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Business Analysis Process Model

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Business Analysis Process Model

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Business Analysis Process Model

  1. 1. Business Analysis Process Model © Lonsdale Systems 1 Define Requirements • Solution Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Selected Solution Analyse Needs • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis Define Requirements • Solution Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Selected Solution Analyse Needs • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis Consider Perspectives • Stakeholders • Business Scope • Solution Scope Investigate the Situation • Initial Scope • Glossary Business Analysis Process Model‡ • Workflows Model Business Processes • Components • Features Model Software Solutions ‡ Adapted from Business Analysis British Computer Society (BCS) This is intended to be an “essential” process. “Essential” is meant to imply that removing anything from the process model (except perhaps Process Modelling) will almost certainly cause major issues that will most likely lead to project failures. The process consists of five stages and two techniques. Each of the stages and techniques describe a number of deliverables. For example, the Define Requirements stage delivers Solution Requirements, Usage Scenarios and a Data Dictionary. It is common to start work on a deliverable well before the stage that actually delivers it. For example, it is quite likely that during Investigate the Situation, some Business Rules will be identified or a Data Dictionary will be established during Analyse Needs. The model was derived from the BCS book Business Analysis shown on the previous slide.
  2. 2. Business Analysis Process Model © Lonsdale Systems 2 Business Analysis Process Model Define Requirements • Solution Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Define Requirements • Solution Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Selected Solution Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Selected Solution Analyse Needs • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis Analyse Needs • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis Define Requirements • Solution Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Selected Solution Analyse Needs • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis Define Requirements • Solution Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Selected Solution Analyse Needs • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis Consider Perspectives • Stakeholders • Business Scope • Solution Scope Consider Perspectives • Stakeholders • Business Scope • Solution Scope Investigate the Situation • Initial Scope • Glossary Investigate the Situation • Initial Scope • Glossary • Workflows Model Business Processes • Workflows Model Business Processes • Components • Features Model Software Solutions • Components • Features Model Software Solutions W hat is this about? W ho is involved? W hat do they do? W hat do they need? H ow do they use software as a tool?H ow could they software as a tool? H ow willthey software as a tool? The stages and techniques described by the Business Analysis Process Model can be summarised as a number of fundamental questions that a BA must answer before they are ready to define solution requirements: What is this about? The answer to this question provides initial ideas about the scope of a solution. If a BA is new to a business area, it is likely that they will encounter a few unfamiliar terms, so it is a good idea to establish a Glossary of terms as early as possible. Who is involved? The answer to this question identifies the stakeholders who have some interest in a proposed (or existing) software solution. What do they do? The answer to this question identifies the “work” performed by stakeholders and provoide the basis for understanding their needs. What do they need? The answer to this question identifies the business needs that support stakeholder goals. How do they use software as a tool? The answer to this question identifies the components and features of an existing software solution. How could they use software as a tool? The answer to this question identifies the components and features of one or more proposed software solutions. How will they use software as a tool? The answer to this question identifies the components and features of a required software solution.
  3. 3. Business Analysis Process Model © Lonsdale Systems 3 Investigate the Situation Consider Perspectives Analyse Needs Evaluate Options Define Requirements • Workflows • Components • Features • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis • Solution Options • Feasibility • Selected Solution • Initial Scope • Glossary • Stakeholders • Business Scope • Solution Scope • Solution Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Model Software Solutions Model Business Processes Business Analysis Roles Business Analyst Business Analyst System s A nalyst Business A nalyst System s A nalyst Solution A rchitect Separation of roles into Business Analyst, Systems Analyst and Solution Architect is common in larger organisations.
  4. 4. Business Analysis Process Model © Lonsdale Systems 4 Investigate the Situation Rich Pictures Mind Maps Define Requirements • Formal Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis Consider Perspectives • Stakeholders • Business Scope • Solution Scope Investigate the Situation • Initial Scope • Glossary Define Requirements • Solution Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Selected Solution Analyse Needs • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis • Workflows Model Business Processes • Components • Features Model Software Solutions Unstructured techniques work best during this stage. See http://www.slideshare.net/lonsdalesystems/visual-communication-28395424. It can be useful to establish a glossary of terms here. See http://blog.lonsdalesystems.com/post/creating-a-glossary-of-terms.
