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Foreword Dear Madam / Sir, I am deeply convinced that mutual learning and transnational co-operation, We present this although it requires an additional effort publication, which during our everyday activities, is of great sums up the three- benefit for the development of concepts year cooperation of and the improvement of practice. I hope European Member that the network’s effort will be continued State institutions in future years. managing programmes co-financed by the This publication has been put together byEuropean Social Fund. During this time a team of international experts coordinatedwe have shared our knowledge and by DIESIS. Samuel Barco Serrano,practice, and learnt from each other how to Gordon Hahn and Gianluca Pastorelli, witheffectively support the development of the invaluable assistance from Toby Johnsonsocial economy, to make it a modern and and Dorotea Daniele, wrote part 1 andinnovative tool for achieving the European edited part 2 on the basis of the work ofSocial Fund’s goals. the national BFSE experts: Sven Bartilsson (social franchising), Marek Jetmar (financialThis work is published in June 2012, at instruments), Floriana Nappini and Danielaa moment when policy on many of the Gatti (social added value), Krzysztof Herbstissues considered is still in the process and Mikołaj Gurdała (socially responsibleof formulation. For instance the legislative public procurement) and Bianca Buijs (stateframework for the 2014-2020 structural aid and social services of general interest).funds, the reform of public procurement,the modernisation of the state aid regime or I hope you will read it with interest and findthe European Social Entrepreneurship Fund in it inspiration for programming futurehave been drafted but are not yet definitive. European Social Fund interventions toWe have tried to use the latest documents improve social and economic cohesionand updated information, but the reader in your countries, regions and localshould be aware that changes could have environments.occurred meanwhile.I would like to express my thanks to thenetwork coordinators: Małgorzata Lublińskaand Monika Andrzejewska (Poland), Filip ^Kucera (Czech Republic), Adriana Cheber(Lombardy region, Italy), Anna-LenaWettergren Wessman and Bosse Olsson(Sweden) and Bianca Buijs (Flanders) as well Paweł Orłowskias the other European and member state Undersecretary of Stateofficials, social economy representatives and in the Ministry of Regional Developmentexperts who have contributed. Warsaw, June 2012 5
ContentsPart 1: The social economy and the 18 investment priorities of the ESFIntroduction 11Overall recommendations 13What is the social economy? 15What role should the social economy play in delivering the ESF’s 18investment priorities in 2014-2020? 19 Promoting employment and supporting labour mobility 21 Investing in education, skills and lifelong learning 31 Promoting social inclusion and combating poverty 37 Enhancing institutional and administrative capacities 47Chart of social economy needs from the ESF 52Part 2: Thematic recommendationsSocial franchising 57Financial instruments and mechanismsof fund allocation to social economy 63Measuring social added value 71Socially responsible public procurement and public social partnership 81State aids and social services of general interest 91List of abbreviations 98 7
IntroductionThe Better Future for the Social Economy 1. social franchising(BFSE) Network is a Learning Network 2.inancial instruments and fund allocation fpromoted by Managing Authorities of the mechanisms to social economyEuropean Social Fund, which exchanges 3. measuring social added valueknowledge and experiences and shares bestpractices, in order to foster the development 4. ocially responsible public procurement and sof the social economy within ESF operational public-social partnershipprogrammes. 5. Community law (state aid) and social services of general interest (SSGIs)The network is led by the Polish Ministry ofRegional Development in partnership with In each strand the members of the networkthe ESF Managing Authorities of Flanders have shared their knowledge and good(Belgium), Sweden, the Czech Republic practices, and taken part in peer reviews andand Lombardy Region (Italy). As well as learning seminars in order to understandthese core partners, other ESF Managing how Managing Authorities can betterAuthorities (namely England and Finland), support the development of social economypublic authorities, experts and social through the ESF.economy representatives at local, regional, The products of each strand’s worknational and European level are involved (good practices, recommendations, tools)in the network’s activities. The Network are available on the project web siteis funded by a grant from the European www.socialeconomy.plCommission for 2009-2012. This publication is the result of the commonOver the last three years the network work of the network partners and aims tohas worked together with partners and provide a set of recommendations on how tostakeholders in order to reach its objectives, support social economy through the Structuralnamely: Funds. The recommendations are based on I mproving the quality and efficiency of solutions already tested within the ESF or Structural Fund programmes and their other programmes in different Member States. impact on employment, social inclusion and training across Europe; The publication is dividedromoting support for social economy in P into two parts. participating Member States; Part 1 suggests what role the social economy dentifying, sharing and disseminating good I should play in the ESF’s investment practices regarding support measures, priorities for the forthcoming planning especially to countries where the social period 2014-2020. It identifies the main economy is less developed; challenges, the present European policy trends and the role of social eveloping EU policy and tools (vertical D economy for each thematic area mainstreaming). covered by the new ESF regulation.BFSE has worked on solutions for the social It also proposes, for each of theeconomy in five thematic strands focusing on: 18 investment priorities, concrete 11
examples of successful solutions We hope that this publication will be implemented by social economy interesting and useful for you and will organisations in different Member contribute to building a States. A few overall outstanding recommendations are proposed to BETTER FUTURE FOR Managing Authorities and policy- THE SOCIAL ECONOMY! makers at national and European level.Part 2 summarises the results of the work done in each thematic strand. Each chapter (one per strand) analyses the policy context and the current issues at European level, describes some good practices and proposes some recommendations on each specific theme.12
