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STUDY AND VISUALIZATION OF THE CONCENTRATION DEPENDENCE ON THE REFRACTIVE INDEX OF LIQUIDS
Department of Physical Sciences Faculty of Science and Technology Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT) 2006 STUDY AND VISUALIZE THE CONCENTRATION DEPENDENCE OF REFRACTIVE INDEX OF THE LIQUIDS NORENAFIDAH BINTI MAT TARMIDI UK10775 Bc. of Applied Science (Physics Electronics & Instrumentation)
Laser based measurement have been found in early 1900 indirectly by Albert Einstein during the research of photoelectric effects and until now, its application still growth. The main objective in this project is to study the dependence of refractive index (RI) on the concentration by laser based measurement. Low power laser pointer with the output of 1mW and the wavelength of 630 to 670nm are employed as a light source. The phenomenon of refraction occurs when a monochromatic laser light source passed through the prism which full with liquids. In this study two types of liquids consist of sugar and salt solution were utilized as a sample. Generally, refraction happened when the source light travel through two different medium like air and sugar water because of the slightly change of speed of light. Hence, the output of light from the second medium were refracted far away from the normal line and it is called the index of refraction, n where can be determined by using Snell’s. The concentration of these liquids were carried is from 5% to 65%. The RI value for both sample are proportional with its concentrations. The experimental value than has been compared with literature value. The differences are 1.5% for sugar and 5% for salt. Then, based on our experimental set up, we developed an interactive ‘Easy_GUI’ language to determine the RI value for the future accessibility.
<ul><li>To study the basic properties of refraction and its interaction with matter using a laser. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate and develop laser-based system for measurement, diagnostic and visualization. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the unique characteristics of laser-generated light to develop a technique to measure the concentration of liquids. </li></ul><ul><li>To create new programming for determine the index refraction using Graphical User Interface (GUI). </li></ul><ul><li>Using the Graphical User Interface (GUI) to diagnose and visualize the laser-based measurement of concentration. </li></ul>
2.1 Constructing the Prism <ul><li>Cutting and gluing standard 1-in width times 3-in length of glass microscope slides. </li></ul><ul><li>Applied the glue both inside and outside in order to avoid the prism from being weaker and trap liquids in any raids at the beam. </li></ul>
2.2 Sample Preparation <ul><li>The samples of sugar and salt solution were prepared by weighing out the amount of samples which is 5g, 20g, 35g, 50g and 65g using analytical balance and transferring it to a volumetric flask. </li></ul><ul><li>The water was added is 95ml, 80ml, 65ml, 50ml and 35ml respectively to till the flask and then was stirring with glass rod to dissolve the sugar completely. </li></ul>
Point a Point b X L Figure 2.1. The laser light hit the prism which full with solution sample. 102 cm Point d Point e Point c 2.3 Experimental Set up
2.4 Create Programming of GUI Property Inspector Run button Click Matlab 7 software. Write the ‘guide’ & press enter at the command window. Click ‘ok’ at the quick guide start. Layout editor of GUI appear.
t = get(handles.edit1, ‘String’); s = ‘2.0005*sin(0.5*(t + 1.047))’ set(handles.edit1,‘String’,s)
Table 3.1: The average percentage concentration of refractive index for sugar solution. 1.4251 30.8546 73.82 44.10 65% 1.3999 28.8121 77.05 42.38 50% 1.3799 27.2193 79.93 41.11 35% 1.3513 24.9751 84.04 39.12 20% 1.3397 24.2845 84.99 37.99 5% RI ( n ) md L (x10 -2 ) cm X (x10 -2 ) cm Concentration (%)
Figure 3.1. The exponential graph of refractive index proportional with its concentration.
Figure 3.2. The Refractive index of sugar solution as a function of its concentration percentage.
Table 3.3: The average percentage concentration of refractive index for salt solution. 1.5227 39.1368 71.14 57.90 65% 1.4785 35.3122 80.98 57.42 50% 1.4708 34.6455 75.75 52.34 35% 1.4051 29.2292 83.82 46.90 20% 1.3523 25.0602 83.92 39.24 5% RI ( n ) md L (x10 -2 ) cm X (x10 -2 ) cm Concentration (%)
Figure 3.3. The RI with its percentage concentration for salt solution.
