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Principles of Natural Justice
Prepared By 
Manu Melwin Joy 
Assistant Professor 
Ilahia School of Management Studies 
Kerala, India. 
Phone – 9744551114...
Introduction 
• PNJ were derived from the 
Romans who believed that 
some legal principles were 
“natural” or self evident...
Principles of Natural Justice 
1. Rule against Bias 
2. Rules for the fair 
hearing. 
3. Reasoned decision.
Rule against Bias 
This means that the 
administrative authority, 
who exercises quasi judicial 
function should be impart...
Rule against Bias 
• The administrative authority, 
exercising, quasi judicial function, 
is said to be biased if 
– He ha...
Rule against Bias 
• Rules against bias are based on 
three maxims. 
– No man shall be a judge in his 
own cause. 
– Justi...
Rules for the fair hearing 
The second important 
condition of natural justice 
is that the person whom an 
action is prop...
Rules for the fair hearing 
For a fair hearing, the 
following two are 
necessary 
– Notice. 
– Opportunity of hearing.
Reasoned Decision (Speaking Order) 
Speaking order means on 
order which contains 
reasons for the decision. 
The administ...
Reasoned Decision (Speaking Order) 
A party to the dispute has a 
right to know the result of the 
enquiry and the reason ...
• Principles of natural justice.
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Principles of natural justice PNJ were derived from the Romans who believed that some legal principles were “natural” or self evident and did not require a statutory basis. PNJ is embedded in Article 311 of the Constitution of India.

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Principles of natural justice - Legal Environment of Business - Business Law - Manu Melwin Joy

  1. 1. Principles of Natural Justice
  2. 2. Prepared By Manu Melwin Joy Assistant Professor Ilahia School of Management Studies Kerala, India. Phone – 9744551114 Mail – manu_melwinjoy@yahoo.com Kindly restrict the use of slides for personal purpose. Please seek permission to reproduce the same in public forms and presentations.
  3. 3. Introduction • PNJ were derived from the Romans who believed that some legal principles were “natural” or self evident and did not require a statutory basis. • PNJ is embedded in Article 311 of the Constitution of India.
  4. 4. Principles of Natural Justice 1. Rule against Bias 2. Rules for the fair hearing. 3. Reasoned decision.
  5. 5. Rule against Bias This means that the administrative authority, who exercises quasi judicial function should be impartial. He should be free from bias.
  6. 6. Rule against Bias • The administrative authority, exercising, quasi judicial function, is said to be biased if – He has pecuniary interest in the subject matter of the dispute. (Pecuniary bias) – He is a relative or a friend or enemy of disputing parties. (Personal bias) – He has general interest in the subject matter. (Official bias).
  7. 7. Rule against Bias • Rules against bias are based on three maxims. – No man shall be a judge in his own cause. – Justice should not only be done but manifestly and undoubtedly seem to be done. – Judges should be above suspicion.
  8. 8. Rules for the fair hearing The second important condition of natural justice is that the person whom an action is proposed to be taken, should be given a reasonable opportunity to defend himself. Before passing an order against any person, he must be heard.
  9. 9. Rules for the fair hearing For a fair hearing, the following two are necessary – Notice. – Opportunity of hearing.
  10. 10. Reasoned Decision (Speaking Order) Speaking order means on order which contains reasons for the decision. The administrative authority exercising quasi judicial function should give reasoned decision.
  11. 11. Reasoned Decision (Speaking Order) A party to the dispute has a right to know the result of the enquiry and the reason in support of the decision. The reasoned decision safe guards against possible injustice and arbitrary exercise of powers by quasi judicial authority.
  12. 12. • Principles of natural justice.

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