Overall recommendationsEuropean Social Fund support for the social Whenever possible they should be organisedeconomy should form part of an integrated into thematic programmes on issues suchstrategic approach which is designed, as socially responsible public procurement.implemented and assessed through Coherence of approach should bepartnerships. ensured through a dedicated department or structures for interdepartmental collaboration.1. A partnership framework 3. Use of the StructuralThese partnerships should suit the localcontext and should include the relevant Fundsactors in the territory concerned: the public The social economy can contribute to manyauthorities, social entrepreneurs themselves of the 11 Structural Fund thematic objectives(directly or through umbrella bodies), and and to all 18 of the European Social Fundalso researchers, funders, businesses, investment priorities. It is well known for itssupport organisations and advisers. innovative, well-targeted and sustainable approach. The examples given in this bookThe governance system should be based show how its potential can be maximised.on transparency, a pluralistic approach andrespect for the role of every actor.2. An integrated strategic approachThe policy framework should becomprehensive, ideally covering thefollowing issues:Institutions: egal forms, recognition of social economy actors, administrative bodies and proceduresKnowledge: research, education, awareness raising, etc.Business development: advice, training, mentoring, management development, access to larger markets etc.Finance: a sound financial ecosystem covering tax, grants, loans, guarantees, impact investment, financial engineering etc.Assessment: The partnership should develop an assessment system that includes process and other quality indicators. 13
What is the social economy?Like many key concepts in the economic differences are not an insurmountablefield, the definition of social economy is obstacle, not even the fact that in somecontroversial. As this report assesses the countries the concept (though not therelevance of social economy as a policy reality it represents) is unknown (or partiallyissue, it seeks to provide a definition which unknown to key actors in policy-making).serves the purposes of political actors, be Furthermore, the social economy representsthey public authorities or organisations a significant reality in the Europeanworking in the policy field. economy. Thus, according to the EuropeanThere are several definitions of what social Parliament own initiative report on Socialeconomy is, but we will use the one produced Economy it “represents 10% of all Europeanby one of the most active EU institutions in businesses, with 2 million undertakings orthis regard: the European Economic and 6% of total employment”. 2Social Committee. Its website says: Over the last few years, new concepts such as solidarity economy, social entrepren- The social economy sector covers a range of eurship, social enterprise, social business and concepts used in the various Member States even social business enterprise have grown such as “the solidarity economy” and “the third sector”. Beyond national differences up, whose exact meanings are perhaps regarding terminology and legal forms, even more fluid than that of social economy. social economy enterprises are all inspired They share the general thrust of seeking to by common values such as solidarity, social conceptualise and popularise better ways cohesion, the primacy of the individual over to use capital to satisfy human needs – on capital, social responsibility, democratic the one hand through grassroots citizen management and the fact that they are not involvement, and on the other hand through driven by profit and any profits are reinvested the reorientation of financial and business into the company and into society. structures. Social economy is therefore a different way of doing business, which continuously This is a tremendously positive development, associates the general interest, economic but does not in any way mean that the performance, social considerations and established forms of social economy democratic operation.1 organisation are outdated. As these processes of organisational innovation and hybridisation continue, the social economyThis definition brings out the three basic remains at the heart of delivering goods andideas of the social economy: it comprises services in ways which meet human andenterprises (economic actors), which pursue social needs.social as well as economic goals, and doso in a different way from other companies.Another relevant factor is that the socialeconomy has different realities dependingon the local and national context, and evenhas different names. Nevertheless, these1 http://www.eesc.europa.eu/?i=portal.en.social-economy-category2 http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P6-TA-2009-0062+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN 15
The Europeanpolicy frameworkIn fact, European social economy policy was called Third System and Employment, whichborn at a moment where in many countries was managed directly by the Commissionthis concept did not exist. The first milestone between 1997 and 2000. However theis the 1989 EC communication,3 along with most relevant policy in terms of resultsthe creation of the Social Economy Unit within was EQUAL, the Community InitiativeDG XXIII (the Directorate General for Small and against inequality and discrimination inMedium-sized Enterprises), which may have the labour market,5 which made socialbeen inspired by the renaissance of this concept economy a specific theme (2D) withinin the seventies in France. In the following years the entrepreneurship pillar. In this case itthere were many initiatives of institutionalisation must be highlighted that, though in manyand political recognition that favoured the countries (such as Spain) this theme wasintroduction of social economy as a policy not included in the national strategy, thereobject in the ESF initiatives in the nineties. were very numerous projects led by and/ or aimed at the social economy. With 424Although there is no “genuine European develop ent partnerships (DPs) involving mspecific policy with its own legal instruments”4 some 3,500 organisations, social economyin the area of entrepreneurship or social was the third most popular theme in EQUAL,economy, the most relevant issue in this and over six years attracted resources ofarea has been the promotion of the different some €600 m (an average budget perEuropean statutes (for co-operatives, DP €1.3 m). However its real impact wasmutuals, associations and foundations), but, much higher because the social economyafter a long period of stalemate, only the first showed its role as a social innovator inhas come into force (2003). Nevertheless, all other pillars (increasing employability,these actors have played a role in other areas encouraging inclusive entrepreneurship,such as the European Employment Strategy. facilitating adaptability, promoting genderThus, from the birth of the Luxembourg equality and integrating asylum seekers)process back in 1997, the social economy and took part in numerous developmentstarted to receive attention as a relevant partnerships in those pillars.vehicle. Within the ESF, social economyorganisations, as well as regularly using In the 2007-13 programming period the ESFESF programmes for training and capacity continued to support the social economy,building, achieved major results in terms of though this work has been less visible due to theinnovation and systemic support thanks to absence of a dedicated Community Initiative.the Community Initiatives Now, Horizon and Thus, the ESF has continued to promoteEuroform between 1990 and 1993 and Adapt transnational cooperation and mutualand Employment between 1995 and 2000. learning (the BFSE network is a good example of this) and has also built onThe social economy’s role in employment work and innovations from precedingwas further explored during a pilot action programmes. Thus we have seen some3 Businesses in the Social Economy Sector – Europe’s frontier-free market, SEC (89) 2187, 18.12.894 L earning for Change – A Better Future for the Social Economy baseline study. Available at: http://www.socialeconomy.pl/ x/566857?projekt=5313025 http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/equal_consolidated/16
