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Mobile tools for community scientists

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Presentation at ICC 2019 http://www.icc2019.org/conference.html Tokyo

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Mobile tools for community scientists

  1. 1. MOBILE TOOLS FOR COMMUNITY SCIENTISTS M. A. Brovelli (1), C. E. Kilsedar (1), F. Frassinelli (1,2), E. Pessina (1) (1) (1) Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy (2) (2) NINA, Trondheim, Norway
  2. 2. CITIZEN SCIENCE • The term was first reported in Wikipedia in 2005 and entered the Oxford English Dictionary in 2014 with the following description: “scientific work undertaken by members of the general public, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions” Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  3. 3. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  4. 4. The citizen science projects can be distinguished in three different classes: ● Long-running citizen science, which are the traditional ones, the projects similar to those run in the past (Kobori et al., 2016; Bonney et al., 2009) ● Citizen cyberscience, strictly connected with the use of technologies (Grey, 2009) and which can be subclassified in: ○ volunteer computing, where citizens offer the unused computing resources of their computers; ○ volunteer thinking, where citizens offer their cognitive abilities for performing tasks difficult for machines; ○ passive sensing, where citizens use the sensors integrated into mobile computing devices to carry out automatic sensing tasks. CITIZEN SCIENCE Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  5. 5. ● Community science, involving a more significant commitment of citizens also in designing and planning the project activities in a more egalitarian (if not bottom-up) approach between scientists and citizen scientists (Jepson & Ladle, 2015; Nascimento, Guimarães Pereira, & Ghezzi, 2014; Breen, Dosemagen, Warren, & Lippincott, 2015), which can be divided into: ○ participatory sensing, where citizens use the sensors integrated into mobile computing devices to carry out sensing tasks; ○ Do It Yourself (DIY) science, which implies participants create their scientific tools and methodology to carry out their researches; ○ civic science, “which is explicitly linked to community goals and questions the state of things” (Haklay et al., 2018). CITIZEN SCIENCE Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  6. 6. OPEN QUESTIONS • Eliciting Participation • Providing something back as a motivator • Recruitment • Ethical Issues • Privacy • Property • Responsability • Quality • Standards • Tools (Open and Free) Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  7. 7. OPENSTREETMAP MOBILE TOOLS ✓ https://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Android ✓ https://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Comparison_of_Andr oid_applications StreetCompleteVespucci MAPS.ME OsmAnd Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  8. 8. GENERAL PURPOSE MOBILE TOOLS geoODK Geopaparazzi
  9. 9.  ODK is free and open source software for collecting, managing and using data. Its source code is on GitHub and it is free.  ODK is composed of three modules: ODK Build, ODK Aggregate and ODK Collect. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina OPEN DATA KIT
  10. 10. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina PoliMI Experiences: ARCHITECTURE
  11. 11. PoliMI Experiences  Road pavement damages (2013)  Architectural barriers (2013) Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  12. 12. PoliMI Experiences  Street furniture (2014)  Water-related elements (2014) Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  13. 13. PoliMI Experiences  Biodiversity (2015)  OSAKA Bike Parking (2015) Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina  Sustainable tourism (2015)
  14. 14. VIA REGINA ODK: FUNCTIONALITIES ✓ Download the form. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  15. 15. ✓ Compile the form. VIA REGINA ODK: FUNCTIONALITIES
  16. 16. ✓ Compile the form. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina VIA REGINA ODK: FUNCTIONALITIES
  17. 17. ✓ Compile the form. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina VIA REGINA ODK: FUNCTIONALITIES
  18. 18. ✓ Compile the form. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina VIA REGINA ODK: FUNCTIONALITIES
  19. 19. ✓ Compile and save the form. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina VIA REGINA ODK: FUNCTIONALITIES
