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Fundamentos de Bases de Datos - Introducción

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Fundamentos de Bases de Datos (I.S.C 4o. Cuatrimestre)- UNIVAC.
Breve introducción a las bases de datos desde un punto de vista general.

Publicado en: Tecnología
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Fundamentos de Bases de Datos - Introducción

  1. 1. Fundamentos de Bases de Datos I.S.C Juan Manuel Padilla Carmona UNIVAC
  2. 2. Base de Datos“Es un conjunto de datos pertenecientesa un mismo contexto y almacenadossistemáticamente para su posterior uso”. - Wikipedia
  3. 3. Ejemplos Archivo MuertoBiblioteca
  4. 4. Biblioteca Ordenada por: •Orden alfabético. •Por tema. •Una combinación de ambas. •etc.
  5. 5. Tipos de Bases de Datos Las Bases de Datos pueden clasificarse de varias maneras.• Según la variabilidad de los datos almacenados: ‣ Bases de datos estáticas. ‣ Bases de datos dinámicas.
  6. 6. Tipos de Bases de Datos• Según el contenido: ‣ Bases de Datos bibliográficas. ‣ Bases de Datos de texto completo. ‣ Directorios.
  7. 7. Bases de Datos Estáticas• Son bases de datos de sólo lectura.• Utilizadas primordialmente para almacenar datos históricos que posteriormente se pueden utilizar.
  8. 8. Bases de Datos Dinámicas• La información almacenada se modifica con el tiempo, permitiendo operaciones como actualización, borrado, adición de datos y consulta de los mismos.
  9. 9. Modelos de Bases de DatosAdemás de la clasificación por la función delas bases de datos, éstas también se pueden clasificar de acuerdo a su modelo de administración de datos.
  10. 10. Bases de datos Jerárquicas• Los datos se organizan en una forma similar a un árbol (visto al revés).• Un nodo padre de información puede tener varios hijos.• Un nodo que no tiene padres es llamado raíz.• Los nodos que no tienen hijos se los conoce como hojas.
  11. 11. Bases de Datos de Red• Un nodo puede tener múltiples padres.
  12. 12. Bases de Datos Transaccionales• Su único fin es el envío y recepción de datos a gran velocidad.• La redundancia y duplicación de información no es un problema.
  13. 13. Bases de Datos Relacionales• Se basa en relaciones lógicas, al conjunto de estas relaciones se les llama tuplas.• El lugar y la forma en que se almacenan los datos no tiene relevancia.• La información puede ser recuperada o almacenada por consultas.• El lenguaje más común para realizar las consultas es SQL.
  14. 14. Bases de Datos Relacionales• Durante su diseño, una base de datos relacional pasa por un proceso al que se le conoce como normalización de una base de datos.
  15. 15. Bases de Datos Multidimensionales• En las bases de datos multidimensionales los campos o atributos de una tabla pueden ser de dos tipos, o bien representan dimensiones de la tabla, o bien representan métricas que se desean estudiar.
  16. 16. Bases de Datos Orientadas a Objetos• Es un modelo relativamente reciente y propio de los modelos informáticos orientados a objetos.• Trata de almacenar en la base de datos de los objetos completos (estado y comportamiento).
  17. 17. Gestión de Bases deDatos Distribuida (SGBD) La base de datos y el software SGBD pueden estar distribuidos en múltiples sitios conectados por una red. Hay de dos tipos:
  18. 18. Distribuidos Homogéneos• Utilizan el mismo SGBD en múltiples sitios.
  19. 19. Distribuidos Heterogéneos• Da lugar a los SGBD federados o sistemas multibase de datos en los que los SGBD participantes tienen cierto grado de autonomía local y tienen acceso a varias bases de datos autónomas preexistentes almacenados en los SGBD, muchos de estos emplean una arquitectura cliente-servidor.

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