operational programmes working on social social enterprises in the ERDF and one onfranchising, some Progress initiatives in promoting the social economy and socialthe area of socially responsible public enterprises in the ESF.8procurement, the continuation of workon lifelong learning initiatives for socialeconomy organisations in Spain, andseveral other examples that will be Social economyaddressed in this publication. and the public sectorFurthermore, it is worth mentioning This prefigures what is shown in this publication,other new initiatives such as the Social that the social economy is a very suitable vehicleBusiness Initiative,6 which represents a for promoting employment, inclusion and entrepreneurship, and it has proven its role inmore integrated attempt to promote social producing more sustainable local, regional andentrepreneurship. It saw the light in October national economic systems. Not only this, but it is2011 after intense preparatory work which also one of the best partners for social innovationinvolved workshops and an opinion of the in many policy areas. This could be summarised inEuropean Economic and Social Committee. the first article of the Toia report:9This new initiative raised much interestfrom the social economy sector since it “Points out that the social economy playsaddresses several key challenges such as: an essential role in the European economy, by combining profitability with solidarity, creating high-quality jobs, strengthening an integrated policy approach social, economic and regional cohesion, the legal framework generating social capital, promoting active access to funding citizenship, solidarity and a type of economy visibility and awareness raising with democratic values which puts people networking first, in addition to supporting sustainable development and social, environmental andAmong the 11 key actions the Commission technological innovation.”proposes: “that an investment priority for ‘social All these capabilities have been tested in enterprises’ be expressly introduced in the close collaboration with public authorities, ERDF and ESF regulations from 2014 in order enhancing the sustainability of the solutions to provide a clear legal basis and enable thanks to their different corporate forms. the Member States and regions to include On the other hand public authorities have targeted activities in their ESF and ERDF programmes for 2014-2020”.7 responded to this by improving the legal framework, for example introducing newUnder the common thematic objective of legal forms such as the social co-operativepromoting social inclusion and combating model. This model was born in 199110poverty the subsequent draft regulations in Italy and immediately improved bothinclude an investment priority on support for social entrepreneurs’ access to funding, governance models, legal security, hybrid6 http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/social_business/index_en.htm7 Social Business Initiative. Creating a favourable climate for social enterprises, key stakeholders in the social economy and innovation, 25.10.2011. COM(2011) 6828 Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the European Social Fund and repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 1081/2006, Brussels, 14.3.2012 COM(2011) 607 final /29 European Parliament resolution of 19 February 2009 on Social Economy (2008/2250(INI)). 17
models of resources, etc; and the capacity t is close to the people and their problems; iof local authorities to find innovative local t is flexible and can combine multiple iways to meet emerging social needs in the resources, such as grants, contracts, sales,area of local welfare systems. As a result, volunteer time and commitment, to producemore than 7,000 social co-operatives were multiple benefits for multiple stakeholders;born and this legal innovation has been t has an honourable history of being the itransferred to several countries. first to come up with solutions to social problems, which are then taken up by theBut the response of public authorities state (examples can be found in manyhas not been only in the area of the legal countries such as the Barka Foundation inframework. The social economy has become Poland, charities in the UK and Wohlfahrts-a key actor in the partnership approach to verbände in Germany);local development and led, for example, he surplus stays in the community and is tto the creation of the first international reinvested;organisation focused on partnership more t is open to excluded people (principle of ithan 15 years ago: the REVES Network.11 open and voluntary membership) and has aFurthermore, there are relevant examples history of caring about excluded groups;of comprehensive partnerships such as the ts basis of mutual trust means that it sup- iGlobal Compact and the Social Enterprise ports development;Strategy (UK), the Andalusian Pact for t is mutually supportive – co-operatives iSocial Economy (Spain), the Małopolska help each other to grow. They do thisone (Poland) and the Public-Social Partner through creating secondary/federal struc-ships (Scotland). In all of them, public tures which are democratically controlled byauthorities have recognised the relevance of their member co-operatives, as shown bythe social economy within their own power the success of CGM Gruppo Cooperativo12and competences. These partnerships and Corporación Mondragón.13have mobilised public and private fundsbut also intangible resources such as All of this makes the social economy a firstknowledge, social capital and legitimacy. level partner for the Europe 2020 strategy inThey have addressed issues such as all its pillars and all the more in the cohesionsocial and technoogical innovation, public l policy for the next programming period.procurement, rural development, organicproduction, social inclusion and promotingentrepreneurship in all levels of education.The social economy has been able todeliver on all these issues, at the sametime addressing other pressing challenges,because it benefits from a seriesof features such as:10 Law N. 381/91 of 8 November 1991, “Regulation of social co-operativesco-operativeco-operative”11 http//www.revesnetwork.eu12 C GM is the main and oldest Italian consortium of social cooperatives associating more than 1,000 social co-operatives and over 45,000 workers (72% women) all over Italy – http://www.consorziocgm.org/.13 M CC (Mondragón Corporación Cooperativa) is the best-known co-operative group, and has been operating in the Basque region in different sectors (industry, finance, distribution and knowledge) since 1956. It has a turnover of almost €14 billion (2010) and employs almost 84,000 workers – http://www.mondragon-corporation.com/.18
