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Docks & harbors construction

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Brief about Docks and harbours

Publicado en: Ingeniería
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Docks & harbors construction

  1. 1. DOCKS & HARBOURS CONSTRUCTION Presentation by – Madhura S. Deshpande 1427002
  2. 2. Basic terms • Dock: the enclosed area provided for berthing ships to keep them afloat at a uniform level to facilitate loading and unloading is called the dock. • Harbour: The sheltered area of the sea in which vessels could be launched, built or repaired, or could seek refuge during storm time and provide loading and unloading facilities of cargo and passengers is called harbour.
  3. 3. Harbour • It is a sheltered area • Used for loading and unloading of cargo • Vessels are also built, repair and launch • It protects ships naturally or artificially from fury of sea • Ships, boats, and barges can seek shelter from stormy weather, in navigable waters well protected naturally or artificially • Situated along sea shore or river estuary or lake or canal connected to sea
  4. 4. Classification of harbour • Artificial harbour Man-made harbour Deliberately constructed break waters, sea walls , jetties, and also dredging is done there Requires maintenance by periodic dredging Ex. Madras harbour
  5. 5. Artificial harbour
  6. 6. Natural harbour • It is protected form storms and waves by prominence of land • Consist of part of body of water which is protected and deep enough for anchorage
  7. 7. Semi- natural harbours • The ones who are protected on sides by land and require man- made protection only at entrance • Ex. Vishakhapatnum port
  8. 8. Classification based on function to be performed 1. Harbor of refuge- used for ships in storms or emergency condition. good anchorage and safe and easy access from the sea. 2. Commercial harbor- Facilities for loading and unloading of cargo are provided.
  9. 9. Harbour of refuge Commercial harbour
  10. 10. 3. Fishery harbor- For loading unloading the catch . It should have refrigeration stores with plenty of storing space for preserving catch. 4. Military harbor or navel base harbours- This harbor is meant for accommodating naval crafts and serves as a supply deport. The layout of this type of harbor is greatly influenced by its location.
  11. 11. Fishery harbour Military harbour
  12. 12. Planning for harbour The planning of harbor should be carried out after collecting the necessary information of the existing features at the proposed site. The following important facts should be studied:  To carry out a thorough survey of the neighborhood including the fore shore and depths of water in the vicinity is necessary. The nature of the harbor, whether sheltered or not should be studied. The existence of sea insects which undermine the foundation should be studied.
  13. 13. The problem of silting or erosion of coast line should be studied carefully. To ascertain the character of the ground, borings and soundings should be taken. To know the probable surface conditions on land, borings on land should also be made. It will be help full in locating the harbor works correctly. The natural metrological phenomenon should be studied at site with respect to frequency of storms, rainfall, range of tides, maximum and minimum temperatures, direction and intensity of winds, humidity, direction and velocity of currents etc.
  14. 14. Requirements of a good harbour • The depth of a harbor should be sufficient for every type of visiting ships. • The bottom of harbor should provide secured anchorage to hold the ships against high winds. • To prevent destructive wave action, break water are provided. • The entrance of a harbor should be wide enough to provide the easy passage of ships.
  15. 15. Harbor area required depends upon the following factors:  Size and number of ships to be accommodated in the harbor at a time  Length and width needed for movement of ships to and from berths.  Type of cargo carried. To make the harbor useful for operating and dispatching ships, the water depth in the entrance, approach channel and harbor basin should be sufficient even at the low water spring tide.
  16. 16. • It is very important i.e. the location and alignment of elements such as entrance, approach channel, turning basin, break water, wharves, jetties and docks etc. will ensure easy maneuverability and additional navigation facilities. • The main faction of a harbor is to provide a safe and suitable accommodation to the vessels needing refuge, supplies, repairs, refueling or transfer of cargo and passengers.
  17. 17. Selection of site • Availability of cheap land & construction material. • Natural protection from waves & winds • Transport & communication facilities • Industrial development of the locality • Sea bed, sub soil & foundation conditions • Avability of electrical energy • Defense & strategic aspects • Traffic potentiality of harbour
  18. 18. Features of harbour • Break water • Docks • Entrance channel • Jetty • Light house • Berthing Basin • Turning Basin • Pier Head • Wharves
  19. 19. Breakwaters • Breakwater are the structures constructed to enclose the harbours to protect them from the effect of wind generated waves by reflecting and dissipating their force or energy. • Helps to use the area thus enclosed as a safe anchorage for ships and to facilitate loading and unloading of water by means of wave breakers. • Height depends upon the its purpose, extent of enclosed water area and nature of existing shipping work.
  20. 20. • Generally the height of breakwater is kept as equivalent to 1.2 to 1.25 times the waves expected. • It also helps to prevent beach erosion • The most common breakwater used has a core of small rocks or rubble with a covering of large rocks to keep the core from being washed away.
  21. 21. • It may be small structures, placed one to three hundred feet offshore in relatively shallow water • Breakwater either fixed or floating- choice depend on normal water depth & tidal range • Its construction is usually parallel or perpendicular to the coast
  22. 22. Docks • Docks are enclosed areas for berthing the ships to keep them afloat at a uniform level to facilitate loading and unloading cargo. • A marine structure for berthing of vessels for loading and unloading cargo and passengers. • Necessary for discharging of the cargo • As ships require a number of days for discharging cargo, during which period they need a uniform water level.
  23. 23. • If ship is subjected to a vertical movement by the tides, great inconvenience will be felt in lifting the cargo from the ship and special arrangement will be needed for lifting the cargo • Docks can be classified into following two categories:  Wet docks.  Dry docks.
  24. 24. Wet docks- • Docks required for berthing of ships or vessels to facilitate the loading and unloading of passengers and cargo are called wet docks. • These are also known as harbor docks.
  25. 25.  Dry docks • The docks used for repairs of ships are known as dry docks. • It is long excavated chamber, having side walls, a semi circular end wall and a floor. • The open end of the chamber is provided with a gate and acts as the entrance to the dock.
  26. 26. ENTRANCE CHANNEL • Depth and width are kept more at entrance • Width depends upon density of traffic and no. of entrances
  27. 27. JETTIES • A narrow structure projecting from the shore into the water with berths one or both sides and sometimes at the end also. • These are structures in the form of piles projections. • Built from the shore to the deep water. • They may be constructed in the sea or in a navigable river. • The jetties extend from the shore to the deep sea to receive the ship.
  28. 28. BERTHING AND TURNING BASINS • Berthing basins are used for the parking of ships • While turning for the turning of ships
  29. 29. PIER HEAD • The structure provided at the tip of break water • Such as light house
  30. 30. THANK YOU

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