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Perception, Attitudes personality

A cognitive process: lets a person make sense of stimuli from the environment• Affects all senses: sight, touch, taste, smell, hearing• Includes inputs to person and choice of inputs to which the person attends• Stimulus sources: people, events, physical objects, ideas• Helps adaptation to a changing environment

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Perception, Attitudes personality

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Perception, Attitudes, and Personality
  2. 2. Learning Goals • Understand human perceptual processes and how people form impressions of others • Describe types of perceptual error and their effects on information people get from their environment • Explain attribution processes and their effects on perception and attitudes
  3. 3. Learning Goals (Cont.) • Discuss the nature of attitudes, how they form and how they change • Explain the different views of human personality development • Discuss some dimensions of personality and several personality types • Recognize the effects of different cultures on perception, attitudes, and personality
  4. 4. Chapter Overview • Introduction • Perception • Attitudes • Personality • International Aspects of Perception, Attitudes, and Personality • Ethical Issues in Perception, Attitudes, and Personality
  5. 5. Perception, Attitudes, and Personality Perception Attitudes Personality Chapter 5
  6. 6. Perception • A cognitive process: lets a person make sense of stimuli from the environment • Affects all senses: sight, touch, taste, smell, hearing • Includes inputs to person and choice of inputs to which the person attends • Stimulus sources: people, events, physical objects, ideas • Helps adaptation to a changing environment
  7. 7. Perception (Cont.) • Perceptual process – Target: object of the person’s perceptual process – Threshold: minimum information from target for the person to notice the target • Detection threshold: point at which person notices something has changed in her or his environment • Recognition threshold: point at which person can identify the target or change in the target See text book Figure 5.1
  8. 8. Perception (Cont.) • Perceptual process (cont.) – Target emerges from its surrounding context sometimes slowly, sometimes quickly – Quickly discriminate a high-contrast target from its background; an ambiguous target takes more time to see – Contrast can come from the target's size, color, loudness, or smell
  9. 9. Perception (Cont.) • Perceptual process (cont.) – People attend more quickly to positively valued stimuli than to negatively valued stimuli – Example: achievement-oriented employees notice announcements about promotion opportunities faster than an employee with less achievement motivation
  10. 10. Perception (Cont.) • Perceptual defense: shield self from negatively valued stimuli – Example: block out annoying sounds – Organizational example: block some feedback from a supervisor or coworker when it is negative
  11. 11. Perception (Cont.) • Perceptual errors: mistakes in the perceptual process – Perceptual set • Beliefs about a target based on information about the target or previous experiences with it • Information about the target from any source • Beliefs act like instructions for processing stimuli from the target
  12. 12. Perception (Cont.) • Perceptual errors (cont.) – Stereotype: beliefs and perceived attributes about a target based on the target’s group – Examples • American university students: energetic and spontaneous • Russian university students: orderly and obedient
  13. 13. Self-Perception: A View of Self • Self-perception: process by which people develop a view of themselves • Develops from social interaction within different groups, including groups encountered on the Internet • Self-perception has three parts: self- concept, self-esteem, self-presentation
  14. 14. Self-Perception: A View of Self (Cont.) • Self-concept: – Set of beliefs people have about themselves – View people hold of their personal qualities and attributes – Factors affecting a person's self-concept • Observations of behavior • Recall of past significant events • Effect of the surrounding social context
  15. 15. Self-Perception: A View of Self (Cont.) • Self-concept (cont.) – Observations of behavior • People see their behavior, and their situation, in the same way they see the behavior of other people • Person believes the behavior occurred voluntarily: concludes the behavior happened because of some personal quality or attribute
  16. 16. Self-Perception: A View of Self (Cont.) • Self-concept (cont.) – Observations of behavior (cont.) • People learn about themselves by comparing themselves to other people with similar qualities • Example: you may want to assess your abilities to hold a supervisory position. You compare yourself to people with backgrounds similar to yours who have had recent promotions
  17. 17. Self-Perception: A View of Self (Cont.) • Self-concept (cont.) – Recall of past significant events and effect of the surrounding social context • Recall events important in their lives; not error free • Tend to recall events they attribute to themselves and not to a situation or other people • Often overestimate their role in past events • Place more weight on the effects of their behavior and less on the surrounding situation or other people