What role should the social economyplay in delivering the ESF’s 18 investmentpriorities in 2014-2020?As we have seen, the European Union has investment priority is devoted to thebeen developing a policy on the social development of the social economy andeconomy for several decades. This form of social enterprises. Nevertheless, as isentrepreneurship was very soon identified already the case, social economy can andas a relevant instrument for achieving should also play a role in the other priorities.complex goals and addressing problematicchallenges. Its qualities also made it a very The following sections, and theirsuitable instrument for employment and social accompanying examples, show how apolicies, and it has long been a partner in ESF better use can be made of ESF fundsprogrammes. All this previous work can now in collaboration with social economybe exploited in the new programming period, companies and organisations.and specifically in the implementation of ESFprogrammes and projects. For each thematic objective, we delineate the problem to tackle, provide some figuresAccording to the proposed new regulation:14 showing the situation in the EU as a whole and in some countries, and indicate the the ESF shall promote high levels of main EU policies and documents. We employment and job quality, support the also provide examples of how the social geographical and occupational mobility economy contributes and can contribute to of workers, facilitate their adaptation to delivering each investment priority. change, encourage a high level of education and training, promote gender equality, equal opportunities and non-discrimination, enhance social inclusion and combat poverty, thereby contributing to the priorities of the European Union as regards strengthening economic, social and territorial cohesion. It shall do so by supporting Member States in pursuing the priorities and headline targets of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth.The new regulation identifies four thematicobjectives and, for each of them, severalinvestment priorities – 18 in all. A specific14 Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the European Social Fund and repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 1081/2006, Brussels, 14.3.2012 COM(2011) 607 final /2 19
Promoting employment andsupporting labour mobility What is the challenge? EU policy in this area There is not much more that can be said on The main reference for Europe’s the imposing challenges for the European employment policy is the European Union in terms of employment. Eurostat Employment Strategy, based on estimates that currently 24.5 million men the Open Method of Coordination, and women in the EU27 are unemployed – which consists of a framework for EU 10.8% of the labour force. More worryingly, countries to share information, and this is a growing trend, since these figures discuss and coordinate their employment have been increasing every month for the policies.15 The EES is one of the policy last year. instruments to achieve the Europe 2020 goals. The National Reform Programmes In the case of the younger generation the (NRPs) within this EES, which describe situation is even more dramatic: in February the employment policies of the Member 2012, 5.5 million young persons (under 25) States, are analysed by the Commission for were unemployed in the EU27, of whom 3.3 compliance with the Europe 2020 targets million were in the euro area. Compared and flagship initiatives. with February 2011, youth unemployment increased by 262,000 in the EU27 and Funding instruments at EU level include by 106,000 in the euro area. In the same the Progress programme, the European month, the youth unemployment rate Social Fund and the European Globalisation reached 22.4% in the EU27 and 21.6% in the Adjustment Fund (EGF). In the current euro area, growing from 21.0% and 20.5% proposal for the EU’s regional, employment respectively the year before. and social policy for 2014-2020, there is a But these figures hide some enormous new programme: the Programme for Social differences among the regions, where Change and Innovation (PSCI). This is to be we can find some with only 3% total managed directly by the Commission, and unemployment and others with well over will incorporate three existing programmes: 30%, and examples ranging from 5% to Progress (Programme for Employment 60% in young unemployment. This is highly and Social Solidarity), EURES (European pertinent for the ESF since this tool has Employment Services) and the European shown its capacity to adapt to different Progress Microfinance Facility and extend local and regional realities providing a very their coverage – notably by allocating flexible tool for social innovation. €95.5 m for investment in social enterprises.1615 h ttp://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=101langId=en16 h ttp://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?langId=encatId=89newsId=1093 21
More specifically, in the area of self- the European Regional Development employment, entrepreneurship and business Fund, which supports entrepreneurshipcreation, the European Social Fund (ESF) via INTERREG projects includingpromotes entrepreneurship through financial ENSPIRE.EU, Senior Enterprise and YESand business support services. Also, he JEREMIE and JASMINE initiatives in the ttargeted support is provided to women area of micro-credit and credit for SMEs.entrepreneurs and disadvantaged anddisabled people. Furthermore, it is worth mentioning that the Social Business Initiative includes anOther relevant measures of the ESF are the initiative to set up a new “European Sociallearning networks. Apart from BFSE, it is Entrepreneurship Fund” label, so thatworth mentioning: investors can easily identify funds that focus on investing in European social businesses. the Community of Practice on Inclusive Entrepreneurship (COPIE) opening up There are other policy lines which could be entrepreneurship to all parts of society of interest such as the one on “exploiting the European Network on Youth the employment potential of personal and Employment exchanging best practices household services”. The social economy has on youth entrepreneurship traditionally played a role here, even a central role in shaping the so-called fourth pillarSpecific funding instruments in this area are: of the welfare state, where it has been the leading actor in social innovation in this area. the European Progress Microfinance Facility, which helps stimulate self- Finally we should mention the continuous employment and the creation of micro- commitment of EU policy towards the enterprises development of the social economy, as we22
can see in the Commission communication A more business-like approach canTowards a job-rich recovery17 which states: increase the sustainability of projects by obliging promoters to plan at the start Social economy actors and social enterprises ways to balance the books. are important drivers of inclusive job creation and social innovation and require Vulnerable groups are also suffering more specific support, including through public from the crisis. The social economy has a procurement and access to finance. proven record in addressing this. Apart from this, the social economy offersThe role of social economy a series of features which give it a highly relevant role in tackling the complexThe current situation poses many and very problems mentioned.complex challenges. Among the mostpressing – and the most suitable to be For instance, local employment initiativesaddressed by social economy policies are vital because increased mobility cannot– are the following: absorb the enormous regional disparities that are opening up. In local development Quality of employment: in many actions, the social economy has shown countries we have seen how sustainability, its ability to produce wealth by mobilising salaries, working conditions, etc. endogenous resources (both tangible and are worsening rapidly. The social intangible) even in areas where external economy provides for higher levels investment has been non-existent. Moreover in most of them. this wealth is more evenly distributed, given the principle of avoiding (or minimising) the Differences among regions and countries distribution of profit to shareholders. are growing, but that does not mean that these (countries and regions) are The current crisis has proven again that not interdependent, so deterioration social economy enterprises are highly in one place will end up affecting the resilient companies in term of maintaining other places. The social economy employment in times of crisis. There are is a recognised key actor in local several well-known examples that show development. how some co-operative groups such as Mondragón or CGM develop supportive Due to credit difficulties and austerity strategies to maintain employment in such measures investment is scarce, and times. Also, social economy companies therefore we need to improve the have traditionally shown more internal employment creation efficiency of flexibility. Workers can choose to reduce/ investment. The social economy is one postpone wages when times are hard, of the best actors in producing more and/or transfer workers to other and better employment with less initial enterprises in social economy groupings, investment. thus reducing layoffs.17 COM(2012) 173 final, 18 April 2012 23
