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The tourism industry chapter 1

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The tourism industry chapter 1

  1. 1. The Tourism Industry DHM By Ummu Fatihah 1
  2. 2. Class Rules• NO Phones OR music!• Respect yourself and me• DON’T talk when I’m talking – You will lose attendance• Do NOT be late! - you will not be allowed into the class• You MUST sign the register in EVERY class!• Make notes - you will be quizzed on topics• ASK if you don’t understand - put your hand up to ask a question 2
  3. 3. Learning Outcomes• Knowledge of travel and tourism industry• Structure of tourism industry• Examine role of governments, political issues and ethics on tourism• Tourist needs and motivations to travel• The development of tourism destinations• Range of transport and accommodation available• Positive and negative impacts of tourism (economic, environmental, socio- 3 cultural)
  4. 4. Organisation WebsiteKey Note (market information) (media, product, consumer www.mintel.cominformation)World Travel & Tourism Council www.wttc.orgNational Statistics Online (official UK Concern Britain 4
  5. 5. Assessment• External by CTH• 2½ hour exam• Section A (40 marks) – 10 x 2 mark questions – 5 x 4 mark questions• Section B (60 marks) – 5x 20 mark questions – CHOOSE 3 ONLY! 5
  6. 6. Introduction to the Travel and Tourism Industry 8
  7. 7. Chapter Objectives:•Define tourism and tourist•Historical growth of tourism•Types of tourism•Organizations involved in tourism
  8. 8. What is tourism• "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes.“ Tourism Society of England, 1976
  9. 9. Types of Tourism United Nation ‘94 • Residents travelling only within theirDomestic tourism country of residence • Involving non-residents travelling ofInbound tourism the given country • Involving residents travelling toOutbound tourism another country World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) • Domestic tourism and inbound Internal tourism tourism • Domestic tourism and outbound National tourism tourism • Inbound tourism and outboundInternational tourism tourism
  10. 10. Exercise 1. Examples of types of tourism• Using the previous definitions of the different types of tourism, give examples of: – Domestic tourism – Inbound tourism – Outbound tourism 12
  11. 11. What is tourist?Travel and stay in places outside their usualenvironment for not more than oneconsecutive year for leisure, business andother purposes not related to the exercise ofan activity remunerated within the placevisited.
  12. 12. Travel to a country other than his usual residence at least one International night but not more than one year – main purpose to visit TouristResident in the country andwho travels to a place in thesame county not more than Domesticone year - main purpose to visit
  13. 13. Exercise 2. The Tourist• Give examples of when you have been: A) an international tourist B) a domestic tourist 15
  14. 14. History or Tourism DevelopmentPeriod Region Travel motivation3 000 BC Egypt/ Babylonia Business1 500 BC Egypt Religion/ leisure and pleasure -Pyramids6 BC Egypt Heritage/culture –Museum of Historic Antiquities5 BC Greece Athens –religion –Panthenon/Acropolis4 BC Athens, Sparta, Troy Guide tours -guidebooks2 BC Roman Empire Roman infantryment VFR - improved communicationsMiddle Ages Europe ‘Haligdeg’ – ‘Holy day’ (holiday) – ‘day of rest’ – Sunday16 AD Europe ‘Pilgrimages’ – religion: Centurbury, Santiago De Compostela, Rome (via Venice)C17 – 18th AD Europe Culture/education – ‘The Grand Tour’
  15. 15. Term used by The purpose of the The most The trip increased trip, which wasRichard Lessels normally between popular cities their knowledge ofin his book six months and for these culture and the‘Voyage in three years was to young ‘eligible arts, and madeItaly’(1670) teach the ‘young bachelors’ them more eligible men’ about artwas ‘a rite of such as were: Florence, for marriage onpassage’ ‘Renaissance’ Naples, Paris, their return artists, antiquities Rome and and architecture Venice
  16. 16. Exercise 3. The History of your country• Discuss the history of tourism within your home country in small groups. – How long ago did tourism begin? – How important is tourism to your home country? 18
  17. 17. Health tourism ‘Any kind of travel to make one’s self or a member of one’s family healthier’ Mueller and Kaufmann(2001)•Become more popular form of tourism since the RomanEmpire, when Romans used to gather together incommunal pools to relax•Bath, England; Baden Baden, Germany; Budapest,Hungary; Buxton, England; Siena, Italy•Spa resorts worldwide
  18. 18. Exercise 4. Health Tourism• Give an example of a health tourism destination in your home country 20
  19. 19. Sun, Sea and Sand (3S’s) Enabling Make travel Factor possibleMotivating Persuade people to Factor travel
  20. 20. Enabling Factors• Factors which make travel possible – Better transport – new transport technology (19th Century – railway) – Better communications – Faster and cheaper travel – Improvement in accommodation, facilities and services 22
  21. 21. Motivating Factors• Factors which persuade people to travel – Building of cities and industry  people feeling the need to escape from reality to fulfil their ‘intrinsic needs’ 23
