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The use of componential Analysis in Translation

Translation: English language

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The use of componential Analysis in Translation

  1. 1. The use of componential Analysis in Translation
  2. 2. • Componential analysis is a way proposed by the structural semanticists to analyze word meaning. The approach is based upon the belief that the meaning of a word can be dissected into meaning components, called semantic features.
  3. 3. • Examples: father = +MALE >PARENT brother = +MALE <>SIBLING grandfather = +MALE >PARENT >PARENT
  4. 4. Plus and minus signs are used to indicate whether a certain semantic feature is present or absent in the meaning of a word, and these feature symbols are usually written in capitalized letters.
  5. 5. • Man [+HUMAN,+ADULT,+MALE] • Woman[+HUMAN, +ADULT, -MALE] • Boy[+HUMAN, -ADULT, +MALE] • girl[+HUMAN,-ADULT,-MALE]
  6. 6. • This is parallel to the way a phoneme is analyzed into smaller components called distinctive features. • /b/ [+PLOSIVE,+BILABIAL,+VOICED] • /P/[+PLOSIVE,+BILABIAL,-VOICED]
  7. 7. • Componential analysis provides an insight into the meaning of words and a way to study the relationships between words that are related in meaning.
  8. 8. • The second term emphasizes that the aim of componential analysis is to decompose the meaning of the word into its sense-components. The objectivity and importance of componential analysis stem from the fact that it goes far beyond the cultural and linguistic differences between languages and focuses on the components of the word that can be called universal.
  9. 9. • Forgive • Pardon
  10. 10. • For example, both “forgive” and “pardon” share common components including absence of punishment, the authority of the sender over the receiver, display of mercy, forgiveness, kindness and prevention of pain. • PARDON: means to forgive someone without blaming him. • FORGIVE: means to forgive someone with the possibility of blaming him.
  11. 11. Lexical Words • The first and most obvious use of CA is in handling words that donate combination of qualities or combinations of actions and qualities, that appear to show up a lexical gap in the target, language.
  12. 12. • The second use of a componential analysis is in translating cultural (and institutional )words that the readership is unlikely to understand; whether the CA is accompanied by an accepted translation (which must be used in all but the most informal texts). Transference, functional equivalent, cultural equivalent etc. will depend, firstly, on the particular text-type.
  13. 13. Secondly is the readership or the client, who may also disagreed the usual characteristic of the text-type; and thirdly, on the importance of the cultural word in the text
  14. 14. • SYNONYMS • Synonyms are words that are similar or have a related meaning to another word. Adjective are generally seen as synonyms. There is a certain skill involved in choosing the most appropriate synonym, as not all are created equal. It is important to consider the ‘connotation’ of the word because some synonyms can inject a different meaning than the one intended.
  15. 15. • For example, one synonym of sad is "gloomy" however, this word carries quite a negative connotation. Depending on the circumstance you can use it, but if you just want to say that someone is "down," then another synonym such as "blue" or "unhappy" would be more applicable. •
  16. 16. • Here is a list of adjectives and their synonyms that are commonly used to describe people. • Beautiful: Attractive, Pretty, Lovely, Stunning • Happy: Content, Joyful, Mirthful, Upbeat • Honest: Honorable, Fair, Sincere, Trustworthy • Intelligent: Smart, Bright, Brilliant, Sharp • Mean: Unfriendly, Unpleasant, Bad-tempered, Difficult • Strong: Stable, Secure, Solid, Tough • Unhappy: Sad, Depressed, Melancholy, Miserable • Lucky: Auspicious, Fortunate • Positive: Optimistic, Cheerful, Starry-eyed, Sanguine • Bossy: Controlling, Tyrannical •
  17. 17. • Here are more examples of English synonyms: • verb – "buy" and "purchase" • adjective – "big" and "large" • adverb – "quickly" and "speedily" • Preposition • "on" and "upon" • • SETS AND SERIES
  18. 18. Neologisms • Neologisms are perhaps the non-literary and the professional translator's biggest problem. New objects and processes are continually created in technology. New ideas and variations on feelings come from the media. Terms from the social sciences, slang, dialect coming into the mainstream of language, transferred words, make up the rest. It has been stated that each language acquire 3000 new words, annually, but in fact, neologisms can not be accurately quantified, since so many hover between acceptance and oblivion and many are short-lived, individual creations. In other words, Neologisms are new words, word-combinations or fixed phrases that appear in the language due to the development of social life, culture, science and engineering. New meanings of existing words are also accepted as neologisms. A problem of translation of new words ranks high on the list of challenges facing translators because such words are not readily found in ordinary dictionaries and even in the newest specialized dictionaries
  19. 19. • Neologisms can be either loan words in the form of direct loans and loan translations, or newly coined terms, either morphologically new words or by giving existing words a new semantic content. • Example of neologism: • Prushnajë (neologjizëm e Ismail Kadares si zëvendësim i fjalës së huazuar "kamin" dhe asaj "oxhak" ) • Dhe-shkronjë (neologjizëm e Naim Frashërit si zëvendësim i fjalës së huazuar "gjeografi")
  20. 20. In the novel ‘Kronikë në gur’, the author is trying to replace the word ’kasaphanë’, orientalism, with ‘thertore’, which is a relatively old albanian neologism Është e qartë se “Vakancat” është fjalë e huaj, madje nuk do ta quaja as italianizëm, meqë nuk është huazuar ende në sistemin e shqipes, pavarësisht se është transkriptuar në shqip. PUSHIMET E HUAJA, August 7, 2009 by Pishak Zhgaba
  21. 21. Words as myths • The first myth is often seen in the translation of religious texts wherein we are tempted to copy and shadow the source text vocabulary and structure. Nothing could be further from the truth. The Ciceronian motto non verbum e verbo, sed sensum experimere de sensu sums up perfectly what translators should focus on, that is the sense and not the words.