Figure 3.4. Comparison of salt and sugar solution in constant percentage of concentration.
Table 4.2: The comparison value of experimental value for present technique and literature value from Albrecht, (2003), Subedi et al , (2006) for sugar solution. Figure 3.5. RI versus the percentage concentration of sugar solution. 9.9 1.435 1.4251 65 11.1 1.411 1.3999 50 3.1 1.383 1.3799 35 5.7 1.357 1.3513 20 2.3 1.342 1.3397 5 Different value (x10 -3 ) Literature value Experimental value Concentration (%)
Table 4.4: The comparison value of experimental value for present technique and literature value (salt solution). Figure 3.6. The experimental RI value of salt solution times its concentration in percentage with the literature value. 21.3 1.544 1.5227 65 23.5 1.502 1.4785 50 38.8 1.432 1.4708 35 37.1 1.368 1.4051 20 10.3 1.342 1.3523 5 Different value Literature value Experimental value Concentration (%)
Figure 3.7. The ‘Easy_GUI’ box for measure the RI of the liquids.
Figure 3.8. The graph of RI versus the minimum angle of deviation when the value of RI insert in the equation. 1.34214
<ul><li>The refractive index (RI) of the liquids are dependence on its concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>All the five different concentration give the RI at 5%, 20%, 35%, 50% and 65% are, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.3397, 1.3513, 1.3799, 1.3999 and 1.4251 (sugar solution) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.3523, 1.4051, 1.4708, 1.3799, 1.4785, and 1.5227 (salt solutions) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also, in this project, the ‘Easy_GUI’ language was developed to compute the refractive index value based on the experimental setup proposed. </li></ul><ul><li>All in all, laser technique measurement is the best way of a coherent light to produce the phenomena of refraction for measured the concentration of the liquids dependence with the refractive index (RI) of the liquids. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Optic room is not fully darkened </li></ul>The measurement of the RI and the experimental was carried out at night or during the weekend. <ul><li>Constructed the prism </li></ul>Used a needle or small and sharp object. <ul><li>Future research </li></ul>The concentration dependence with different types of temperature can be studied using spectrometer, thermometer and green laser pointer which can provide the best value of RI differs with concentration and temperature.
Albrecht, J. 2003. The Refractive Indexs of The Liquids. Optics. Vol. 3, 3 rd ed. United State. Abdulla, A.I. 2004. Introduction to Graphical User Interface (GUI) MATLAB 6.5. Electrical Engineering Department, IEEE UAEU student branch, UAE University College of engineering. Catherasoo, C.J. & Sturtevant, B. 1983. Shock dynamics in non-uniform media. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 127:539-561. Cap, N., Ruiz, B., & Rabal. H. 2003. Refraction holodiagrams and Snell’s law Optics 114(2):89–94. Chien, D.N., Tanaka, K. & Tanaka, M. 2003. Guided wave equivalents of Snell’s and Brewster’s Laws. Optics Communications 225:319–329. Chauvat, D., Bonnet, C., Dunseath, K. Floch, A.L. & Emile, O. 2005. Timing the total reflection of light. Physics Letters A 336:271–273. Davis, J. & Xing, C. 2002. Lumipoint: multi-user laser-based interaction on large tiled displays. Displays . 23:205-211. Subedi, D.P., Adikari, D.R., Joshi, U.M., Poudel, H.N. & Niraula, B. 2006. Study of Temperature and concentration dependence of refractive index of liquids using a novel technique. Department of Natural Sciences, Khatamandu University, Nepal.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS <ul><li>Pn. Nur Farizan Binti Munajat (Supervisor) </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Madya Dr. Senin Bin Hassan (Head of Department, DPS) </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Madya Dr. Salleh Bin Harun </li></ul><ul><li>En. Azhar Bin Mohd Sinin </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Mohd Ikmar Nizam Bin Mohd Isa </li></ul><ul><li>All lecturer and lab staff from the Department of Physical Sciences. </li></ul><ul><li>All the physics student. </li></ul>