  5. 5. Business Analysis Process Model © Lonsdale Systems 5 CompetitorsSuppliers None Employees Hotel owner Partners Guests Duty manager Some Subject Matter Knowledge ControlOverScope SomeHigh HighNone Back office clerk Front desk clerk Call centre operator Function customers Coffee shop customers Health department Fire department CompetitorsSuppliers None Employees Hotel owner Partners Guests Duty manager Some Subject Matter Knowledge ControlOverScope SomeHigh HighNone Back office clerk Front desk clerk Call centre operator Function customers Coffee shop customers Health department Fire department Stakeholder Analysis Consider Perspectives Functional Analysis Hotel Management System Smart Card Programmer Duty ManagerBack Office Clerk Front Desk Clerk Call Centre Operator Stay details Accommodation Report Bill Billing Details Check In Details Check Out Details Reservation Context Diagram Hotel Management System Define Requirements • Formal Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis Consider Perspectives • Stakeholders • Business Scope • Solution Scope Investigate the Situation • Initial Scope • Glossary Define Requirements • Solution Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Selected Solution Analyse Needs • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis • Workflows Model Business Processes • Components • Features Model Software Solutions It is essential to know who are the subject matter experts (SMEs) and who ultimately controls the scope. Business scope is a consolidated view of the “work” performed by all the stakeholders. Solution scope defines how the stakeholders will the solution as a “tool” to support their work. Functional Decomposition and Context Diagrams are typical techniques used during this stage.
  6. 6. Business Analysis Process Model © Lonsdale Systems 6 Modelling Business Process and Software Solutions Physical (How?) Logical (What?) Future (“To-Be”)Current (“As-Is”) Understanding Needs Solution Concepts Modelling current physical business processes are great for understanding but can often lead to a lot of wasted time. See http://blog.lonsdalesystems.com/post/business-analysis-and-process- modelling for a more detailed discussion of how this slide relates to process modelling. The Business Scope defined during Consider Perspectives can often serve as a substitute for the current logical process model and bypass the current physical model. Frequently BAs find that a physical model of the current solution already exists. Current logical models are much less common but very important in understanding how the solution is currently used as a “tool”. The difference between the current and future logical models represent a needs “gap”. A a number of future models may be created to decsribe different solution options.
  7. 7. Business Analysis Process Model © Lonsdale Systems 7 Model Business Processes KioskGuestHotelManagementSystem Swipe credit card Read credit card Retrieve guest reservation Display guest details Confirm guest details Allocate room Display room allocation Display available rooms Dispense key card Retrieve available rooms Select room Remove key card [change room] [accept allocated room] Retrieve reservation Allocate room Record guest details Check identity document Authorise credit card Accept cash deposit No acceptable method of payment Record stay details [walk in] [acceptable credit card] Process Models Define Requirements • Formal Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis Consider Perspectives • Stakeholders • Business Scope • Solution Scope Investigate the Situation • Initial Scope • Glossary Define Requirements • Solution Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Selected Solution Analyse Needs • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis • Workflows Model Business Processes • Components • Features Model Software Solutions Process models model the “work” performed by the stakeholders. Two models are produced: •a model of the current or “as-is” business processes during Analyse Needs; and •a model of the proposed or “to-be” business processes during Evaluate Options. UML Activity diagrams are shown here but other notations such as BPMN or Achimate could be used.
  8. 8. Business Analysis Process Model © Lonsdale Systems 8 Model Software Solutions Hotel Management System Front Desk Back Office Housekeeping Debtors Ledger General Ledger Shift Management Mobile App Check out times Minibar, Laundry Staff details Corporate sales Corporate sales Cash sales Solution Components Mobile App Enter Laundry Items Record Laundry Return Housekeeper Record Minibar Usage «actor,secondary» Hotel Management System Record Make Up Room «actor» Housekeeping Component Features Define Requirements • Formal Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis Consider Perspectives • Stakeholders • Business Scope • Solution Scope Investigate the Situation • Initial Scope • Glossary Define Requirements • Solution Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Selected Solution Analyse Needs • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis • Workflows Model Business Processes • Components • Features Model Software Solutions These model the “tools” that support the stakeholder’s “work”. Three models are produced: •a model of the current software application(s) during Analyse Needs; •a model of several alternative proposed software applications during Evaluate Options; and •a model of the required software application during Define Requirements. Components are the physical view and features are the logical view of an application.