  20. 20. ✓ Edit or send the compiled the form. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina VIA REGINA ODK: FUNCTIONALITIES
  21. 21. http://viaregina3.como.polimi.it/ViaRegina/index-en.html VIA REGINA ODK: FUNCTIONALITIES Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  22. 22. VIA REGINA CROSS-PLATFORM : SCOPE ✓ Since the ODK application can be used only on Android devices, we developed a cross-platform application to collect similar data for the same purpose. ✓ Iubilantes, a voluntary cultural organization, has been involved in the project as community scientists. Iubilantes created slow mobility paths to walk in and around Via Regina, using their experience gained through studying ancient paths. ✓ The application uses the codebase of the EmoMap application, developed by the Research Group Cartography in the Department of Geodesy and Geoinformation in TU Wien University (Haosheng Huang) Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  23. 23. VIA REGINA: ARCHITECTURE ✓ All the software used for development is available to everyone at no cost. ✓ It is available as a mobile application for Android and iOS as well as a Web application (http://viaregina3.como.polimi.it/app/​). ✓ Data can be collected online and offline. ✓ Download the POIs in JSON format at http://viaregina3.como.polimi.it/db_points_url/_all_docs?include_docs=true . Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  24. 24. VIA REGINA: FUNCTIONALITIES ✓ Classify and rate a new point. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  25. 25. VIA REGINA: FUNCTIONALITIES ✓ Optionally add a comment, take/upload a picture of the point. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  26. 26. VIA REGINA: FUNCTIONALITIES ✓ Visualize the points added by you or everyone on a map. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  27. 27. VIA REGINA: FUNCTIONALITIES ✓ Query the collected points and access information about the application. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  28. 28. VIA REGINA: UPLOAD DATA IN QGIS ✓ QGIS plugin for downloading and visualizing the POIs collected with Via Regina. ✓ Possibility of filtering the points with a bounding box. ✓ Hover on points to see the related information: ➢ coordinates; ➢ classification; ➢ rating; ➢ photo. ✓ Save the points in a .csv file. ✓ Free and open source: ✓ https://github.com/epessina/MHYCONOS-Plugin Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  29. 29. VIA REGINA: UPLOAD DATA IN QGIS Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  30. 30. LAND COVER COLLECTOR Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina ✓ Land Cover Collector (LCC) is developed for collecting data for Land Cover Validation (GlobeLand30 nomenclature is used); ✓ Similar architecture as Via Regina; ✓ Source available at: https://github.com/kilsedar/land-cover- collector ✓ Mobile application for Android and iOS; Web application (https://landcover.como.polimi.it/collector). ✓ Data can be collected online and offline. ✓ Collected data are released under the Open Database License and can be downloaded in JSON format within the application. ✓ The application is currently available in eight languages: English, Italian, Arabic, Russian, Chinese, Portuguese, French, and Spanish.
  31. 31. LAND COVER COLLECTOR Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina ✓ Take 4 photos: of the north, east, south and west; . On iOS devices, the button will be enabled once you find the right direction and your device is in landscape mode. ✓ Classification: 10 GlobeLand30 Classes
  32. 32. DEFIBRILLATOR HUNTER: SCOPE ✓ Defibrillator Hunter (DH) is a mobile application that allows citizens to collect data on public defibrillators. ✓ Main goals: ➢ provide a way to check and supplement the existing databases of the Public Authorities; ➢ engage and inform the citizens; ➢ collect extensive information for analytical studies (e.g. find the optimal positioning of the machines). ✓ Free, Open Source and User friendly. ✓ Available both on Android and iOS for maximum coverage. ✓ In collaboration with AREU Lombardia (regional agency for emergencies). Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  33. 33. DEFIBRILLATOR HUNTER: ARCHITECTURE Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  34. 