africa (Constantinou, 2010). • ….documenting injury epidemiology and conducting injury surveillance studies is fundamental and first step in the sequence of prevention… 12
  13. 13. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 • The frequency and characteristics of sports injuries have been shown to vary not only with different styles of play, but also between gender, age groups, levels of play, geographical regions and countries (Dvorak and Junge, 2000) – Am J Sports Med …..justifies the need for local epid studies…. 13
  14. 14. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Peculiarity in the Nigerian Cohort …………Nigerian athletes are faced with huge challenges 14
  15. 15. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 (Owoeye et al, 2013) 15
  16. 16. We also need to remember…! Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Participation in a vigorous sports exposes players not only to MS injuries but also to risk of CV events…. - CV Health of Players Sports Physio unit + Cardiology Unit of the Dept of Physiotherapy & Medicine , UNILAG collaboration … …baseline RFs 16
  17. 17. What exactly are the figures??? 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 17
  18. 18. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 QUICK BACKGROUND! Looking back 5 years… 18
  19. 19. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 19
  20. 20. …From Popular Scientific Search Engines 2009 – 2014 (5-year period) • Pubmed • Google Scholar • Researchgate Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 20
  21. 21. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 General Sports… 21
  22. 22. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Owoeye et al (2009) - Int J Rheum A Retrospective Study of Sports Injuries Reported at the National Sports Medicine Centre, Lagos, South-West, Nigeria • Total of 171 sports injuries in 7 yrs 24injuries/yr • Male to female ratio of 2:1 • Muscle strain followed by sprain • Majority of the injuries affected the LE (mostly thigh and Knee) 22
  23. 23. Distribution of Injuries in Selected Sports Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 23
  24. 24. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Owoeye (2010) - Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology Pattern and Management of Sports Injuries Presented by Lagos State Athletes at the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA games 2009) in Nigeria • 655 athletes with age range, 15-38 years • 20.2% injury prevalence • male to female ratio of 2:1 • Mostly “minor” injuries • Muscle strain (31.4%) followed by ligament sprains (22.9%). • The LE most injured accounting for 50% of all injuries basketball, cricket, hockey, rugby and baseball… FB? • Popular rxs - Cryotherapy followed by bandaging 24
  25. 25. Severity of Injuries Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 25
  26. 26. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Specific Sports 26
  27. 27. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Basketball 27
  28. 28. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Owoeye et al (2012) - Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology Incidence and pattern of injuries among adolescent basketball players in Nigeria • Study revealed 22.7 injuries per 100 participants; equivalence of 1.0 injury per match • Injuries mostly affected the LEs and the pattern of injuries was similar in both genders 28
  29. 29. Body Parts Injured Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 29
  30. 30. Owoeye et al (2013) – OA Sports Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Medicine Musculoskeletal injuries among professional players of the Nigeria female basketball league: A need for intervention • Age range - 18.2 ± 2.66 years • A total of 108 injuries were sustained by 58 players • I-year injury prevalence of 55.8% (all) and 33.3%(TL). • Match vs training injuries (P = 0.330) • Sprains and strains mostly diagnosed • LE injuries predominated • Point guards sustained more injuries than players in other positions - one out of three players suffered a time-loss injury during a league season 30
  31. 31. Injury Distribution by Body Location Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 31
  32. 32. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Marathon Athletes 32
  33. 33. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Ogwumike and Adeniyi (2013) - BMC Sports Science, Medicine, and Rehabilitation The SPLASH/ICPC integrity marathon in Ibadan, Nigeria: incidence and management of injuries and marathon-related health problems • Injury prevalence was 16.3% and 17.2% in the maiden and 2nd editions of the said race • Muscle cramps and heat exhaustion were mostly recorded • Thigh muscle mostly injured • Cryotherapy was mostly used and by PTs …Most of the injuries and other health problems were reported by first-time marathon runners mainly at the finish line 33
  34. 34. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Boxers 34
