2. NUTRIENTS IN MILK
• Builds strong bones and teeth strengthens body cells; aids
in blood clotting; regulates muscles, including the heart;
maintains normal nerve functions
• Strengthens body cells; combines with calcium to make
bones and teeth; helps in the oxidation of foods
Aids vision and growth; helps maintain health of mucous
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
Aids growth; helps maintain health of skin, eyes, and tongue;
helps nerve tissues function; helps digestive tract
4. VITAMINS CONTINUED
Vitamin B1 (thiamin)
Assists in maintaining normal appetite, a healthy digestive
Nerve function; helps release food energy for the body’s use
Helps body to use calcium and phosphorus to build strong
bones and teeth.
8. HOW MILK GETS FROM THE
COWS TO THE STORES
Those eight steps are (in order):
5. lab testing,
7. packaging, and
9. PROCESSING OF MILK
To make milk: safer more appealing or healthier
It is named for the French scientist Louis Pasteur,
who in the 1860s
It requires temperatures of about 63° C (145° F)
maintained for 30 minutes or, alternatively, heating
to a higher temperature, 72° C (162° F), and holding
for 15 seconds (and yet higher temperatures for
shorter periods of time).
Ultra-high temperature processing (UHT), or ultra-heat treatment,
sterilizes food by heating it above 135°C (275°F) - the temperature
required to kill spores in milk - for 1 to 2 seconds. UHT is most
commonly used in milk production, but the process is also used
for fruit juices, cream, soy milk, yogurt, wine, soups, honey,
Shelf life is extended to 60–90 days
Disadvantage: The heat used during the UHT process can
cause Maillard browning and change the taste and smell of dairy
12. HIGH-TEMPERATURE SHORT-TIME
An alternative process is HTST pasteurization (high
temperature/short time), in which the milk is heated to 72°C
(161.6°F) for at least 15 seconds.
It avoid the disadvantage of last method (Maillard browning) .
Milk homogenization is accomplished by mixing
massive amounts of harvested milk to create a
constant, then forcing the milk at high pressure
through small holes. Yet another method of
• or colloid mills to mill (grind) solids.
Milk homogenization is an essential tool of the milk
food industry to prevent creating various levels of
flavor and fat concentration.
15. MILK FORTIFICATION
The addition of one or more vitamins, minerals, or proteins not
naturally present in a food.
The term, fortified, also applies when added nutrients include one or
more naturally present in the food.
In the United States, the Food and Nutrition Council of the American
Medical Association pronounced in 1939 the addition of no more
than 400 IU of vitamin D per quart of milk, in the interest of public
health. The marked decline in the prevalence of rickets, a vitamin D
deficiency disorder, in the USA has been partially attributed to
vitamin D fortification of milk.
16. MILK SEPARATION
The fat fraction separates from the skim milk when milk is
allowed to stand for 30 to 40 minutes. This is known a
`creaming'. The creaming process can be used to remove fat
from milk in a more concentrated form. A number of methods
are employed to separate cream from milk. An understanding
of the creaming process is necessary to maximize the
efficiency of the separation process.
17. 1- GRAVITY
Fat globules in milk are lighter than the plasma phase, and
hence rise to form a cream layer. The rate of rise (V) of the
individual fat globule can be estimated using Stokes' Law
which defines the rate of settling of spherical particles in a
V = (r2 (d1 – d2)g)/9η
where r = radius of fat globules
d 1 = density of the liquid phase
d2 = density of the sphere
g = acceleration due to gravity, and
η = specific viscosity
Gravity separation is slow and inefficient. Centrifugal
separation is quicker and more efficient
Involves spinning milk through a centrifuge to separate the
cream from the milk. After separation, the cream and
remaining milk are remixed to provide the desired fat content
for the different types of milk being produced.
For "whole milk," the cream is reintroduced until the fat
content reaches 3.25%. For "low fat milk," the fat content is
1%. For "skim milk" (sometimes called nonfat milk) the fat
content is .05%.
20. TRANSITION OF MILK PACKAGING
• Disadvantages include its fragility, its weight and the cost
of the one-way bottles.
• Milk exposed to fluorescent light at the grocery store for
just four hours can lose nutritional value & develop an
oxidized, burnt flavor
22. TETRA PACK
Combines attributes of paper
plastic and aluminum
Paperboard makes the package
stable and light weight
Polyethylene are added to seal
in the liquid and protect external
A thin layer of aluminum foil
protects product from oxygen and
23. ADVANTAGES OF
• Excellent shelf impact and billboard effect
• Frees up to 40% shelf space
• Efficient handling and transportation thanks to square
shape and light weight. 18% more packages can fit on a
pallet, compared to cans.
• Convenient – easy to open, store and recycle
24. MILK - HDPE (HIGH DENSITY
Used for all three milk types :
pasteurized , UHT and
A three layer protection
against UV rays ( White-Black-
Preserves natural taste and
smell, flexible, durable, low
cost, eco friendly and
resistance to many chemicals
Heat sealing of bottles
I think We all know the importance of milk in our daily live. I would like to share this presentation of milk processing and packaging as an example of unit operation of food.
It is a heat processing
Since the aseptic packages contain different layers of plastic and aluminium in addition to raw paper, therefore they are sent to special recycling units for separation. Once separated, the aseptic carton results in aluminium and pure paraffin which can be used in the industry.