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Surgical Nutrition
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Surgical Nutrition

  1. 1. Surgical Nutrition Kristopher R. Maday, MS, PA-C, CNSC University of Alabama at Birmingham Physician Assistant Program Department of Nutritional Sciences Is It Still NPO Until Bowel Function Resumes?
  2. 2. Objectives • Identify malnourished patients prior to surgery to limit complications as a result of surgery • Discuss post-operative diet advancement • Recognize when nutritional support needs to be implemented and how to choose the appropriate type • Evaluate how to monitor nutritional support and when to stop
  3. 3. Dogma of Nutrition in Surgery • NPO at midnight for all surgical procedures • NPO until bowel function resumes • Clears  Full Liquid  Soft Diet Regular Diet • Nutrition stresses surgical anastomosis • TPN early in malnourished patients
  4. 4. Prior Research • Malnourished patients have worse outcomes • Healthy individuals, when starved long enough, will develop adverse clinical events • 80% of surgeons agree that nutrition decreases complications and LOS, but only 20% implement any interventions Studley HO. JAMA. 1936;106:458- 460. Stack JA, et al. Gastroenterologist. 1996;4:S8- S15. . Grass F, et al. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65(5):642-647. .Stack JA, et al. Gastroenterologist. 1996;4:S8-
  5. 5. Perioperative Timeline Miller KR, et al. JPEN. 2013;37:39S. 30-60 days 24 hours 1-14 days Evaluation Preparation and Optimization Pre- Op OR Post-Op Miller KR, et al. JPEN. 2013;37:39S.
  6. 6. Pre-Operative Risk Reduction • Nutritional assessment • Concept of “prehabilitation” • Pre-operative fasting
  7. 7. Nutritional Assessment • Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 • Pre-operative serum albumin < 3.0 mg/dL Impaired Nutritional Status Severity of Disease Absent 0 Normal Nutritional Status Absent 0 Normal Nutritional Requirements Mild 1 Weight loss > 5% in 3 months 50-75% of usual food intake over last week Mild 1 Hip fracture Cirrhosis, DM, Benign Cx Hemodialysis, COPD Mod 2 Weight loss > 5% in 2 months BMI 18.5-20.5 with impaired general condition 25-50% of usual food intake over last week Mod 2 Major abdominal surgery Stroke, PNA, Malignancy Severe 3 Weight loss of > 5% in 1 month Weight loss > 15% in 3 months BMI < 18.5 with impaired general condition 0-25% of usual food intake over last week Severe 3 Head injury Bone marrow transplant ICU admission Kondrup J, et al. Clinical Nutrition. 2003;22:321- 336.. Veterans Affairs TPN Study. NEJM. 1991;325:525- 532. Kudsk KA, et al. JPEN. 2003;27:1-9..
  8. 8. Prehabilitation • 12x increase rate of surgical complications in obese patients • Increase rate of post-operative complications with hemoglobin A1c > 7% • Decreased morbidity with preservation of lean body mass stores Valentijn TM, et al. Surgeon. 2013;11(3):169- 176.. Migita K, et al. Gastrointest Surg. 2012;16(9):1659- 1665.. Fearon KC, et al. NEJM. 2011;365(6):565- 567..
  9. 9. Pre-Operative Fasting • 8-12 hour fast depletes almost all glycogen stores • Updated 2011 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Guidelines • Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society Guidelines Cahill GF. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 1983;946:1- 21.. 2011 ASA Guidelines. Anesthesiology. 2011;114(3):495-511. Gustafson UO, et al. World J Surg. 2013;37:259- 284.
  10. 10. Post-Operative Ileus Hormones and Neuropeptides (CCK, CGRP, VIP, IL-1, TNF-ɑ) Surgical Manipulation Anesthesthesi a Endogenous opiate release Inflammation (Macrophage and neutrophil infiltration, cytokines, inflammatory mediators) Exogenous opiates Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic inhibitory pathways) Enteric nervous system (substance P, NO)
  11. 11. Post-Operative Ileus Location Symptoms Signs Management Time to Resolution Stomach Nausea +++ Vomiting +++ Abdominal Pain + Distention + Succussion Splash NG Tube Metoclopramide Erythromycin 12-24hr Small Bowel Nausea ++ Vomiting ++ Abdominal Pain + Distention ++ NG Tube Alvimopan (Entereg) 6-12hr Colon Nausea + Vomiting + Abdominal Pain ++ Distention +++ Neostigmine Decompress 48-72hr Johnson MD, et al. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. Warren J, et al. Nutr Clin Pract. 2011;26(2):115-125
  12. 12. Oral Post-Op Diet • Clear liquid diet < Regular Diet • No difference in incidence of N/V, distention, or need for NG tube placement • Start 24 hours after surgery Warren J, et al. Nutr Clin Pract. 2011;26(2):115-125
  13. 13. Nutritional Support • Indications – Unlikely to take in > 50% PO for next 3-5 days – Inability to meet physiologic demands by oral intake • 2 types – Enteral vs Parenteral NICE Guidelines. Nutritional Support in Adults. 2006 Ukleja A, et al. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010;25:403-414
  14. 14. Banerjee B. Nutritional Management of Digestive Disorders.. 2011. Vassilyadi F, et al. Nutr Clin Pract.. 2013;28:209-217.
  15. 15. Enteral Nutritional Support • Started 24-48 hour after surgery • Access
  16. 16. Enteral Nutritional Support Martindale RG, et al. JPEN. 2013;37(1):5S- 20S.
  17. 17. Enteral Nutritional Support Martindale RG, et al. JPEN. 2013;37(1):5S- 20S.
  18. 18. Enteral Nutritional Support Lewis SJ, et al. BMJ. 2001;323:1-5.
  19. 19. Enteral Nutritional Support • Complications – Abdominal distention – Aspiration – Diarrhea – Iatrogenic injury y/2006/Dec3%284%29/Pages/23.aspx
  20. 20. Total Parenteral Nutrition • Admixture of amino acids, dextrose, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and electrolytes • Indications – Non-functional GI tract – Failure of PO/enteral route
  21. 21. Total Parenteral Nutrition • Access – Central Line – Tunneled/Cuffed Catheter – PICC Line – Ports – Peripheral IV
  22. 22. Total Parenteral Nutrition • Complications – Catheter related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) – Thrombosis – Hepatosteatosis – Hyper/hypoglycemia – Hyperlipidema – Electrolyte abnormalities Maroulis J, et al. Clinical Nutrition. 2000;19(5):295-304.Ukleja A, et al. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 2007;36:23-46.
  23. 23. Heyland DK, et al. JPEN. 2003;27:355-373
  24. 24. Monitoring Nutritional Support • More ≠ Better – Accurate caloric intake – Promote nitrogen retention • Laboratory studies – Acute Phase Reactants ≠ Helpful NICE Guidelines. Nutritional Support in Adults. 2006
  25. 25. Weaning Nutritional Support • Parenteral – Stop once 60% of energy needs are met by oral/enteral route • Enteral – Continuous  Nocturnal  Bolus – Stop once 75% of energy needs are met by oral route
  26. 26. Take Home Points • Identification of malnourished patients and prehabilitation prior to surgery • If the gut works, use it after 24 hours post- op • Enteral > Parenteral
  27. 27. Dogmalysis of Surgical Nutrition • Carbohydrate load 2 hours before surgery • Regular diet after POD#1 • Early enteral nutrition is safe and reduces complications, hospital LOS, and overall mortality • TPN only in a very select few
  28. 28. If I Had to Pick Three… • Ukleja A, et al. Standards for Nutrition Support: Adult Hospitalized Patients. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010;25(4):403-414. • McClave SA, et al. Summary Points and Consensus Recommendations from the North American Surgical Nutrition Summit. JPEN. 2013;27(S1):99S-105S. • Miller KR, et al. An Evidence-Based Approach to Perioperative Nutrition Support in the Elective Surgery Patient. JPEN. 2013;37(S1):39S-50S.
  29. 29. Kristopher R. Maday, MS, PA-C, CNSC Email: Twitter: @PA_Maday Thank You For Your Time

