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Developing Effective Research Proposals

Developing Effective Research Proposals

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Developing Effective Research Proposals

  1. 1. Developing Effective Research Proposals Chapter 5 Methods Group Members: Arshia kanwal Hina gul & Hafsa Murtaza
  2. 2. Introduction • In this chapter proposal deals with methods for the research. • It will focus on:  What type of data will be needed (design)  How to get the data (data collection)  What to do with data once collected (data analysis)
  3. 3. Design • Qualitative • Unfolding Research • Research is loosely designed before going to field • Eg: loose/no hypothesis • Research is designed during field work • Quantitative • Pre-Structured Research • Research is designed before going to field • Eg: hypothesis, variables, conceptual framework
  4. 4. Data Collection • Qualitative • Interview Guide • Open ended questions • Quantitative • Questionnaire • Close ended questions
  5. 5. Data Analysis • Qualitative • Content Analysis • Quantitative • SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences)
  6. 6. Qualitative, Quantitative or Both • Logic of a study including the way research question or hypothesis are framed clearly shows whether it is qualitative or quantitative • That logic flows into the design, data collection and data analysis.
  7. 7. • Example: • Experimental comparison (cause and effect is checked) it would be quantitative • Ethnography (cultural significance of behavior) it would be qualitative. • Or mixed methods • Example: • Quantitative survey and also qualitative in-depth interviews.
  8. 8. Design • Research design accommodate both qualitative and quantitative approaches. • Research design means connecting research question to data i-e what tools and procedures will be used. • Research design is the plan that tell how research will be conducted.
  9. 9. Strategy • A careful plain for achieving a particular goal. • Quantitative research design vary from interventionist to non interventionist. • Qualitative generally non interventionist.
  10. 10. Generically • means identifying the strategy in general terms . • for example, case study, ethnography, survey .
  11. 11. Procedurally • Means saying how the researcher will execute the general strategy.
  12. 12. Data Collection And Procedure • How will the data be collected? • Instruments – quantitative data • Quantitative data collection instruments are questionnaires, standardized measuring instruments • Instruments – qualitative data
  13. 13. Qualitative data are most likely to be words, which we get by asking (interviewing), watching (observation) or reading (documents)
  14. 14. Ethical issues Data collection procedures need to be organized both to maximize the quality of data, and to deal with the related issues of access and ethics. •Informed consent •Privacy •Ownership of data and conclusions •Honesty and trust •Harm and risk

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