  18. 18. Self-Perception: A View of Self (Cont.) • Self-esteem – Emotional dimension of self-perception – Positive and negative judgments people have of themselves – People with low self-esteem tend to be unsuccessful; do not adapt well to stressful events – Those with high self-esteem have the opposite experiences
  19. 19. Self-Perception: A View of Self (Cont.) • Self-awareness – People differ in degree of self-awareness – Two forms • Private self-consciousness: behave according to attend to inner feelings and standards • Public self-consciousness: behave according to social standard correct for the situation
  20. 20. Self-Perception: A View of Self (Cont.) • Self-presentation – Behavioral strategies people use to affect how others see them – How they think about themselves – Goals of self-presentation • Affect other people's impressions to win their approval • Increase the person's influence in a situation • Ensure that others have an accurate impression of the person
  21. 21. Self-Perception: A View of Self (Cont.) • Self-presentation (cont.) – Highly conscious of public image: change behavior from situation to situation. Readily conform to situational norms – People who want others to perceive them in a particular way behave consistently in different situations. They act in ways they perceive as true to themselves with little regard for the norms of the situation
  22. 22. Social Perception: A View of Others • Social perception: process by which people come to know and understand each other • Forming impression of a person: perceiver first observes the person, the situation, and the person's behavior
  23. 23. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) • Form a quick impression by making a snap judgment about that person, or • Make attributions and integrate the attributions to form a final impression • Confirmation biases lead the perceiver to hold tenaciously to it
  24. 24. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) • Elements of social perception – Three sets of clues help form the impression of another person • Person • Situation surrounding the person • Observed behavior of the person
  25. 25. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) • Elements of social perception (cont.) – Developing first impressions • Use different physical aspects of the person: height, weight, hair color, eyeglasses • Stereotypes based on physical features – Thin men: tense, suspicious, stubborn – Blond women: fun loving – Neatly dressed people: responsible • Stereotypes result from attributing qualities to people based on previously formed perceptions
  26. 26. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) • Elements of social perception (cont.) – Preconceptions about the situations in which we see the behavior of other people – Develop from experience with the same or similar situations – Situation raises expectations about behavior the situation should cause – Example: when two people are introduced, we expect both parties to acknowledge the other and probably to shake hands
  27. 27. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) • Attribution processes – People use attribution processes to explain the causes of behavior they see in others – Begins with a quick personal attribution followed by adjustment based on the characteristics of the situation
  28. 28. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) • Personal attribution – Characteristics of the person such as beliefs, disposition, or personality, and not the situation, caused the person's behavior – Example: when you conclude that another student spends many hours completing a project because he likes to work hard or values hard work, you are making a personal attribution
  29. 29. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) • Situational attribution – Aspects of the situation, not qualities of the person, cause the person's behavior – Example: a student worked hard because of the reward of a good grade
  30. 30. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) • Perceiver uses three types of information when forming an attribution – Consensus information – Distinctiveness information – Consistency information
  31. 31. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) • Consensus information – Observe other people in the same or a similar situation • If other people show the same behavior as the target person, the situation caused the behavior • If other people behave differently from the target person, the person caused the behavior
  32. 32. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) • Distinctiveness information – Observe the target person in a different situation • If the response is different in the new situation, the situation caused the behavior • If the response is the same, the person caused the behavior
  33. 33. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) • Consistency information – Observe the target person in a similar situation, but at a different time • High consistency: same behavior at both times • Low consistency: different behavior at both times
  34. 34. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) • Combine consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency information to form attribution – Personal attribution: behavior high in consistency; low in consensus and distinctiveness – Situational attribution: behavior high in consensus and distinctiveness; low in consistency
  35. 35. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) • Fundamental attribution error – Observer underestimates situation as cause of behavior; overestimates the as cause – Explaining their behavior: tend to ascribe causes to the situation, not to personal qualities – Explaining other’s behavior: tend to ascribe its causes to personal qualities, not the situation