  35. 35. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Oke et al (2012) - Global Advanced Research J of Med and Med Sci Nature and Incidences of musculoskeletal injuries in Nigeria male amateur boxing engagements • Age range: 21 – 27years • 3.9 injuries per athlete …injuries per match ?? • Upper extremities were mostly injured • Sprains, strains and lacerations were mostly reported 35
  36. 36. Injuries by Type and Body Location Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 36
  37. 37. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Karate 37
  38. 38. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Owoeye et al (2012) - Unpublished Injury Profile in Nigerian Karate Athletes • A prospective survey • In a total of 300 bouts, 83 injuries were reported by 64 athletes from a cohort of 270 athletes during a national competition…. 1/4 0.3 injury/bout (0.37 male > 0.16 female) • Head mostly injured; primarily contusions followed by laceration • Though injuries were mostly mild, 1 of 6 injuries was severe 38
  39. 39. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Volleyball 39
  40. 40. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Owoeye et al (2014) – In view Injuries in Volleyball Players: Assessment of Nigerian Players at the 20th NSF Overall prevalence 7.6% 0.54 injury per match 1, male; 0.1, female LE mostly affected ankle and knee sprains Injuries mostly medical attention and mild 40
  41. 41. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Football 41
  42. 42. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Owoeye et al (2014) – Br J Sports Med Lower Extremity Injuries among Nigerian Male Youth Football Players • A total of 227 players sustained 307 time-loss LE injuries (range, 1–6 injuries) with an overall 1- year prevalence rate of 32.5%; equivalent to 1.4 injuries/player per year • Ankle then knee mostly injured • Match > Training injuries (P<0.001) • About 1 of 2 injuries (48.5%) moderate severity 42
  43. 43. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Akodu et al (2012) - Afri J of Med & Med Sci Incidence and Characteristics of Injuries during the 2011 West Africa Football Union (WAFU) Nations’ Cup • 89 injuries/1000 player hours (match) = 9.9 injuries per match • Injury characteristics similar to previous studies 43
  44. 44. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Owoeye et al (2014) - J Sports Sci & Med Efficacy of the FIFA 11+ Warm-up Programme in Male Youth Football: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Extract • 0.4 injuries/training & 20.3 injuries/match 44
  45. 45. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Recreational Athletes 45
  46. 46. Owoeye et al (2014) – In View Sports Participation, Injuries and Risk Factors among UNILAG Students • Males 58.3% *TL • Females 30.3% • Sprain… • Knee, ankle, lower leg… Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 46
  47. 47. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Conclusion • Epidemiology of sports injuries for prevention is a continuum • This review provides information that is imperative for prompt intervention by stakeholders and the government for all athletes... • Prevention of sports injuries is the most viable option in Nigeria • Football, basketball and track/field events pose the highest injury risk 47
  48. 48. Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 • Injuries mostly range from minimal/mild injuries to moderate injuries • Injury trend appears to be in congruence with the nature of the different sports however, LE injuries are the most common; majorly characterised by sprains and strains and mostly affecting the knee, ankle and thigh • The prevalence/incidence of injuries is much higher compared to reports from Europe and other parts of the world; however, the characteristics of injuries are similar • Sports injuries are equally highly prevalent among recreational athletes • There is need for more prospective studies… and a need for systematic implementation… 48
  49. 49. Recommendations Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 • Government and stakeholders should fund research relating to prevention of injuries and protection of health in Nigerian athletes to establish a Nigerian Model • Provision of qualified medical professionals…during competitions… national/states/LGs • There is a need for a functional and vibrant Sports Science, Medicine & Rehab Conglomerate in Nigeria 49
  50. 50. End Note Not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can be counted counts ▫ Albert Einstein That which has been counted should be made to count ▫ Oluwatoyosi Owoeye Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 50
  51. 51. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! @owoeyeoba obowoeye@unilag.edu.ng 07032602437 Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 51
  52. 52. References Dr Owoeye - Sept '14 Available on request… 52

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