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Perfect modals; use and clear examples with funny pictures
Must have + past participle
You are certain about something that
happened in the past
Logical deduction in the past
Look! They must have won the lottery.
They must have scored a goal
Nadal must have won a medal
Think examples for these pictures
Possibility in the past (not sure)
What happened before?
She may/might/could have received bad news.
She may/might/could have found her boyfriend with another girl!!!
Ex: She may/might/could have failed an exam
Can’t have+ past participle
(100% sure that something is not true; it is impossible)
She can’t have had a healthy life.
• Think of some examples for this picture:
Was the roller coaster funny for them?
It can’t have been funny!
(To suggest an alternative that hasn’t been done)
You (you and your classmates) wanted to travel
to New York at the end of the school year. The
journey cost 1000€ but you only got 500€. It’s
obvious that you didn’t do enough things to get
Suggest what you could have done to get it!
Ex: We could have sold more lottery tickets.
We could have organised a small market.
1. A: I failed all the subjects
B: You should have studied more.
What would you say if …?
2.You got late to school because you didn’t get up early.
3. They didn’t repair the roof in summer and now they are having problems when it rains.
4. You can’t find a proper job because you didn’t study languages.
5. Your boyfriend/girlfriend ended your relationship because of your behaviour.
Things you should have done but you didn’t do.
Shouldn’t have+ past participle
(Criticism. Something was done but it wasn’t a good idea)
Your friend had this attitude in an interview. Of
course he/she didn’t get the job.
You say: “You shouldn’t have been so rude”.
EX: I'm sure John locked the office before leaving. He always does.
John must have locked the office before leaving.
It was a mistake to sell the house. I wish I hadn't.
Perhaps John knew about the trip, but I'm not sure.
I'm sure he didn't lock the door. He never does.
Perhaps she was at work when the earthquake struck.
It's quite possible that they went away last weekend.
It was a mistake not to accept his offer. I wish I had.
I don't think Ann robbed the money. It's impossible.
It's impossible that they knew about the trip; nobody told them.
I'm sure she didn't take the key.
I regret selling the house.
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