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Fall Prevention Intro

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Fall Prevention Intro

  1. 1. Focus on Falls Fall Prevention Program Fall Prevention Clinical Team
  2. 2. Facts About Falls <ul><li>Leading cause of injury deaths for people 65+ </li></ul><ul><li>20-30% of those who fall suffer injuries that reduce mobility and independence </li></ul><ul><li>95% of hip fractures are caused by falls </li></ul><ul><li>50% of continuing care residents fall at least once each year </li></ul><ul><li>Older adults who fall once are 2-3 times as likely to fall again within a year </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a Fall? <ul><li>a sudden, uncontrolled, unintentional, downward displacement of the body to the ground or lower level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Un-witnessed falls (resident is unable to explain the events and there is evidence to support that a fall has occurred) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near falls (resident eased to the floor by staff) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Falls <ul><li>Accidental Falls: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These occur when a resident slips (i.e., on water, bathrobe tie, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unexpected Physiological Falls: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These occur when a resident falls for a physiological reason that has not been identified (i.e., fainting, seizures, a pathological hip fracture) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expected Physiological Falls: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These occur in individuals who have already been flagged as being at risk of falling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are expected to fall again, because the Fall Risk Assessment has identified them being high risk </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Impact of Falls <ul><li>Physical injury (fracture, abrasion, contusion) </li></ul><ul><li>Restriction of activity/functional deterioration </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of confidence/fear of falling in the future </li></ul><ul><li>Pain/limitation of activity following a fall </li></ul><ul><li>Depression and feelings of helplessness </li></ul><ul><li>Social isolation and decreased quality of life </li></ul>
  6. 6. Risk Factors <ul><li>Falls are caused by the interaction of a number of different factors both </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal risk factors (related to the individual) and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External risk factors </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Internal Risk Factors <ul><li>History of falls </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Visual impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired mobility and/or gait </li></ul><ul><li>Poly-pharmacy </li></ul><ul><li>Medical conditions such as diabetes, stroke, respiratory disease </li></ul><ul><li>Foot problems and musculoskeletal disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle weakness and limited endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of falling </li></ul>
  8. 8. External Risk Factors <ul><li>Environmental hazards such as clutter, poor lighting, polished or wet floors </li></ul><ul><li>Footwear and clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate walking aids or assistive devices </li></ul>
  9. 9. Key Fall Risk Factors 2 x risk (<110 systolic) Systolic hypotension 1.5 x risk Vision (decreased) Polypharmacy (4+ medications) and Benzodiazepines = 1.5 x risk Psychotrophics = 2 x risk Diuretics = 7 x risk Vasodilators = 3 x risk Drugs Restraint use = 10 x risk Environmental hazards 1.5 x risk Ambulatory aids 1.5 x risk Balance and gait Wandering behaviour = 2 x risk Cognitive impairment 3.5 times as much risk for a fall Previous fall INCREASE OF RISK OVER AVERAGE FACTOR
  10. 10. Restraints and Falls <ul><li>Restraints can actually contribute to fall-related injuries and deaths: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limiting freedom of movement and independence results in de-conditioning and muscle atrophy, adding to functional decline </li></ul></ul>