They offer easier access to entrepreneurshipfor people with little access to external Investment priority 1:investment, as for example the coopératives Access to employmentd’activité in France have shown. for job-seekers andFinally, the current climate of increasing inactive people includingretirement ages makes job quality and local employmentresilience to lay-outs even more important. initiatives and supportOther factors that make the social economy for labour mobilityrelevant to these priorities are: Empowerment: as it is based on Clean green jobs for the mostindividuals rather than capital, has open disadvantagedand voluntary membership and insists Catalyst Pluss (UK) sprang out of Pluss,on democratic voting, it promotes active a social enterprise employing some 500citizenship, empowers people, and is by its people, half of them disabled, owned bynature inclusive; a number of local authorities in southwest England. It uses the social enterprise Entrepreneurial biodiversity: an economy model as a vehicle to enable those mostis healthier and more sustainable if it is disadvantaged in the labour market tomade up of a variety of corporate types; gain access to paid employment, work experience and training. The ESF-funded Gender equality: social economy project supports the setting up of new socialorganisations not only employ a high enterprises, enabling those not in workproportion of women, but also give them to develop and have control of their ownaccess to management positions and business or to gain other work or training.promote female entrepreneurship. From The support is intended to create viablethe point of view of reconciliation between employee-led enterprises that employ thework and private life they are more prone to most disadvantaged people. Since Apriladapt working times to suit workers’ private 2010, Catalyst Pluss has created around 20commitments; paid jobs in washing cars, charity shops, online shops and grounds maintenance. Social economy organisations, owing totheir multistakeholder governance structure, The eco-friendly hand car-washingare more likely to address and satisfy the enterprise, Future Clean, was set up inneeds of multiple stakeholders. partnership with a private company, 2G, and inspired on the German model used by Nordberliner Werkgemeinschaft. It has proved to be very successful providing employment opportunities and attracting interest nationally and internationally. Future Clean works in partnership with local authorities and operates from local authority controlled city-centre car parks. It has created about 40 jobs for people with moderate to severe learning difficulties,24
complex mental health issues and multiple Levanto provides work placements andphysical disabilities. training for around 50 young people a year, at a cost of €47,500. The young people workCatalyst Pluss has been refining the model part-time in places like nursing homes, afor Future Clean and has introduced wholefood shop, Mechelen football club,working interviews for the recruitment of Planckendael zoo or the youth hostel. Thestaff and has adopted the intermediate project has a success rate of 94% comparedlabour market model for its employees. with the 80% achieved by the city itself. AEmployees are issued with a temporary further nine students have found work in thecontract of employment and during their context of the Social Maribel (a reductionperiod of employment they are assisted in social security contributions for new jobswith job seeking activities to enable them to created in the non-profit sector).move into external employment. This modelis now being formalised into a traineeship De Ploeg finds work for 21 youngsters aprogramme that will see employees issued year, and in return for receives a paymentwith a contract for 21 hours per week for six of €21,000. It has 13 partners offeringmonths which will include in-work training part-time jobs to young people, such as theand help to find external employment. Nekker sports centre, Prisma multicultural integration centre, nursing homes andhttp://www.esf-works.com/projects/short- kindergartens. Even young people withreviews/projects/401140 specific problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Investment priority 2: unaccompanied refugees may find an Sustainable integration opportunity at De Ploeg. of young people not in www.deploeg.be, www.levanto.be employment, education or training into the labour Investment priority 3: market Self-employment, entrepreneurship andFlanders bridges the gap business creationbetween school anda proper job A test bed for new businessesThe Flemish city of Mechelen is working An activity co-operative is a launch pad, awith two social economy companies to business incubator that provides buddingenable youngsters to combine part-time business people with an easy transition fromeducation with employment. The evaluation inactivity to self-employment. It providesof De Ploeg and Levanto shows that giving entrepreneurs with financial and legal coveryoungsters the chance to combine their during the trial business period. Intendingtraining with appropriate work experience entre reneurs benefit from a safe legal pmeans they are better equipped to status and an income guarantee as thefind a job, and can avoid prolonged business builds up, as well as peer supportunemployment. (but not necessarily premises). They pass through three stages: 25
1. First, they remain technically unemployed Investment priority 4:but develop their business idea under thewing of the activity co-operative; Equality between men and women and2. Next, if it looks like being a success, they reconciliation betweenbecome a ‘salaried entrepreneur’ with thesecurity of a part-time employment contract; work and private life3. Finally they become a self-sufficientbusiness, sharing in the ownership and Child care co-operativesmanagement of the co-operative. all over EuropeThe structure thus provides the small The existence of child care structures is anbusiness person with the best of both important pre-condition to ensure equalityworlds – control over their working life, but between men and women and reconciliationwith the support of a group of people who of private and professional life.are facing the same problems and want topool their enthusiasm and expertise. It helps In Italy, the major consortia of socialto overcome one of the most discouraging co-operatives together with one of thefeatures of becoming self-employed – the major national banks created in 2004isolation. Activity co-operative clients are in PAN consortium. PAN develops servicesall sorts of activities from cookery, industrial for children through the social