  36. 36. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) • False consensus – Overestimate the degree to which others agree with the person's view – Reinforces the view the perceiver has of another person
  37. 37. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) • Integration of attributions to form final impression: disposition of perceiver – Effects of recent experiences: positive or negative event just before meeting someone for the first time can affect the impression of the person – Mood at time of first meeting: • Positive impressions in a good mood • Negative impressions in a bad mood
  38. 38. Attitudes • An attitude is “a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object” • Attitude object: physical objects, issues, ideas, events, people, places
  39. 39. Attitudes (Cont.) • Parts of an attitude – Cognitive: perceptions and beliefs about an attitude object – Affective: feelings about an attitude object – Behavioral intentions: how the person wants to behave and what a person says about an attitude object
  40. 40. Attitudes (Cont.) • Common work attitudes – Organizational commitment – Satisfaction – Job involvement • Play a role in employee turnover
  41. 41. Attitudes (Cont.) • Some connection between attitudes and behavior, although not strong – People with strong attitudes about an object will likely behave in accord with their attitude – Strong positive attitudes about Macintosh© computers leads to buying one – Ardent followers of Jesse Jackson will likely vote for him
  42. 42. Attitudes (Cont.) • Attitude formation: affected by the person’s beliefs about an object and the amount and type of information the person has about the object – Perceives positive attributes: develops positive attitude – Perceives negative attributes: develops negative attitude
  43. 43. Attitudes (Cont.) • Attitude formation (cont.) – Family upbringing – Peer groups – Work groups – General social experiences
  44. 44. Attitudes (Cont.) • Attitude change – Something persuades the person to shift his or her attitudes (persuasive communication) – Norms of a social group can affect a person’s attitude (social norms) – Person becomes uncomfortable with some aspects of her or his beliefs (cognitive dissonance)
  45. 45. Attitudes (Cont.) • Persuasive communication – Advertising – Tries to change cognitive part of attitude – Assumes affective part will also change – Attitude change process • Win target’s attention • Understand message • Accept the influence • Remember the message
  46. 46. Attitudes (Cont.) • Social influence on attitudes – People are embedded in social groups – Feel pressures to conform to norms – If person values membership in group, likely will align attitudes with the group norms
  47. 47. Attitudes (Cont.) • Cognitive dissonance – Hold multiple beliefs or cognitions about an attitude object – Feel tension when discrepancies develop – Motivated to reduce the tension – Change one or more cognitions – Other parts of attitude also change
  48. 48. Personality • Set of traits, characteristics, and predispositions of a person • Usually matures and stabilizes by about age 30 • Affects how a person adjusts to different environments
  49. 49. Personality Theories • Cognitive theory: people develop their thinking patterns as their life unfolds • Learning theories: behavior patterns develop from the social environment • Biological theories: personality as genetically inherited
  50. 50. Personality Theories (Cont.) • Cognitive theory – Develop thinking patterns as life unfolds – Affects how the person interprets and internalizes life's events – Cognitive development stages • Reflexive behavior of infant • More complex modes of perception and interpretation of events – Neither driven by instincts nor unwittingly shaped by environmental influences
  51. 51. Personality Theories (Cont.) • Learning theories – Learn behavior from social interaction with other people – Young child: early family socialization – Continuously learn from social environment: stable behavior forms the personality – Uniqueness of each personality follows from variability in social experiences
  52. 52. Personality Theories (Cont.) • Biological theories – Ethological theory • Develop common characteristics as a result of evolution • Behavioral characteristics that have helped survival over generations become inborn characteristics
  53. 53. Personality Theories (Cont.) • Biological theories (cont.) – Behavior genetics • Individual's unique gene structure affects personality development • Personality develops from interactions between a person's genetic structure and social environment
  54. 54. The Big-Five Personality Dimensions • Extroversion – High: talkative, sociable – Low: reserved, introverted • Emotional stability – High: calm, relaxed – Low: worried, depressed • Agreeableness – High: cooperative, tolerant – Low: rude, cold
  55. 55. The Big-Five Personality Dimensions (Cont.) • Conscientiousness – High: dependable, thorough – Low: sloppy, careless • Openness to experience – High: curious, intelligent – Low: simple, conventional Assess yourself on each dimension
  56. 56. Personality Types • Locus of control: people control the consequences of their actions or are controlled by external factors – External control: luck, fate, or powerful external forces control one’s destiny – Internal control: believe they control what happens to them Assess yourself against each type.