  22. 22. Exercise 5. Reasons for travel• Why do you go on holiday/travel?• Write down your reasons for travelling• Now identify if these reasons are ‘enabling factors’ or ‘motivating factors’ 24
  23. 23. Mass Tourism The transportation Enjoy theof large number benefits of of people to leisure timeplaces of leisure interest Increase in demand for sun, Increasing sea and sand popular in the and the arrival 1960s and of cheap 1970s package holidays
  24. 24. Other form of Tourism MedicalCulinary Space (health)tourism tourism tourism Heritage Dark Disaster (cultural)tourism tourism tourism
  25. 25. Other Types of Description ExampleTourismCulinary tourism Food and drink Wine tasting in experiences AustraliaDark tourism Travel to sites •Anne Frank’s associated with death house, Amsterdam and suffering •The London Dungeons, LondonDisaster Tourism Travel to sites that New Orleans have experienced (Hurricane Katrina) natural disastersEcotourism Tourism which Safari, Kenya benefits the community, economy & the environment of a local area 27
  26. 26. Other Types of Description ExampleTourismHeritage (Cultural) Places, activities •National Maritimetourism that represent the Museum stories of people, •University of past and present GreenwichMedical (Health) Medical services at Indiatourism a particular locationSpace tourism Trips taking tourists Virgin Galactic into space 28
  27. 27. Exercise 6. Tourism in your country• Which of these types of tourism exist in your home country? – Culinary, dark, disaster, ecotourism, heritage, medical, space tourism• Give examples 29
  28. 28. ArtificialTourism Organizations tourism attraction Tour Private Travel operation Agency sector Transport provider Private company – any company controlled and operated by private individuals(and not by civil servant or government- employees), are very varied in type and size
  29. 29. Exercise 7. List…Give an example of:- An artificial (man-made) tourism attraction- A tour operator- A transport provider- A travel agencyThey can be from your home country or another destination 31
  30. 30. Public (government) organizations Providing social Co-ordination Entrepreneurship tourism Marketing and Protector of the Planning promotion public interestLegislation and Stimulation regulation
  31. 31. Public (government) organisations• Most countries have a governmental department for tourism – national, regional, local level• Hall (2000) govt has 8 roles: – Co-ordination – sharing info, communicating with agencies (public and private) – Planning – controlling the development of tourism – Legislation and regulation – employment, immigration, visa regulations – Stimulation - ↑tourism supply with incentives (tax relief, sponsorship, marketing, promotion 33
  32. 32. – Marketing and promotion - ↑interest in a destination – ‘branding’– Entrepreneurship – the govt own or operate tourism ventures, or own and manage land– Providing social tourism – opportunities for under- privileged communities– Protector of the Public Interest – act as ‘intermediary’ in case of conflict or competing interest 34
  33. 33. Regulatory bodies• For maintaining standards within the tourism industry 1. Public regulatory bodies 2. Supranational regulating bodies 3. National regulatory bodies 35
  34. 34. Regulatory tourism organizations International Civil aviation Organization(ICAO) International Air Transport Association (IATA) United Federation of Travel Agents’ Association (UFTAA) World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
  35. 35. PUBLIC Regulatory BodiesName Abb. Description WebsiteInternational ICAO Safety, security, www.icao.intCivil Aviation environmental protection,Organisation efficiency, continuity, rule of lawInternational IATA Large network of industry Transport suppliers, allows airlinesAssociation to operate safely, intermediary between airlines and passengers, simplifies air travel 37
  36. 36. PUBLIC Regulatory BodiesName Abb. Description WebsiteUnited UFTAA International forum, www.uftaa.orgFederation of protecting tourTravel Agents’ operators, agenciesAssociationsWorld Tourism UNWTO Responsible, www.unwto.orgOrganisation sustainable, accessible tourism – developing countries 38
  37. 37. Supranational Regulatory Bodies• Cover a number of countries (geographical area)• “Bodies associated with regional trading blocs” (Hall, 2008) – ASEAN – Association of South-East Asian Nations – NAFTA – North American Free Trade Area – EU – European Union • Learn about the EU Package Travel Regulations (1992) 39
  38. 38. Exercise 8. Supranational• Which supranational regulatory body does your home country come under? 40
  39. 39. National Regulatory Bodies• Regulates and monitors travel and tourism within a nation – Association of British Travel Agents (ABTA) – Air Transport Operators Licence (ATOL) – Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) 41
  40. 40. Exercise 9. National Regulatory Body• What is the name of your home country’s tourism governmental organisation?• What national regulatory bodies exist in your country? 42
  41. 41. What we have covered• Defining tourism• Types of tourism – Mass, 3S’s, Grand Tour, Special Interest Tourism• Types of tourists – International, domestic• History of tourism development• Tourism organisations – Private, public, regulatory 43

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