enterprisecleaning, furniture restoration and organic formula, an entrepreneurial form coherenthorti ulture to violin making, jewellery, c with the ‘public’ purpose of these services.translation and web design. Local governments responsible for the administration of child care services andActivity co-operatives are operating in families or private/public companiesaround 100 locations across France, interested in creating “companyand there are eight in Belgium as well as nurseries” are also playing an importantexamples in Sweden, Morocco and Quebec. role as partners.At any one time, they are supporting around PAN offers planning, start-up assistance and3,500 nascent enterprises. loans to organisations and people interested in establishing new types of services forhttp://www.apce.com/pid648/cooperatives- children in the form of social enterprises.activites.html A guaranteed quality trademark is given to all social enterprises members of PAN with quality check tools. PAN also helps families with personal loans focused on making the access to early childhood services less expensive. In just four years, PAN has successfully built 150 new infant schools with 4,500 available places and more than 1,000 new jobs. Nowadays there are in Italy more than 400 day nursery centres which take care26
of about 12,000 children and employ more Investment priority 5:than 3,000 people. Adaptation of workers,www.consorziopan.it enterprises and entrepreneurs to changeIn Andalusia there is a tripartite programmewhere Municipalities offer buildings and/or surface to a co-operative to build a Equipping managerskindergarten and the regional governmentsigns an agreement to cover some public to meet new needsplaces in the school. Social entrepreneurs Adaptation to change is a key challengehave to build the building and they receive for most enterprises and so it is for thetechnical support from CEPES-Andalucia for social economy. In the case of Andalusia,the design and development of the project. one key line of development has been theThere exist also some agreements with role of leadership. This is a role that cannotsome regional financial institutions (banks). be addressed in the same way as withinAll childhood schools are in rural areas. profit-maximising, individualistic enterprises. The sector and the government realised thehttp://escuelasinfantiles.innoves.es/ need to set up a highly innovative instrumentescuelas/?q=node/37 to address the multifaceted nature of leadership and change in social economySweden is faced with sparsely populated organisations. This is how the Andalusianareas where public services are increasingly School of Social Economy was born indisappearing. Long distances to childcare 2002. It is a top-level education institutionmake the work-life balance unsustainable. managed by a foundation set up byOne example where this was prevented was CEPES-Andalucía (the umbrella organisationin the village of Brännberg in the north of representing the social economy in thisSweden. The public preschool was closed Spanish region) and FAECTA (the regionaldue to a small number of children. The federation of workers’ co-operatives) andparents in the village decided to create a funded by the regional government. Itsparent co-operative, and thereby avoid the headquarters is a restored 17th centurydaily extra travelling to take the children convent in Osuna, in the centre of Andalusia,to daycare in a neighbour village. Parent where it can accommodate more thanco-operatives are owned and managed by 25 people. In its more than 12 years ofthe parents of the children on the daycare history it has set up a range of trainingcentre. The parents are responsible for programmes:the management of the daycare centres,although hired staff account for most of IDES for Senior Managers (FIDES Fthe daily work. The parents are involved in Directivos y Directivas): an MBA-typethe board, economy, maintenance etc. In programme to prepare senior managersthis way the parents have the possibility to and officials to respond to the changingensure participation, influence, and safety conditions in society.when leaving their kids in childcare. FIDES Entrepreneurs (FIDES Emprende): www.kfo.se, www.coompanion.se for start-up social entrepreneurs, paying special attention to collective entrepreneurship. 27
FIDES tutors (FIDES Tutor) to train alumni Welfare Italia Servizi is a social enterprise from ‘FIDES for senior managers’, as created in 2009 by the CGM Consortium, coaches and teachers. It also serves to Intesa Sanpaolo and Banco Popolare, to keep the school in contact with its alumni. propose an innovative model of welfare in the health services. Welfare Italia is a FIDES leaders (FIDES Rector) aimed at network of medical and dental practices leaders of organisations representing offering high-quality services at affordable social economy in Andalusia. The prices. Welfare Italia is organised through speakers are first-level figures in the a franchising system based on values subject such as former prime ministers, such as the central role of the person and leading journalists, top officials both the family, a welcoming environment, and national and from other countries, etc. paying special attention to people in difficult Social Economy and Care (FIDES situations. Welfare Italia has so far opened Economía Social y Dependencia): 12 clinics in different parts of Italy. an MBA-type programme for senior managers of social enterprises in the www.welfareitalia.eu social and health care sector.http://www.escueladeeconomiasocial.es/ investment Priority 7: Modernisation and investment Priority 6: strengthening of labour Active and healthy ageing market institutions, including actions toTackling the challenges of enhance transnational labour mobilitythe new welfareIn Italy, Legacoop has recently launched anintersectoral project on health, responding Going abroad for newto demographic changes and new needs ofthe population (active and healthy ageing, business ideasnew models of care services). The project In 2009 the European Commission launchedaims to create a network among the various Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs, anactors in the co-operative and mutual exchange programme that helps newsectors in order to integrate the supply of entrepreneurs to acquire relevant skills forcare and health services. Collaboration with managing a small or medium-sized enterprisethe public sector is crucial to the reform of by spending time (1 to 6 months) in anthe welfare system. Cooperation among enterprise managed by an experiencedthe different actors will promote more entrepreneur in another European country.efficient services and a new culture of a The co-operative movement participatedsustainable welfare system based on “fewer in the programme with the consortiumhospitals – more prevention, home care and COOPERASMUS, led by Cooperativesmanagement of chronic diseases”. Europe and involving partners from 6 European countries. Co-operative umbrellahttp://www.legacoop.it/VisualizzaPagina. organisations from UK, IT, SE, BG, BE andaspx?idpagina=123 ES have been selected as intermediaries28
to help new and host entrepreneurs to get Thirdly, it constituted a great chance to fosterin contact and to assist them during the the creation of new co-operative businessesrelationship. The programme was a great and to enable co-operatives to gain anopportunity for the co-operative movement. international dimension. The members of theFirstly, this project responded to a need which CoopErasmus consortium collected someco-operative businesses have expressed 100 applications and succeeded in organisingseveral times in the past: new entrepreneurs/ 20 successful relationships and one failedco-operators, especially in the start-up relationships, involving 22 entrepreneurs.phase, need to exchange experience withexperienced entrepreneurs. Secondly, it was http://ns39179.ovh.net/~coopsue/spip.another official recognition of co-operatives php?article753as key actors in the current market context. 29