  9. 9. Business Analysis Process Model © Lonsdale Systems 9 Analyse Needs • Strategic – Improve a process to build on a strength or exploit an opportunity – Mitigate a risk to preserve a strength or avoid a threat – Remedy the underlying cause of a weakness • Operational needs – Managing information – Enforcing business rules • Identify “gaps” Define Requirements • Formal Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis Consider Perspectives • Stakeholders • Business Scope • Solution Scope Investigate the Situation • Initial Scope • Glossary Define Requirements • Solution Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Selected Solution Analyse Needs • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis • Workflows Model Business Processes • Components • Features Model Software Solutions Strategic Needs are identified as part of a SWOT analysis. Support for business processes represents the routine automation of “work”. It is common for the Information Requirements to be defined in a Data Dictionary.
  10. 10. Business Analysis Process Model © Lonsdale Systems 10 Evaluate Options • Identify solution options • Investigate solution feasibility – Technical – Economic (business case) – Schedule (estimate and plan) – Compliance – Operational • Select solution Define Requirements • Formal Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis Consider Perspectives • Stakeholders • Business Scope • Solution Scope Investigate the Situation • Initial Scope • Glossary Define Requirements • Solution Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Selected Solution Analyse Needs • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis • Workflows Model Business Processes • Components • Features Model Software Solutions The “TESCO” mnemonic is a great way to remember the different types of feasibility. Feasibility can sometimes become a “show-stopper”. For example it is often mandatory to comply with laws and regulations. Schedule feasibility should be considered before economic feasibility as it identifies some of the costs associated with the application. It is common to select a solution option based on its economic feasibility (cost-benefit).
  11. 11. Business Analysis Process Model © Lonsdale Systems 11 Define Requirements • List of guests – Surname 30 alphabetic – First name 30 alphabetic – Address 3 x 40 alphanumeric • List of reservations – Check in date DD/MM/YYYY – Check out date DD/MM/YYYY • Reservation details – Room type [Standard|Deluxe|Suite] – Number of guests 1 numeric – Check in date DD/MM/YYYY – Arrival flight number 10 alphanemeric ... Data Dictionary Solution Requirements Scenarios Define Requirements Analyse Needs • Formal Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility Analyse Needs • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis Consider Perspectives • Stakeholders • Business Scope • Solution Scope Investigate the Situation • Initial Scope • Glossary • Solution Requirements • Usage Scenarios • Data Dictionary Evaluate Options • Solution Options • Feasibility • Selected Solution • Strategic Needs • Information Requirements • Business Rules • Gap Analysis • Workflows Model Business Processes • Components • Features Model Software Solutions Formal requirements describe requirements from the perspective of the application. They are most often described using mandatory statements such as “The application must…”. Scenarios describe requirements from the perspective of the user of the application and applications that use its services. They are most often described using structured scenarios that define how the user (or application) will interact with the application. For example: 1. The user selects a transaction type 2. The application requests the transaction amount 3. … Data dictionaries provide a structured way of defining interface and storage requirements.
  12. 12. Business Analysis Process Model © Lonsdale Systems 12 Analyse Needs Investigate Situation Consider Perspectives Evaluate Options Define Requirements Backtracking and Iteration In practice, business analysis does not proceed smoothly through the five stages of the process model. Learning about a business area and the software applications that support it inevitably requires BAs to “backtrack” to previous stages of the process as they learn more. For example, some previously unknown stakeholders may be discovered during Analyse Needs. This would require a BA to backtrack to the Consider Perspectives stage and revise the Stakeholder Analysis (and possibly the Business Scope) to include the new stakeholder. While some degree of backtracking is inevitable, excessive backtracking can lead to inefficient repetition of work already performed (rework). In situations where very little is known about the business area and its applications, a planned iterative approach can provide a better approach.

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