Notas del editor

  • 1936 – Studley et al Well-nourished, non-stressed patient has 7-10 protein/energy stores  3-5 for major surgery
  • Pre-habiliation – preparing the patient for the upcoming insult and major metabolic stress – lean muscle preservation and weight loss in Obese patients
    Choose variable with the highest score Albumin < 3.25 saw marked increase in mortality and complications in elective GI surgery
    Age > 70 add 1 point to adjust for frailty of elderly
    If age corrected total > 3, start nutritional support
  • Metabolic tune up of at least 30 days Obesity is malnutrition of chronic disease with inflammation
    Weight loss prior to elective surgery glucose control 30-60d pre-op exercise program prior elective surgery with cancer
  • 2hr for clear, 4hr for milk, 6hr for light meal, >8hr normal meal AVERAGE NPO TIME IS 14hr
    25-50g CHO 2-3hr before general anesthesias – decreased post-op LOS by 3-6 days, preserved lean body mass, and increased insulin sensitivity
    Glutamine enriched CHO formulas showed no difference versus CHO alone
  • Cholecystokinin (CCK), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), IL-1, TNF-a
  • Multiple studies have shown NGT does not limit and may even prolong post-op ileus
  • CLD has always been initial diet of choice post-op. Max – 1100 kcal and no protein. Increase risk of aspiration due to low viscosity
    RD has 2500kcal and 115g protein
    Maintains gut integrity
    Sustains closure of the paracellular channels between the intraepithelial cells
    Stimulate immunoglobulin A and bile salts which coat enteric bacteria
    Stimulates peristalsis
  • 3500 BC
    Ancient egyptians would infuse wine, milk, whey, wheat or barley broths, eggs, and brandy through rectal enemas to preserve health, protect inflamed bowel, and treat diarrhea
    Capivacceus reported infusing liquids through a hollow tube placed into the esophagus
    President Garfield keep alive for 79 days with whiskey and beef broth enemas
    Protein hydrolysate formulas and automatic feeding pumps were developed
    Dr. Stanley Dudrick - UPenn
    Invented Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN)
  • 11 studies, 837 patients overall mortality – 7% in feeding, 13% in control
    Nutrient intake associated with significant collagen deposition and reversal of mucosal atrophy at anastomosis
  • Aspiration – trasnpyloric tube, sitting up
    Diarrhea – banana flakes, elemental formulas
  • NFGIT – SGS, high output fistula, obstruction, ischemia, incontinuity, peritonitis
    Intractable nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea
  • Central Line
    Good for short term, inpatient TPN
    Tunneled, Cuffed Catheters
    Hickman, Groshong
    Good for long term, home TPN
    PICC Line
    Good for long-term, home TPN
    Mediport, Port-a-Cath
    Good for long term, home TPN
    Peripheral IV
    ***For PPN, not TPN***
    Osmolarity issues
  • Bacteria and fungi are common. 5 cases/1000 days with 12-25% mortality with each case Most common cause of UE DVT
  • 2003 – Canadian guidelines for nutritional support
  • Avoid under/over feeding – Prenal azotemia
    24hr UUN, BUN
    Calorie counts, actual amount infused electrolytes for refeeding, ABG for overfeeding
  • Reduced oral intake can be expected if >25% of caloric needs are met via nutritional support