  57. 57. Personality Types (Cont.) • Machiavellianism – Holds cynical views of other people's motives – Places little value on honesty – Approaches the world with manipulative intent – Maintains distance between self and others – Emotionally detached from other people – Suspicious interpersonal orientation can contribute to high interpersonal conflict
  58. 58. Personality Types (Cont.) • Machiavellianism (cont.) – Focus on personal goals, even if reaching them requires unethical behavior – Suspicious orientation leads to view of organizational world as a web of political processes
  59. 59. Personality Types (Cont.) • Type A personality: a keen sense of time urgency, focuses excessively on achievement, aggressive Type B personality: strong self-esteem, even tempered, no sense of time urgency Type A: significant risk factor for coronary heart disease.
  60. 60. Personality Types (Cont.) • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) – Popular personality assessment device – Four bi-polar dimensions • Extroverted (E) - introverted (I) • Sensing (S) - intuitive (I) • Thinking (T) - feeling (F) • Perceiving (P) - judging (J) – Assigns people to one of sixteen types based on these dimensions
  61. 61. Personality Types (Cont.) • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (cont.) – Extroverts look outward; introverts turn inward – Sensers use data; intuitives use hunches – Thinkers are objective; feelers are subjective – Perceivers are flexible; judgers want closure – ESTJ type: extroverted, sensing, thinking, and judging
  62. 62. International Aspects of Perception, Attitudes, and Personality • Culturally based stereotypes – Swiss: punctual – Germans: task-oriented – Americans: energetic – People who hold these stereotypes experience surprises when they meet people from these countries who do not fit the stereotypes
  63. 63. International Aspects of Perception, Attitudes, and Personality (Cont.) • Culturally based stereotypes (cont.) – Project aspects of own culture onto people and situations in a different culture – Assumes that the new culture mirrors their own – Example: Korean manager visiting Sweden assumes all women seated behind desks are secretaries – Such behavior would be inappropriate and possibly dysfunctional in Sweden where many women hold management positions
  64. 64. International Aspects of Perception, Attitudes, and Personality (Cont.) • Attitudes about organizational design, management, and decision making: – U.S. managers: a hierarchical organizational design helps solve problems and guides the division of labor in the organization – French and Italian managers: a hierarchical design lets people know authority relationships in the organization
  65. 65. International Aspects of Perception, Attitudes, and Personality (Cont.) • Attitudes (cont.) – Italian managers: bypassing a manager to reach a subordinate employee is insubordination – Swedish and Austrian organizations: decentralized decision making – Philippine and Indian organizations: centralized decision making Conclusion: Organizations that cross national borders and draw managers from many different countries have high conflict potential.
  66. 66. International Aspects of Perception, Attitudes, and Personality (Cont.) • Personality characteristics – People in individualistic cultures (United States) have a stronger need for autonomy than people in group-oriented cultures (Japan) – People in cultures that emphasize avoiding uncertainty (Belgium, Peru) have a stronger need for security than people in cultures that are less concerned about avoiding uncertainty (Singapore, Ireland)
  67. 67. Ethical Issues in Perception, Attitudes, and Personality • Stereotypes and workforce diversity – Can have inaccurate stereotypes about the ethics of people with different social, racial, and ethnic backgrounds – These stereotypes can affect the opinions people develop about the ethical behavior of such people in the workplace
  68. 68. Ethical Issues in Perception, Attitudes, and Personality (Cont.) • Self-presentation – Deliberately managing self-presentations so decisions and behavior appear ethical – Limited experimental evidence suggests one can favorably manage other people's impressions of their ethical attitudes
  69. 69. Ethical Issues in Perception, Attitudes, and Personality (Cont.) • Attribution and accountability – Individual responsibility is central to ethical behavior • Attribution of responsibility to a person: person behaved ethically or unethically • Attribution of responsibility to the situation: individual not held accountable • Example: observer believed the person had behaved unethically because of a directive – Errors in attribution: could conclude that he or she was not responsible for an unethical act
  70. 70. Ethical Issues in Perception, Attitudes, and Personality (Cont.) • Ethical attitudes – Little reliable and valid information about ethical attitudes – Some evidence points to the absence of a fixed set of ethical attitudes among managers – Attitudes about ethics in organizations and decision making are situational and varying – The morality of behavior and decisions is determined by their social context, not by abstract and absolute rules