Investing in education, skillsand lifelong learningWhat is the challenge? to upgrade the skills and competences of the workforce.Education and training has always been a Nevertheless, figures for early school leavingprimary policy goal in the European Union, in the EU remain high: over 14% (over 15.5%but in the current situation of crisis and for the euro area) of the population agedausterity measures this objective is even 18-24 have at most lower secondarymore relevant. Sometimes the short-termism education and are not in further educationbrought on by the crisis situation makes it or training (2010).more difficult to align the key actors behindthese long-term, structural objectives. In relation to lifelong learning the situation is worsening rapidly: in 2010, the proportion ofFurthermore, in an era characterised by persons aged 25 to 64 in the EU receiving“liquidity”, or rapid changes in paradigms some form of education or training in the fourand in solid references, the tools provided weeks preceding the labour force survey wasby solid education and training play an 9.1%; a share that was 0.7 percentage pointseven more necessary role, as the joint lower than the corresponding share for 2005,progress report of the Council and the which makes it more difficult to achieve theCommission on the “Education Training 2020 goal of 15%.2010” work programme18 acknowledges.However, education is not only a tool Nevertheless, here again figures are veryfor employment but also a factor of full different depending on the country, varyingparticipation in society and this is something from 1.3% in Romania and 3% in Greece tothe social economy understood from the 32.8% in Denmark.very beginning, as the fifth of the RochdalePrinciples (or Co-operative Principles) states: Finally, as the Commission states, it is worthco-operative societies provide education and noting that “the EU has around 80 milliontraining to their members and the public.19 people with low or basic skills – benefitingOn the other hand, the crisis and rising less from lifelong learning than moreunemployment can favour a return to school educated people”.and a reduction in school dropouts, andtherefore there is also an opportunity thatshould be seized. However this depends ona reversal of the worsening conditions in thelabour market (in terms of less job securityfor example) which may affect the capacity18 Key competences for a changing world, Official Journal C 117 of 6 May 2010.19 he Rochdale Principles are a set of ideals for the operation of co-operatives. They were first set out by the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pio- T neers in Rochdale, England, in 1844, and have formed the basis for the principles on which co-operatives around the world operate to this day. 31
Chart 1: ercentage of the population aged 18-24 with at most lower secondary education and not in P education or training (2009) and trend 2000-2009 (% relative change) 3.9 Croatia -51.3 Benchmark 2010 + 2020 4.9 Slovakia -26.9 5.3 Slovenia -17.2 5.3 Poland -28.4 5.4 Czech Republic -5.3 7.7 Luxembourg -54.2 8.7 Austria -14.7 8.7 Lithuania -47.3 9.9 Finland 10.0 10.6 Denmark -9.4 10.7 Sweden 46.6 10.9 Netherlands -29.2 11.1 Belgium -19.6 11.1 Germany -24.0 11.2 Hungary -19.4 11.3 Ireland -22.6 11.7 Cyprus -36.8 12.3 France -7.5 13.9 Estonia -7.9 13.9 Latvia -17.8 14.4 EU-27 -18.2 14.5 Greece -20.3 14.7 Bulgaria -28.3 15.7 United Kingdom -13.7 16.2 MK (:) 16.6 Romania -27.5 17.6 Norway 36.4 19.2 Italia -23.5 21.4 Iceland -28.2 31.2 Spain 7.2 31.2 Portugal -28.4 36.8 Malta -32.1 44.3 Turkey -25.3 (:) Liechtenstein (:)50 40 30 20 10 0 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 EU policy in this area and Inclusive Growth that of “helping people of all ages anticipate and manage change through investment in skills training”. In relation to EU policy the main reference is the strategic framework for European As we have already pointed out, this is a cooperation in education and training policy issue with a long-standing history in (ET 2020) which sets out the long-term the European Union. This can be seen in the strategic objectives of EU education and existence of several programmes (some with training policies: an outstanding tradition such as Leonardo, Youth, Erasmus, etc.). The two flagship making lifelong learning and mobility a initiatives of the Europe 2020 strategy in the reality area of education and training are “Youth on improving the quality and efficiency of the move” and the “Agenda for new skills education and training and jobs”. promoting equity, social cohesion and active citizenship Finally, in many European countries the enhancing creativity and innovation, social economy has taken initiatives in including entrepreneurship, at all levels of training and education. Some of them are education and training. quoted in the good practices included in this As for the relation of these policies within document, such as the intersectoral plans the Europe 2020 strategy, the Smart Growth for the social economy in Spain, which have priority includes the aim of “encouraging been active for more than a decade now. people to learn, study and update their skills”32
The role of the social participation (as for examples Mondragón University in the Basque Country or Floridaeconomy Co-operative Group in Valencia21).In relation to upgrading the skills and Investment priority 8:competences of the workforce, socialeconomy companies are widely recognised Reducing early school-as sustainable vehicles for workers and leaving and promotingentre reneurs. This is for several reasons: p equal access to good- As people-centred organisations they quality early-childhood, tend to allocate more resources to their primary and secondary development; education They develop several strategies to make employment sustainable, which is the basis for any strategy to upgrade skills Entrepreneurship education and competences; Many co-operatives include even in their provides instructions for life legal obligations a minimum allocation to Mainland Finland’s ESF operational programme education and training. for 2007-13 totals €1.4 bn, of which €544.5 m to the national programme. This is mostly madeThe issue of early childhood education is up of 23 ‘national development programmes’.closely related to access to employment for These support clusters of projects pursuingwomen and the reconciliation of professional strategic objectives, and one of these is forand personal life. The social economy has entrepreneurship education. This makesplayed a key role in countries where the Finland almost unique in using ESF funds forwelfare system does not provide a public education purposes.solution for this issue, such as Spain or Italy.In these countries the social economy is a The €8 m National Development Programmekey actor in childcare, especially in areas Driving Change through Entrepreneurialwhich are under-served by the public and Education and Competence is managed by theprivate sectors, as we can see in some Finnish National Board of Education (FNBE).of the examples included here. The EU is It is an ambitious programme with 85% ESFpaying growing attention to this stage of funding, and fits perfectly into national policy.education20 and its role in tackling social and It contains 7 projects, whose goals are to:cultural inequalities. develop teachers’ and head teacher’s In relation to tertiary education, the social competence in enterprise educationeconomy is playing an increasing role create regional networks in promoting entrepreneurship, in post- build learning pathways (primary to higher graduate education and in some countries education)has even set up universities and equivalent develop learning environments teaching education institutes as a way of increasing resources20 http://ec.europa.eu/education/school-education/childhood_en.htm21 his is a co-operative group born in the first half of the 1970s that now runs several educational institutions and has demanded the regional T government’s approval to set up its own university. 33