34. DEFIBRILLATOR HUNTER: FUNCTIONALITIES ✓ Data available through open API. ✓ Secure authentication (OAuth 2.0). ✓ Score system to improve user engagement: ➢ points assigned for each defibrillator properly mapped; ➢ penalties for incorrect or fake data entries; ➢ global leader board constantly updated. ✓ Hint system: the application will alert you if you are close to a defibrillator already present in the official database, without telling you its exact location. ✓ Closed beta. Source code available at: https://github.com/epessina/Defibrillator-Hunter Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  35. 35. DEFIBRILLATOR HUNTER: FUNCTIONALITIES ✓ Register, login and visualize your profile. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  36. 36. DEFIBRILLATOR HUNTER: FUNCTIONALITIES ✓ Locate yourself on the map together with your mapped defibrillators. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  37. 37. DEFIBRILLATOR HUNTER: FUNCTIONALITIES ✓ Insert a new defibrillator (location, accessibility, photo…) and visualize the information about the ones you have already mapped. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  38. 38. LANDSLIDE MONITOR: SCOPE ✓ Cross platform mobile application that allows users with any degree of knowledge to map landslides on the field. ✓ Main goals: ➢ help users with prior geological knowledge to collect relevant data following a well-established procedure; ➢ guide un-experienced users in gathering structured and exhaustive data providing a simplified version of the application. ✓ Same architecture as the defibrillator app. ✓ Borne as part of the project MHYCONOS (Mapping the HYdrological Control on shallOw landSliding). ✓ Closed beta. Source code available at: https://github.com/epessina/LandslideMonitor Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  39. 39. LANDSLIDE MONITOR: FUNCTIONALITIES ✓ Data available through open API. ✓ The application can be used both online and offline: ➢ if the server cannot be reached when the user enters the data, they are saved in the local database of the smartphone; ➢ once the user is back online, he can synchronize the local database with the remote one. ✓ The application has two modes: expert and simple. ➢ You can switch at any time. ➢ In simple mode a lower number of less specific information is asked. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  40. 40. LANDSLIDE MONITOR: FUNCTIONALITIES ✓ Locate yourself on the map and visualize the information regarding the mapped landslides. Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  41. 41. LANDSLIDE MONITOR: FUNCTIONALITIES ✓ Insert a new landslide as a “simple” user (left) or an “expert” user (centre and right). Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  42. 42. PSAB (PARTICIPATORY SENSING APP BUILDER) ✓ It is a tool to create customized applications for data collections, easy to use and which requires only a web browser. ✓ It is open source and free (https://gitlab.com/frafra/psab) ✓ It is based on XLSForm, which convert forms authored in Excel into XForms that can be used with web or mobile platforms (http://xlsform.org/) Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  43. 43. PSAB: ARCHITECTURE Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  44. 44. PSAB: administration Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  45. 45. PSAB: create new App
  46. 46. PSAB: adding new data
  47. 47. PSAB: adding new data
  48. 48. ✓ Dublin Core Metadata Element Set 1.1 - http://dublincore.org/document ✓ Catalog Service: pyCSW PSAB: metadata Provided by the user Computed automatically PSAB defaults title, subject, description, coverage creator, identifier, date contributor, publisher, type, format, language, rights Mobile Tools for Community Scientists – Brovelli, Kilsedar, Frassinelli and Pessina
  49. 49. ✓ Community science is relatively new and is changing the perspective of doing science ✓ Speaking about tools, some general tools, like ODK, were very useful even if the limit was that they work only on Android ✓ A second general limitation is that those collaborative projects are difficulty detectable. ✓ Some new cross-platform apps have been developing and are available as free and open source (thanks Haosheng Huang) ✓ The solution for generating apps in an easy way is still under study. We are working on a new solution for creating cross- platform apps. Our solution includes a catalogue service in such a way that projects and collected data can be searchable in internet. CONCLUSIONS
  50. 50. Thanks to Yuichiro Nishimura (Nara Women's University) and the Organising Committee Thanks to the co-authors: THANK YOU SO MAP! (cit. mapconcierge aka Taichi Furuhashi ) Questions? candaneylul.kilsedar@polimi.it fraph24@gmail.com edoardopessina@yahoo.it

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