The programme’s rationale is that degrees can open up access to post-entrepreneurship education and graduate education for potential socialentrepreneurial skills provide young people entrepreneurs. As a result, this type ofwith the resources to cope in a world programme has a longstanding traditionof continuous change and ever greater and they are present throughout the country.complexity. In addition, these projects highlight In Spain there are three different types ofcreative and innovative aspects, alongside the masters degree:willingness to take risks in education, as wellas the ability to plan and manage activities in Those taught by universities such as order to achieve one’s goals. the Master in Social Economy at the universities of Valencia or BarcelonaThe long-term effects of the projects enhance Those taught by social economy growth, competitiveness, productivity and organisations (universities or not) such asfinding employment. As a country with a those from Mondragón University or thewelfare system, it is important to Finland that Andalusian School of Social Economyits young people view entrepreneurship as a Those taught by other types of tertiary valued career option. It is also vital that they education institutions not directly relatedparticipate in creating new entrepreneurship to the social economy, such as businessopportunities and business activity for Finland. schools like ESADE or EOI (both among the four best business schools in Spain)The experience is transferable as all or university institutes such as IGOP inFinland’s ESF operational programmes have Catalunya.an objective for teacher training, and thiscan be used for enterprise education. In Italy several universities deliver MBA- type programmes, often in cooperation withhttp://www.rakennerahastot.fi/rakennerahastot/ social economy umbrella organisations.tiedostot/esitteet/TEM_National_Development_ Often co-funded by the ESF, they focusProgrammes_lores.pdf either on management of non-profit and third sector organisations or on co-operative studies. Social economy companies offer Investment priority 9: internships for trainees. Improving the quality, In Poland several universities use the ESF efficiency and openness of to fund post-graduate courses on social tertiary and equivalent economy, namely Warsaw University education with a view to (Institute of Social Policy), Wrocław University (Institute of Political Studies), increasing participation Kraków University (Małopolska School and attainment levels of Administration). There are also some courses not connected with the ESF, such as those offered by Lublin UniversityMasters degrees in the (Maria Skłodowska-Curie University) and Bydgoszcz Higher School of Economy.social economySpanish policy for social economy hasalways paid attention to knowledge-relatedmeasures and it has realised that masters34
Investment priority 10: These are special plans exclusively for workers in social economy organisations Enhancing access to and enterprises. The national programme lifelong learning, is co-funded by the ESF (it represents upgrading the skills less than 8% of the total funding) within the Multiregional Operational Programme and competences of the (Adaptability and Employment) and so workforce and increasing are the regional plans. They are managed the labour market in partnership, with the national and relevance of education regional umbrella organisations sharing and training systems the management and even providing part of the training either themselves or through specialised social economy enterprises. In 2011 the budget for all national intersectoralTraining in partnership plans was €44.9 m, of which €7.3 m wentOn the one hand, lifelong learning plays to the social economy ones. A similara key role in the social economy. On the amount is allocated to the regional plans.other hand, the social economy has long The national Intersectoral Plans for Socialbeen accepted as a strategic sector for the Economy trained 20,371 people for 908,000Spanish economy, so one would expect to training hours.find specific measures for it in the nationalplan for lifelong learning. The public http://www.fundaciontripartita.org/orientacion/ planes_de_formacion_financiados_economia_authorities have included the Intersectoral social.htmPlans for the Social Economy within it. 35
Promoting social inclusionand combating PovertyWhat is the challenge? These have been affected in many countries by severe cuts in public spending as theAccording to the Joint Report by the Commission states:Commission and the Council on Social SSGIs in all Member States have comeInclusion, social exclusion is: under serious pressures as a result of the economic and public budget crisis. … a process whereby certain individuals are pushed to the edge of society and prevented from The contracting economy has led to participating fully by virtue of their poverty, or the growth of the need and demand lack of basic competencies and lifelong learning for social services and, at the same opportunities, or as a result of discrimination. time, has significantly constrained the This distances them from job, income and financing basis in public budgets.23 education opportunities as well as social and community networks and activities. They have little access to power and decision-making People at-risk-of-poverty or social exclusion % bodies and thus often feel powerless and unable and 1000 persons to take control over the decisions that affect 1000 persons their day to day lives.22 120 kThe crisis is producing a sharp rise in 110 kinequalities in Europe as the daily lives 100 kof many social entrepreneurs attest.This deterioration can be seen in several 90 kindicators, such as the Gini coefficient (see 80 kbelow), growing financial exclusion and over-indebtedness, and the increasing social and 70 kpolitical exclusion of vulnerable groups such 60 kas the Roma and migrant communities. 50 kThese trends are challenging the basis of the 40 kwelfare state in some EU countries and theyaffect the social fabric of many communities. 30 kNevertheless, we should not only consider 20 kthis to be a conjunctural issue. There were 10 kother negative trends prior to the crisis whichare also a major concern, such as in-work 0 EU (27 countries) Euro areapoverty (see below). geoFurthermore, the austerity measures are also 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010posing a major challenge for social services. Source of Data: Eurostat22 Joint report by the Commission and the Council on social inclusion. 7101/04, 5 March 200423 Second biennial report on social services of general interest. Commission staff working document. SEC(2010) 1284 final, 22 October 2010 37
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